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Reading Aloud

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Reading aloud meaningfully v2 Reading aloud meaningfully v2 Presentation Transcript

  • READING ALOUD MEANINGFULLY Understanding by Design FOR SECONDARY ONE STUDENTS LESSON 1 – 3 (6 HOURS) PREPARED and REVISED BY YEO YAM HWEE1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 1 5Jan2011
  • That which the UBD (Reading Aloud Meaningfully)• is based on… Big Idea: Communication• Enduring Understandings (Overarching):• Students will understand that…• Communication is Power• Communication Connects and Divides• Communication is from Womb to Tomb• Essential Questions (Overarching):• What is powerful communication?• How might life be if we don’t communicate?• Enduring Understandings (Topical):• Students will understand that…• Language has the power to influence.• Language connects and divides.• Essential Questions (Topical):• What is language?• Why Reading Aloud Meaningfully is an important process in achieving linguistic and communicative competence?.• ENDURING UNDERSTANDING (Unit)• Reading aloud meaningfully involves personal engagement with the text and verbalization with relevant expressions of content through accurate pronunciation words, phrases and so on, and articulation of tone• ESSENTIAL QUESTION (Unit)• What does Reading Aloud entail?• What are the skills to acquire?• How important is it to learn to do so accurately and with composure and confidence?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 2 5Jan2011
  • READING ALOUD MEANINGFULLY May be good to take note of the following: 1. I would suggest that the teacher conduct READING ALOUD lessons not explicitly for the sole purpose of preparing students to take oral examinations. 2. Anything done in class may be revisited with attention given to individuals who need additional coaching. 3. Be all means encourage learners to practise reading aloud regularly beyond classroom sessions. Repetition is key.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 3 5Jan2011
  • Lesson Objectives I want to achieve the following: I read the passage with near-perfect pronunciation and very clear articulation. I read with fluency with a good pace, using appropriate rhythm and stress. I varied the pitch and tone in order to convey the information, ideas and feelings in a passage.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 4 5Jan2011
  • Explicit and Discrete skills to impart for Reading Aloud Meaningfully1. Breathing2. Confidence3. Posture4. Voicing5. Listening to oneself6. Listening to others7. Interest and Attention Span8. Learning pronunciation9. Accentuate learners’ strength10. Help learners to unlearn misconceptions11. Consideration for the Reader1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 5 5Jan2011
  • Lessons One To Three The lessons may be conducted in three ONE- HOUR sessions ( L1 to L3). Specific areas for reinforcement may be introduced based on need or demand. Guiding Principle: Practice makes perfect. Be easy on the Facilitator and the Learner: Learn, forget and then relearn.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 6 5Jan2011
  • Lesson ProgressionLESSON 11.1 Relaxation, Sitting and Standing Postures, Voice Projection1.2 Warming up your oral and nasal cavities and voicing articulators1.3 Reading quietly before reading aloud meaningfully1.4 Listening to other people’s reading1.5 Breathing in and breathing out1.6 Listening to your paired reader1.7 Understanding the concept of syllables1.8 Understanding the concept of rhythm1.9 Understanding the concept of pacingLESSON 22.1 Understanding the concept of phrase as a group of words with a unified meaning2.2 Infusing meaning in your reading through understanding of the text2.3 Understanding the concept of breath units – catching your breath when you read2.4 Putting proper breathing, breath units and understanding of phrase concept togetherLESSON 33.1 Reading a sentence3.2 Reading more than a sentence3.3 Sustained reading aloud3.4 Continual reinforcement of the connectedness between Reading Alouding and Active Listening3.5 Understanding the Examiner-Listener’s expectation3.6 Self and Peer Assessment through use of www.vocaroo.com3.7 Reflection and further practice to achieve better results Yam Hwee1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo in reading aloud 7 5Jan2011
  • Lessons One To Six The lessons may be conducted in six HALF-HOUR sessions ( L1 to L6). Specific areas for reinforcement may be introduced based on need or demand. Guiding Principle: Practice makes perfect. Be easy on the Facilitator and the Learner: Learn, forget and then relearn.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 8 5Jan2011
