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Writing a discursive essay correctly

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  • 1. ACTUAL LESSON COVERED IN DETAIL DURING NIGHT STUDY PROGRAMME 23 SEPTEMBER 2011 (FRIDAY) T4W2 at SHSSWRITING A DISCURSIVEESSAY CORRECTLY Written by Yeo Yam Hwee For Secondary 3B.C and D 2011 At St. Hilda’s Secondary School9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 1
  • 2. USE THIS TOPIC AS OUR LEARNING EXAMPLE: Write about some of the things which make you feel proud of your country.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 2
  • 3. ASSUMPTIONS1. YOU HAVE CHOSEN WISELY.2. YOU ARE GOING TO WRITE YOUR BEST ESSAY ON THE CHOSEN TOPIC BECAUSE YOU HAVE A TOTAL UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT THE QUESTION WISHES YOU TO WRITE.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 3
  • 4. REMEMBER: STRUCTURE OF MY ESSAY INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY P.1 MAIN BODY P.2 MAIN BODY P.3 MAIN BODY P.49/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee CONCLUSION 4
  • 5. Introduction Conclusion These two paragraphs must support each other. What you write in the INTRODUCTION must be consistent with what you write in the CONCLUSION.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 5
  • 6. COME UP WITH THE POINTS forthe Main body paragraphs FIRST DEAL WITH WRITING OF INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION LATER9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 6
  • 7. NEXT STEP… brainstorming for pointsIMPORTANT EXAMINERTHINGS DOES NOT WISH TO KNOW3 to 4 main EVERYTHING.ones onlyBecause it will Write about some IT WOULD BEBe easier for of the things DISASTROUSMe to devote which make you feel FOR YOU TO3 to 4 main proud of your COVER EVERYBody country. ONE OF THEM.paragraphsto cover them –1 idea for 1paragraph. WHY DOES A PARTICULAR YOU as a teenager. POINT (ASPECT) MAKE YOU YOU as a young person. FEEL PROUD? You must provide 9/26/2011 YOU Written by Yeo Yam Hwee examples and explain each of them. as a student. 7
  • 8. CLEAN AND any point I can think of… GREEN ENVIRONMENT CLEAN AIR AND QUALITY OF LIFE WATERSTANDARDOF LIVING AFFORDABLE Write about some HOUSING EVERYBODY HAS A JOB OF of the things THEIR CHOICE which make you feel proud of your I will arrange them country. as close as possiblePRIVATE TRANSPORT in clusters becauseIS A PERSONAL CHOICE Points examples ElaborationEFFICIENT PUBLIC ONE OF THE BEST ExplanationTRANSPORT AIRPORTS IN THE WORLD Paragraph.NETWORK ONE OF THE BUSIESTOF TRAINS, SEA PORTS IN THE WORLDBUSES, TAXIS 9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 8
  • 9. CLUSTER of similar points CLUSTER of similar points CLUSTER of similar points9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 9
  • 10. 9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 10
  • 11. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Main Body Main Body Paragraph 3 Paragraph 2 Main Body Paragraph 19/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 11
  • 12. Secure three or four clusters of points You may consider many “starting- word” beginning connectors but do not get too worked out about them. You do not always need connectors to “LINK UP” your main body paragraphs. This is because if your content between paragraphs does not link, then connectors will not be effective on their own.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 12
  • 13. CONNECTING WORDS or PHRASES Firstly… At first,… Let me begin with… Secondly… Then… Also… Thirdly… Next… Furthermore … Lastly… Finally… In the end,9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 13
  • 14. Secure three or four clusters of points You may consider many “starting-word” beginning connectors but do not get too worked out about them. You do not always need connectors to “LINK UP” your main body paragraphs.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 14
  • 15. From points to sentences We enjoy a quality of life comparable with or if QUALITY OF LIFE not better than Europe or North America. STANDARD Write about OF LIVING some of the things which make you feel . EVERYBODY HAS A JOB OF proud of your THEIR CHOICE country.Our standard of living Everybody who is educatedis relatively high. In most or skilled in their jobs arehomes, families have employed in one way orall kinds of material comfort. other. People are earningWe have access to all kinds comfortable salaries. 9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 15of consumer technologies.