  • Lesson ProgressionLESSON 1 and LESSON 21.1 Relaxation, Sitting and Standing Postures, Voice Projection1.2 Warming up your oral and nasal cavities and voicing articulators1.3 Reading quietly before reading aloud meaningfully1.4 Listening to other people’s reading1.5 Breathing in and breathing out1.6 Listening to your paired reader1.7 Understanding the concept of syllables1.8 Understanding the concept of rhythm1.9 Understanding the concept of pacingLESSON 3 and LESSON 42.1 Understanding the concept of phrase as a group of words with a unified meaning2.2 Infusing meaning in your reading through understanding of the text2.3 Understanding the concept of breath units – catching your breath when you read2.4 Putting proper breathing, breath units and understanding of phrase concept togetherLESSON 5 AND LESSON 63.1 Reading a sentence3.2 Reading more than a sentence3.3 Sustained reading aloud3.4 Continual reinforcement of the connectedness between Reading Alouding and Active Listening3.5 Understanding the Examiner-Listener’s expectation3.6 Self and Peer Assessment through use of www.vocaroo.com3.7 Reflection and further practice to achieve better results Yam Hwee1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo in reading aloud 9 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Relax to prepare for reading aloud RECOGNISE YOUR FAVOURITE SITTING POSTURE?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 10 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Relax to prepare for reading aloud RECOGNISE YOUR FAVOURITE SITTING POSTURE?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 11 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Sitting Posture “EASY TO ADOPT” CORRECT SITTING POSTURE1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 12 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Sitting Posture1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 13 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Sitting Posture You mustShouldersrelaxed practise how to sit comfortably before picking up your reading script to begin Your feet should be flat on the floor.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 14 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Sitting Posture Lift the handout from the desktop with both hands. Make sure you can see the letters and the words by adjusting from this position accordingly.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 15 5Jan2011
  • LESSON ONE –STANDINGPOSTURE1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 16 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Standing Posture1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 17 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One – Standing Posture WHEN READING FROM A STANDING POSITION, DO NOT LEAVE THE READING SCRIPT ON THE DESK. LIFT IT UP TO MAKE SURE YOU CAN READ COMFORTABLY.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 18 5Jan2011
  • Lesson One - Voice projection / placement1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 19 5Jan2011
  • BREATHINGAPPARATUS andVOICEARTICULATORSIN OUR BODYRESPONSIBLEFOR THEPRODUCTIONOF OUR VOICE.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 20 5Jan2011
  • Breathing In and Out Properly Breathe OUT Breathe Position IN Position DIAPHRAGM1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 21 5Jan2011
  • VOICE ARTICULATORS1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 22 5Jan2011
  • VOICE PLACEMENT WHEN YOU SPEAK, YOU WANT YOUR LISTENERS TO HEAR WHAT YOU SAY AND UNDERSTAND YOU. THE PRINCIPLE IS THE SAME IN READING ALOUD. VOICE PLACEMENT MEANS YOU PROJECT YOUR VOICE OUT OF YOUR MOUTH AND DIRECT YOUR VOICE CLEARLY AND AUDIBLY AT YOUR LISTENERS.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 23 5Jan2011
  • VOICE PLACEMENT Loudness Purpose Clarity Tone1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 24 5Jan2011
  • 12-inch VOICE PROJECTION1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 25 5Jan2011
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 26 5Jan2011
  • ACTIVE READING LISTENING ALOUD1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 27 5Jan2011
  • WARMING UP BEFORE READING ALOUD1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 28 5Jan2011
  • Pronunciation of EnglishTaken from All About English Secondary 1 Textbook Chapter 18 Improving Pronunciation Pronunciation refers to the way in which the words or sounds of a particular language are spoken.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 29 5Jan2011
  • The International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a set of special signs that represents the sounds made in speech. Every word in English can be represented using the IPA. By knowing the sound that each sign represents, we can learn to pronounce words correctly.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 30 5Jan2011
  • English Vowels1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 31 5Jan2011
  • English Vowels1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 32 5Jan2011
  • 1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 33 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to stop. /p/ word-final consonantShe stops. / ps / word-final consonantThey have stopped. / pt / word-final consonantThey are stopping. / pɪŋ / Last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 34 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou don’t have to rob. /b/ word-final consonantShe robs. / bs / word-final consonantThey have robbed. / bd / word-final consonantThey are robbing. / bɪŋ / Last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 35 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to link. /k/ word-final consonantShe links. / ks / word-final consonantThey have linked. / kt / word-final consonantThey are linking. / kɪŋ / Last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 36 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to beg. /g/ word-final consonantShe begs. / gz / word-final consonantThey have begged. / gd / word-final consonantThey are begging. / gɪŋ / Last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 37 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to paint. /t/ word-final consonantShe paints. / ts / word-final consonantThey have painted. / tɪd / word-final consonantThey are painting… / tɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 38 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to mend. /d/ word-final consonantShe mends. / dz / word-final consonantThey have mended. / dɪd / word-final consonantThey are mending… / dɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 39 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to watch. / tʃ / word-final consonantShe watches. / tʃɪz / last syllableThey have watched. / tʃt / word-final consonantThey are watching… / tʃɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 40 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to charge. /dʒ / word-final consonantShe charges. /dʒɪz / last syllableThey have charged. / dʒd / word-final consonantThey are charging… / dʒɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 41 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to tan. /n/ word-final consonantShe tans. / nz / word-final consonantThey have tanned. / nd / word-final consonantThey are tanning… / nɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 42 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to tame. /m/ word-final consonantShe tames. / mz / word-final consonantThey have tamed. / md / word-final consonantThey are taming… / mɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 43 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to roar. zero word-final consonant – do need to pronounce the / r / soundShe roars. / -z / word-final consonantThey have roared. / -d / word-final consonantThey are roaring… / rɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 44 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to call. /l/ word-final consonantShe calls. / lz / word-final consonantThey have called. / ld / word-final consonantThey are calling… / lɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 45 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to rush. /ʃ / word-final consonantShe rushes. /ʃɪz / last syllableThey have rushed. / ʃt / word-final consonantThey are rushing… / ʃɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 46 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to rouge. /ʒ / word-final consonantShe rouges. /ʒɪz / last syllableThey have rouged. / ʒd / word-final consonantThey are rouging. / ʒɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 47 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou don’t have to bluff. /f / word-final consonantShe bluffs. / fs / word-final consonantThey have bluffed. / ft / word-final consonantThey are bluffing. / fɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 48 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou don’t have to serve. /v / word-final consonantShe serves. / vz / word-final consonantThey have served. / vd / word-final consonantThey are serving. / vɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 49 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou don’t have to sing. /ŋ / word-final consonantShe sings. / ŋz / word-final consonantThey have sung. /ŋ/ word-final consonantThey are singing. / ŋɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 50 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to grace. /s / word-final consonantShe graces. /sɪz / last syllableThey have graced. / st / word-final consonantThey are graceing. / sɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 51 5Jan2011
  • Important Word-final Consonant / SyllableYou have to glaze. /z / word-final consonantShe glazes. /zɪz / last syllableThey have glazed. / zd / word-final consonantThey are glazing. / zɪŋ / last syllable1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 52 5Jan2011
  • From word to phrase and beyondManThe manThe tall manThe tall Chinese manThe tall and dark Chinese manThe tall, dark and poor Chinese manThe surprisingly tall,dark and poor Chinese manThe surprisingly tall, extremely dark and poor Chinese manThe surprisingly tall, extremely dark and terribly poor Chinese man1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 53 5Jan2011
  • From word to phrase and beyond“Hurry.”“Hurry, hurry.”“Hurry, hurry, hurry!”He said, “Hurry.”He said to her, “Hurry.”He calmly told her, “Hurry.”He frantically whispered to her, “Hurry.”He frantically plead with her, “Hurry!”He frightfully cried out to her, “Hurry!”He frightfully cried out to her, “Hurry!” and left.He frightfully shouted at her, “Hurry!” and left her.He frightfully shouted at her, “Hurry!” and left her stunned.He frightfully shouted at her, “Hurry!” and left her stunned, feeling helpless.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 54 5Jan2011
  • Falling Tone nearing the end of a statement. TAKE TAKE TAKE FALLING NOTE NOTE NOTE TONE OF THE OF THE OF THE MEANING MEANING MEANING He calmly advised her, “I think you should hurry.” ACTION FULLSTOP WORD ACTION WORD He frantically shouted at her, “I want you to hurry!” TAKE TAKE TAKE EXCLAMATION MARK NOTE NOTE NOTE OF THE OF THE OF THE MEANING MEANING MEANING1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 55 5Jan2011