  • 16. From sentences to one paragraph containing common points and examples, explanation and elaboration.We enjoy a quality of life The most important reasoncomparable with or if not why I am proud of my countrybetter than Europe or North is the life I enjoy as a citizen.America. Our standard of living is relatively high. We enjoy a quality of life comparable with Our standard of living or if not better than Europe or is relatively high. In most North America. Anybody who homes, families have is educated or trained in all kinds of material comfort. specialised skills are gainfully We have access to many types employed in one form or other. In most homes, families have of consumer technologies. all kinds of material comfort. We have access to many types Anybody who is educated of consumer technologies. or skilled in their jobs are Because of these, I have the employed in one way or freedom to choose the kind of other. People are earning lifestyle I would like to lead. comfortable salaries.9/26/2011 [97 words] Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 16
  • 17. MAINBODY PARAGRAPH ONE THIS WILL BE MY MOST IMPORTANT POINT.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 17
  • 18. From points to sentences Our government takes great care to provide clean water. CLEAN AIR AND Our tap water is potable and we drink regularly from our WATER taps without having to boil the water first. In Singapore, the air is taken very much for granted because air pollution is almost unheard of.CLEAN ANDGREEN Write about someENVIRONMENT of the things which make you AFFORDABLE feel proud of your HOUSING country.We have planted many trees everywhere Almost 85 per cent of thein our country. It is a conscious effort by population in Singapore livesthe National Parks Board to keep Singapore in Housing Development Boardgreen throughout the year. Our government also (HDB) flats. These are affordablemakes sure that all public areas are kept clean and well-built public housingby regular maintenance. units. 9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 18
  • 19. From sentences to one paragraph containing common points and examples, explanation and elaboration. Our government takes great care to provide Secondly, Almost 85 per cent of the clean water. Our tap water is potable and we drink regularly from our taps without having population in Singapore lives to boil the water first. In Singapore, the air is in Housing Development Board taken very much for granted because air pollution is almost unheard of. (HDB) flats. These are affordable and well-built public housing units. Our government takes great care to provide clean water. Our tap We have planted many trees everywhere water is potable and we drink regularly in our country. It is a conscious effort by the National Parks Board to keep Singapore from our taps without having to boil green throughout the year. Our government the water first. In Singapore, the air is also makes sure that all public areas are kept taken very much for granted because clean by regular maintenance. air pollution is almost unheard of. We have planted many trees everywhere in our country. It is a Almost 85 per cent of the conscious effort by the National Parks population in Singapore lives Board to keep Singapore green in Housing Development Board throughout the year. Our government (HDB) flats. These are affordable also makes sure that all public areas and well-built public housing are kept clean by regular maintenance. units.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 19
  • 20. MAINBODY PARAGRAPH TWO THIS WILL BE MY SECOND MOST IMPORTANT POINT.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 20
  • 21. From points to sentencesPRIVATE TRANSPORT Singaporeans are free to choose any form ofIS A PERSONAL CHOICE travel: train, bus or car from one place to another. EFFICIENT ONE OF THE BEST PUBLIC Write about some AIRPORTS IN THE WORLD TRANSPORT of the things NETWORK which make you ONE OF THE OF TRAINS, BUSIEST feel proud of your SEA PORTS IN THE BUSES, TAXIS country. WORLD On top of everything else, the Our subway trains are safe and Singapore Changi Airport is one punctual and our taxis are of the best in the world and we inexpensive and reliable. have the honour of being one of the largest and busiest seaports 9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee world as well. in the 21
  • 22. The third most important reason I am also rather proud of Singaporeans are free to choose any Singapore’s public form of travel: train, bus or car from transportation network. one place to another. Singaporeans are free to choose any form of travel: train, bus or car from one Our subway trains are safe and place to another. Our punctual and our taxis are subway trains are safe inexpensive and reliable. and punctual and our taxis are inexpensive and reliable. On top ofOn top of everything else, the everything else, the Singapore Changi AirportSingapore Changi Airport is one of the is one of the best in thebest in the world and we have the world and we have thehonour of being one of the largest and honour of being one of thebusiest seaports in the world as well. largest and busiest seaports in the world as well. MAINBODY PARAGRAPH THREETHIS WILL BE MY THIRD MOST IMPORTANT POINT.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 22