  • Rising tone nearing the end of a question. RISING TONEHe patiently asked her, “Don’t you wish to leave?” Take Take Take note note note Question mark Of the Of the Of the Meaning Meaning Meaning1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 56 5Jan2011
  • SYLLABLES A syllable is each unit of sound that we produce when we say a word.NumberofSyllables 1 2 3 4 5 ar-ti-cle pho-to-gra- e-lec-tri-ci-tyWords cat peo-ple pher ex-pre-ssion de-mon-stra-tion re-fri-ge-ra-tor ice foun-tain Taken from pp.117-118 of All About English Textbook Secondary 1 (e/na) 1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 57 5Jan2011
  • WORD STRESS Word stress is drawing special attention to a part of a word by saying it with more force and at a higher pitch.Taken from All About English Secondary One Chapter 19 pp.1171/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 58 5Jan2011
  • General Rules of Word Stress in English How do I know which syllable (sound unit) to stress in words with more than one syllable?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 59 5Jan2011
  • General Rules of Word Stress in EnglishFor two-syllable words: For words ending in –ic, For words ending in –cy, For compound words:stress the -sion and –tion: -ty, -phy, -gy and –al: Stress the first partfirst syllable when it is Stress the second Stress the third syllable when it is a compounda noun or adjective. syllable from the end. from the end. noun.INdia TOOTHpaste PLAStic deMOcracyCLEver WHITEboardTEAcher TENsion SAnity DISHwasherHANDsome MOtion phoTOgraphy sarCAStic biOlogy teleVIsion LOgicalStress the last syllable Stress the second partwhen it is a verb. converSAtion when it is a compound adjective or compoundbeGIN verb.resPONDemBRACE Ill-TEMpereddeCIDE cold-BLOODed Kind-HEARTed outDONE overLOOK 1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee underSTAND 60 5Jan2011
  • Sentence Stress Taken from All About English Secondary One pp.121 Sentence stress is paying special attention to certain words in a sentence when speaking. This means that certain words are emphasized (spoken more slowly and forcefully) while others are not emphasized (spoken more quickly and without force).1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 61 5Jan2011
  • RHYTHM English is a language that uses STRESSED and UNSTRESSED words to create “rhythm” and to convey meaning. Just as we stress one syllable within a word, we also stress certain words within a sentence. Knowing which words to stress and not to stress is essential to speaking English well, and for helping others to understand us.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 62 5Jan2011
  • CONTENT and FUNCTION words CONTENT FUNCTION WORDS WORDSWords that Words thatcarry the main ensure correctinformation. grammar but do not contain key information.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 63 5Jan2011
  • CONTENT WORDSTypes of content words ExamplesNOUNS Claire, computer, spectacles, mirrorVERBS study, annoy, heardADJECTIVES sad, straight, excellent, bestADVERBS carelessly, politely, frequentlyNUMERALS one, third, hundred, million1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 64 5Jan2011
  • FUNCTION WORDSTypes of content words ExamplesPronouns I, you, we, they, he, sheConnectors and, but, while, asDeterminers a, an, the, some, many, mostPrepositions in, on, after, behind, aboveModal auxiliary verbs Will, must, should, can’t, don’t Forms of “be” (am, is, are, was,Primary auxiliary verbs were), “do” (did, done) and “have” (has, had)1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 65 5Jan2011
  • Giving Depth to Your Reading THE IMPORTANCE OF MENTAL PREPAREDNESS Read aloud only when you are ready to do so. To be ready to read aloud, prepare to spend time understanding what it is you are going to read. [Lewis Caroll’s Jabberwocky is a case in point.] To be motivated, tell yourself that there is always a listener when you are reading aloud. When was the last time you listened to your own reading?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 66 5Jan2011
  • Lewis Carroll’s JABBERWOCKY (an excerpt)• "Beware the Jabberwock, my son!• The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!• Beware the jubjub bird, and shun• The frumious Bandersnatch!"•• He took his vorpal sword in hand:• Long time the manxome foe he sought--• So rested he by the Tumtum tree,• And stood awhile in thought.•• And, as in uffish thought he stood,• The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,• Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,• And burbled as it came!1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 67 5Jan2011
  • Warming Up Tongue Twisters Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Wheres the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 68 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud Meaningfully – Pace and Rhythm: A Happy Tailor (excerpt) (Anonymous) Once upon a time there was a happy tailor. He was the cleverest tailor in the kingdom. He made clothes for the king and his men. And they all liked them so much and the tailor was so happy about it. But his wife was so very very unhappy with him. She said, “You only know how to make beautiful clothes for other people.” She added, “Look at yourself. You’re so miserably dressed from head to toe!” The tailor was taken aback by his wife’s comments. Head to toe, head to toe, he took stock of himself from head to toe. “How right you are!” he said to her.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 69 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud Meaningfully – Pace and Rhythm: The Visitor (Excerpt) by Ian Serraillier A crumbling churchyard, the sea and the moon; The waves had gouged out grave and bone; A man was walking, late and alone... He saw a skeleton on the ground; A ring on a bony finger he found.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 70 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud Meaningfully – Pace and Rhythm: Angela’s Ashes (Excerpt) by Frank McCourt When I look back on my childhood I wonder how I survived at all. It was, of course, a miserable childhood: the happy childhood is hardly worth your while. Worse than the ordinary miserable childhood is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 71 5Jan2011
  • Emphasis In Speech Each of the following sentence contains a word which carries the emphasis so that the central meaning can be delivered to the listener. I believe money is the root of all evil. I believe money is the root of all evil. I believe money is the root of all evil. I believe money is the root of all evil. I believe money is the root of all evil.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 72 5Jan2011
  • REMEMBER YOUR BREATH UNITS1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 73 5Jan2011
  • REMEMBER WHAT I HAVE BEENTELLING YOU ABOUT PHRASES A GROUP OF WORDS WITH A UNIFIED MEANING.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 74 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 1 A certain student passed all his school examinations and then went to a college to continue his studies. There he put his name down for a course in geography, but after the first lecture, he did not go to any more. The geography lecturer noticed that this student was always absent and thought that he had changed to another course, so he was very surprised when he saw the boy’s name on the list of students who wanted to take the geography examination at the end of the year.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 75 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 1A certain student passed all hisschool examinations and thenwent to a college to continue hisstudies.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 76 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 1There he put his name down for acourse in geography, butafter the first lecture, he did not goto any more.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 77 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 1 The geography lecturer noticed that this student was always absent and thought that he had changed to another course, so he was very surprised when he saw the boy’s name on the list of students who wanted to take the geography examination at the end of the year.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 78 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 2 The lecturer had prepared a difficult examination paper, which followed his lectures very closely, and he was eager to see how this student answered the questions. He expected that his answers would be very bad; but when they reached him soon after the examination and he examined them carefully, he was able to find only one small mistake in them. As this surprised him very much, he went through the paper again twice, but was still not able to find more than that one small mistake, so he sent for the student to question him about his work.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 79 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 2 The lecturer had prepared a difficult examination paper, which followed his lectures very closely, and he was eager to see how this student answered the questions.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 80 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 2 He expected that his answers would be very bad; but when they reached him soon after the examination and he examined them carefully, he was able to find only one small mistake in them.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 81 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 2 As this surprised him very much, he went through the paper again twice, but was still not able to find more than that one small mistake, so he sent for the student to question him about his work.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 82 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 When the student had come into the room and had sat down, the lecturer said to him, “I know that you came only to my first lecture and that you have been absent from all the others; but now I have examined your answer paper very carefully and I have been able to find only one small mistake in it. I am curious to know your explanation for that.” “Oh, I am very sorry about that mistake, sir,” answered the student. “After the examination, I realised what I ought to have written. I would not have made that mistake if I had not been confused by your first lecture.”1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 83 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 When the student had come into the room and had sat down, the lecturer said to him, “I know that you came only to my first lecture and that you have been absent from all the others; but now I have examined your answer paper very carefully and I have been able to find only one small mistake in it.