  • 23. So now we have 3 main body paragraphs: The most important Secondly, Almost 85 per cent I am also rather reason why I am proud of the population in Singapore proud of Singapore’s of my country is the life lives in Housing Development public transportation I enjoy as a citizen. Our network. standard of living is Board (HDB) flats. These are relatively high. We affordable and well-built public Singaporeans are free enjoy a quality of life to choose any form of housing units. Our government comparable with or if travel: train, bus or takes great care to provide car from one place to not better than Europe or North America. clean water. Our tap water is another. Our subway Anybody who is potable and we drink regularly trains are safe and educated or trained in from our taps without having to punctual and our taxis specialised skills are boil the water first. In are inexpensive and gainfully employed in one form or other. In Singapore, the air is taken very reliable. On top of most homes, families much for granted because air everything else, the have all kinds of pollution is almost unheard of. Singapore Changi material comfort. We We have planted many trees Airport is one of the have access to many best in the world and types of consumer everywhere in our country. It is we have the honour of technologies. Because a conscious effort by the of these, I have the being one of the National Parks Board to keep largest and busiest freedom to choose the Singapore green throughout kind of lifestyle I would seaports in the world like to lead. the year. Our government also as well. makes sure that all public areas are kept clean by regular9/26/2011 maintenance. Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 23
  • 24. So in your drafting process, what have we written until now? 3 to 4 Mainbody paragraphs9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 24
  • 25. INTRODUCTION is more or less equal to conclusion• We need to be logical: what we say at the beginning of the essay must be consistent with how we end the essay.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 25
  • 26. The purpose of It is a summary orthe introduction INTRODUCTION advertisement of theparagraph is to contents found ininform your reader mainbody paragraphswhat is to be 1, 2, 3 and 4.expected in yourmainbody paragraphs1, 2, 3 and 4. The purpose of the conclusion paragraph is to inform your reader that you have finished giving your reasons NO NEW IDEAS which lend support SHOULD to what you have EVER APPEAR IN written in your THE CONCLUSION. 9/26/2011 CONCLUSION Written by Yeo Yam Hwee introduction. 26
  • 27. What should be included in the INTRODUCTION paragraph?RECALL THE TOPIC: Write about some of the things which make you feel proud of your country.1. Why do I choose this topic to write? Why am I proud of my country? What is my country? 2. What three or four reasons I am going to provide in the composition? What is my first major reason? What is next most important reason? What is third most important reason?3. Get ready to LINK UP with what you have written in the first mainbody paragraph.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 27
  • 28. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH SHOULD HAVE THESE: 1. Why do I choose this topic to write? What is my country? Why am I proud of my country? 2. What three or four reasons I am going to provide in the composition? What is my first major reason? What is next most important reason? What is third most important reason? 3. Get ready to LINK UP with what you have written in the first mainbody paragraph.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 28
  • 29. CAN YOU SEE THAT YOU NEED TO HAVE ALL THESE THINGS WRITTEN INTO YOUR INTRODUCTION?9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 29
  • 30. Now we deal with the INTRODUCTION 1 I was born in Singapore and I have been living here for many years. I am proud of my country because of the standard of living I get to enjoy, together with my fellow countrymen. Secondly, the environment here is clean and lastly, the public transport network provides me with a great deal of convenience as I travel from one destination in the country to the next. In the following paragraphs, I shall provide my reasons for saying so.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 30
  • 31. Now we deal with INTRODUCTION 1 I was born in Singapore and I have been living here for many years. I am proud of my country because of the standard of living I get to enjoy, together with my fellow countrymen. Secondly, the environment here is clean and lastly, the public transport network provides me with a great deal of convenience as I travel from one destination in the country to the next. In the following paragraphs, I shall provide my reasons for saying so.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 31
  • 32. Now we deal with INTRODUCTION 2 I am not a Singapore citizen but I have been living here for many years. I am proud of this country because it is now my second home. Here I enjoy a higher standard of living compared with my original country. Secondly, the environment here is clean and lastly, the public transport network provides me with a great deal of convenience as I travel from one destination in the country to the next. In the following paragraphs, I shall provide my reasons for saying so.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 32
  • 33. Now we deal with INTRODUCTION 2 I am not a Singaporecitizen but I have beenliving here for manyyears. I am proud of thiscountry because it is nowmy second home. Here Ienjoy a higher standardof living compared withmy original country.Secondly, theenvironment here is cleanand lastly, the publictransport networkprovides me with a greatdeal of convenience as Itravel from onedestination in the countryto the next. In thefollowing paragraphs, Ishall provide my reasonsfor saying so.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 33
  • 34. WHAT THEN SHOULD BE WRITTEN INTO THE conclusion paragraph?• We need to be logical: what we say at the beginning of the essay must be consistent with how we end the essay.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 34
  • 35. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH SHOULD HAVE THESE:1. A general statement to remind the reader that you have furnished your explanation and examples to support your reasons.2. One last time to summarise your position by rewording [depends on your proficiency in the English Language] before closing.3. End of a positive note.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 35