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 84 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 I am curious to know your explanation for that.”1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 85 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 “Oh, I am very sorry about that mistake, sir, ” answered the student.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 86 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 “After the examination, I realised what I ought to have written. I would not have made that mistake if I had not been confused by your first lecture.”1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 87 5Jan2011
  • PASSAGE – PARAGRAPH 3 When the student had come into the room and had sat down, the lecturer said to him, “I know that you came only to my first lecture and that you have been absent from all the others; but now I have examined your answer paper very carefully and I have been able to find only one small mistake in it. I am curious to know your explanation for that.” “Oh, I am very sorry about that mistake, sir,” answered the student. “After the examination, I realised what I ought to have written. I would not have made that mistake if I had not been confused by your first lecture.”1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 88 5Jan2011
  • Practice Transcript 1• What is wrong with this sentence “Neither John’s friends nor John is going to the concert.”?• Well, yes for those of you who say that there is a subject-verb agreement error in this sentence, you are right. To understand this error, let’s look at the subjects of this sentence. Can you identify the subjects?• Yes, “John’s friends” and “John” are the subjects of the sentence.• Now, you are ready for me to let you in on a little secret. (pause and slow down so that the explanation is clear) There are two subjects in this sentence, one is singular and one is plural. When that happens, we should always put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.• In this case, “John’s friends” is the plural subject, so it should be placed after “John”. In other words, the correct sentence should be “Neither John nor his friends are coming to help out”.• I hope that you find this episode of grammar help useful. Till the next time, good-bye.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 89 5Jan2011
  • Practice Transcript 2• Let’s look at the sentence “Sally is an ENGlish teacher.” How do we know whether she teaches English or is from England?• In writing, the noun phrase English teacher is ambiguous because English may be either an adjective or a noun modifier. In speech, however, the intended meaning is usually clear from the stress pattern.• If the phrase means “an teacher of English”, the accent falls on the ENGlish teacher. (make an effort to exaggerate the stress pattern)• If the phrase means “a teacher from England”, the stress pattern changes to English TEAcher (make an effort to exaggerate the stress pattern). Here, English is an adjective and it tells us where Sally is from and not what type of teacher she is.• Till the next podcast, good-bye.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 90 5Jan2011
  • Practice Transcript 3• Should we say “I will be eight next week” or “I shall be eight next week”? The answer really depends on what is meant.• Some of us may recall our teachers telling us to use “shall” only with first person pronouns “I” and “we”. Such a “rule” can be traced back to a grammar book published in 1653. Interestingly, this book was written not in English, but in Latin!• In modern English, there is often no difference in the meaning between “shall” and “will” when referring to the simple future.• However, “shall” and “will” are not always interchangeable.• For example, when a speaker wants to clearly indicate a determination to perform a future act, the verb “shall” expresses this obligation or determination. In contrast, the verb “will” merely expresses willingness. Can you hear the difference in meaning between these two sentences: “I shall get you this toy next week” versus “I will get you this toy next week.”• “Shall” is used in interrogatives asking for decisions but “will” is not used in the same way. For example, “Shall I discard this?”• We sometimes announce decisions as we make them, When this happens, ‘will’ is used, not “shall”. For example, “How much is this? Only ten cents? Okay, I will buy it” (not I shall buy it)1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 91 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 In this passage a woman talks about living and working abroad. At times, it still amazes me that I am fortunate enough to be in a position where I can live and work in a foreign country. After I left university, I just assumed I would get a steady job at home, perhaps meet someone and get married, and settle down. I never imagined that at 38 years of age, I would be teaching young kids at a junior school in a completely different culture.