  • 36. Then we deal with CONCLUSION 1 The abovementioned reasons state very clearly why I can be proud of Singapore. We are a small city state but yet we are able to enjoy a standard of living which is second to none. Our air and water quality is of a high standard and our citizens feel safe to drink the tap water. If we take good care of our public transportation network, we will continue to enjoy a cheap and reliable service. I am truly proud of what Singapore has achieved.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 36
  • 37. Then we deal with CONCLUSION 1 The abovementioned reasons state very clearly why I can be proud of Singapore. We are a small city state but yet we are able to enjoy a standard of living which is second to none. Our air and water quality is of a high standard and our citizens feel safe to drink the tap water. If we take good care of our public transportation network, we will continue to enjoy a cheap and reliable service. I am truly proud of what Singapore has achieved.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 37
  • 38. Then we deal with CONCLUSION 2As can be seen from the abovementionedreasons, I am really proud of Singapore. Wemay be a small red dot surrounded by countrieswith more resources than us but we havesurpassed them in many aspects of living. Wehave a higher standard of living which is secondto none. Our tap water is safe enough for us todrink without needing to boil it. We take goodcare of our public transportation network andthe government is still building more subwaystations and lines. I am extremely proud of whatSingapore has achieved. The next time, I willhave even more things which I can be proud ofthis country to write about.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 38
  • 39. Then we deal with CONCLUSION 2 As can be seen from the abovementioned reasons, I am really proud of Singapore. We may be a small red dot surrounded by countries with more resources than us but we have surpassed them in many aspects of living. We have a higher standard of living which is second to none. Our tap water is safe enough for us to drink without needing to boil it. We take good care of our public transportation network and the government is still building more subway stations and lines. I am extremely proud of what Singapore has achieved. The next time, I may even have more things which I can be proud of this country to write about.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 39
  • 40. WHAT DOES MY WHOLE ESSAY READ LIKE?9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 40
  • 41. PUTTING EVERYTHING TOGETHER. TENSE SPELLING STRUCTURE MEANING HOW DOES MY WRITING MAKE THE READER FEEL? WHAT EFFECT HAVE YOU CREATED? WHAT IMPRESSION HAVE Yam HweeGENERATED?9/26/2011 Written by Yeo YOU 41
  • 42. INTRODUCTION I was born in Singapore and I have been living here for many years. I am proud of my country because of the standard of living I get to enjoy, together with my fellow countrymen. Secondly, the environment here is clean and lastly, the public transport network provides me with a great deal of convenience as I travel from one destination in the country to the next. In the following paragraphs, I shall provide my reasons for saying so.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 42
  • 43. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 The most important reason why I am proud of my country is the life I enjoy as a citizen. Our standard of living is relatively high. We enjoy a quality of life comparable with or if not better than Europe or North America. Anybody who is educated or trained in specialised skills are gainfully employed in one form or other. In most homes, families have all kinds of material comfort. We have access to many types of consumer technologies. Because of these, I have the freedom to choose the kind of lifestyle I would like to lead.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 43
  • 44. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 2 Secondly, almost 85 per cent of the population in Singapore lives in Housing Development Board (HDB) flats. These are affordable and well-built public housing units. Our government takes great care to provide clean water. Our tap water is potable and we drink regularly from our taps without having to boil the water first. In Singapore, the air is taken very much for granted because air pollution is almost unheard of. We have planted many trees everywhere in our country. It is a conscious effort by the National Parks Board to keep Singapore green throughout the year. Our government also makes sure that all public areas are kept clean by regular maintenance.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 44
  • 45. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 3 I am also rather proud of Singapore’s public transportation network. Singaporeans are free to choose any form of travel: train, bus or car from one place to another. Our subway trains are safe and punctual and our taxis are inexpensive and reliable. On top of everything else, the Singapore Changi Airport is one of the best in the world and we have the honour of being one of the largest and busiest seaports in the world as well.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 45
  • 46. CONCLUSION As can be seen from the abovementioned reasons, I am really proud of Singapore. We may be a small red dot surrounded by countries with more resources than us but we have surpassed them in many aspects of living. We have a higher standard of living which is second to none. Our tap water is safe enough for us to drink without needing to boil it. We take good care of our public transportation network and the government is still building more subway stations and lines. I am extremely proud of what Singapore has achieved. The next time, I will have even more things which I can be proud of this country to write about.9/26/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 46

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