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 92 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 It has been, and continues to be, a wonderful experience. Working with the children is my main motivation and source of pleasure. However, I do make the most of being where I am. I have visited many of the countries in the Far East now, and I even managed to get a few weeks in New Zealand last year. I don’t think I would be so adventurous if I were still at home.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 93 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 There are some difficulties, of course. I’m certainly not used to working in a culture which operates on a very different level from my own. I have learned to do some things differently, though. At first, I did struggle, and I had to be very patient indeed. But now I see that there are many ways to approach a problem or deal with a situation, and I must admit, I am inclined to rush into things too quickly and either make mistakes or embarrass myself.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 94 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 I often wonder how long I will stay here, 7000 miles away from home. I do go home every summer, to see my family and friends, but I am also really happy to be here. I have a freedom here that is special to me, and I’ve developed a connection with my new home that will be hard to relinquish.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 95 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 I’ve been here for seven years now – I’m sure some of the younger children I teach don’t realise that I’m a foreigner. I’m even teaching children whose brothers and sisters I taught years ago! It’s nice to have a degree of continuity.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 96 5Jan2011
  • O Level Reading Aloud Transcript August 2004 DAY 6 I do feel that I have stability in my adopted home, but I also know deep inside that it has to end one day, that I will surely return to my roots eventually. I’m not entirely convinced by my own argument, though I’d also like to think that I’ll stay here forever. Time will tell.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 97 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud – Peer Assessment Mark Rubrics (Adapted from O Level 1127/1189 Paper 3)BAND A Range of Marks 10 – 12I read the passage with near perfect pronunciationand very clear articulation.I read with fluency and even pace, usingappropriate rhythm and stress.I varied the pitch and tone to deliver theinformation, ideas and feelings appropriately.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 98 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud – Peer Assessment Mark Rubrics (Adapted from O Level 1127/1189 Paper 3)BAND B Range of Marks 7–9I read the passage with generally clear articulationwith occasional pronunciation-related errors.I was generally fluent and even in my pace withsome mistakes in stress and rhythm.I tried to somewhat vary my pitch and tone to beexpressive but was not always doing so effectively.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 99 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud – Peer Assessment Mark Rubrics (Adapted from O Level 1127/1189 Paper 3)BAND C Range of Marks 4–6I fumbled in my pronunciation from time to time whenreading but managed somewhat to articulate clearly.I was hesitant in my reading with frequent mistakesin stress and rhythm.I tried but did not quite successfully managed to sustainexpressiveness through pitch and tone variation.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 100 5Jan2011
  • Reading Aloud – Peer Assessment Mark Rubrics (Adapted from O Level 1127/1189 Paper 3)BAND D Range of Marks 0-3I struggled with my reading with very weak pronunciationand poor articulation.I was very hesitant in my reading with manymistakes in stress and rhythm.I read in a monotone.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 101 5Jan2011
  • Using Vocaroo to Improve Your Reading Aloud1. Select a short text of about 50 to 80 words in continuous prose.2. Log on to website: http://www.vocaroo.com/3. Follow the instructions in the next slide.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 102 5Jan2011
  • Using Vocaroo to Improve Your Reading AloudWebsite: http://www.vocaroo.com/To record your reading:1. Install a microphone in the PC or notebook.2. Go to http://www.vocaroo.com/3. Press Click to record.4. Press Click to stop.5. Press Listen.6. For another go, Press Record again.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 103 5Jan2011
  • Using Vocaroo to Improve Your Reading AloudWebsite: http://www.vocaroo.com/To record your reading:7. Click Post on the internet to retrieve the Vocaroo link or click Send to a friend to send the email directly.8. Let your friend or classmate assess your reading based on the mark rubrics and do the same of your friend’s recorded reading.9. Reflect on your peer assessments and discuss how you may improve your skills in reading aloud.1/5/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 104 5Jan2011