LESSON STUDY PLT Project  2011 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT CLARITY AND ACCURACY IN ORAL COMMUNICATION
OUR PLT MEMBERS Mrs Grace Toh – Group Leader  Mr Yeo Yam Hwee – Conceptualization Miss Tan Mei Shan –  Facilitator for 2G ...
OUR BIG IDEA   <ul><li>COMMUNICATION  is key to moulding effective human relationships.  </li></ul>
OUR SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE   <ul><li>Students to use proper English to describe things to one another.  </li></ul>
Tie-in with Paper 3 Oral Communication   <ul><li>Part Two:  </li></ul><ul><li>PICTURE DISCUSSION  </li></ul>
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>PAPER 3 ORAL COMMUNICATION: Examination Weightage is crucial (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  ...
Tie-in with Paper 3 Oral Communication   <ul><li>Picture Discussion involves the skills of  </li></ul><ul><li>Description ...
OUR FOCUS IN THIS LESSON STUDY PROJECT:  TO CREATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF THE SKILL OF DESCRIBING USING PROPER ...
THIS IS OUR SCOPE AND ALSO  THE LIMITATION OF OUR PROJECT IN 2011.
We believe that the ability to DESCRIBE helps the student to say things clearly and in detail.  From here, the facilitator...
THE SUCCESSFUL EXECUTION OF OUR TWO ROUNDS OF LESSON STUDYTHIS TIME ON “DESCRIPTION” GIVES US THE OPPORTUNITY TO MOVEON TO...
Our Lesson Study activity was inspired by the earlier works of linguists in the field of  Communicative Language Teaching ...
ANALYTICAL THINKING   <ul><li>We also wanted to integrate Analytical Thinking Skills (taught to Secondary 2 students) with...
THESE THREE C’s OF COMMUNICATION REINFORCE THE NEED FOR THE INTERLOCUTORS IN ANY PROCESS OF SHARING OR EXCHANGE OF INFORMA...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Source:  Communicative Language Teaching Today by Jack C Richard SEAMEO  </li></ul><ul><li>RELC ...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Source:  Communicative Language Teaching Today by Jack C Richard SEAMEO RELC Portfolio Series 13...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>4.  The activities carried out in our Lesson Study are pedagogical tasks that are part of Task-b...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>6.  In our lesson study, the task which involves two learners trying to find the number of diffe...
LITERATURE REVIEW 8.  Learning is not an individual or private activity but a social one that depends upon interaction wit...
LITERATURE REVIEW 11.  Target language learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in interaction and meaningful com...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Sourced  from Arnold Morgan, Jane et.al, pages 35,51,56, 60, 99, chapter  3 of the book,  ORAL S...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>The use of MT helps them to clarify and construct collaborative scaffolding. This was observed i...
LITERATURE REVIEW Scott Thornbury’s  training in instructional conversation  , pg 95 of the book Language in Language Teac...
Our Lesson Study is entitled:   <ul><li>SAME OR DIFFERENT? </li></ul>
TIME LINE   <ul><li>CONCEPTUALISATION AND RESOURCE PREPARATION:  </li></ul><ul><li>TERM 1 </li></ul><ul><li>LESSON STUDY F...
WORK FLOW  <ul><li>Conceptualisation and resource preparations </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Study – Round 1 – Secondary 2G [Ex...
PRE-LS TEST and  POST-LS TEST Sessions  OBSERVATION and COMMUNICATION TEST FOR STUDENTS  Written by Yeo Yam Hwee
THIS IS THE ACTUAL PICTURE USED DURING THE PRE-TEST. ANOTHER SITTING ROOM PHOTOGRAPH WAS USED FOR  THE POST-TEST.
INSTRUCTIONS for the facilitator   <ul><li>Do not flash this picture of a furnished room on the screen.  </li></ul><ul><li...
INSTRUCTIONS for the facilitator   <ul><li>Inform the pair that their communication with each other must be as clear and d...
INSTRUCTIONS   for the facilitator <ul><li>8.  Arrangement of the class should be such that a third student from another g...
Instructions for the students  Speak in English only.  Do not use hand gestures or any other forms of body langauge.  4.  ...
Instructions for the students  I repeat:  speak in English only.  Do not use hand gestures or any other forms of body lang...
2B (NA) students listened carefully to the facilitator’s instructions  before the pre-test observation lesson began.  PRE-...
The illustrator listened to the describer and drew  what she believed was intended.  The describer said as clearly as  pos...
Apart from “describing” and “illustrating”, there were “observing”, “clarifying” and “negotiating of meaning” – all happen...
Apart from “describing” and “illustrating”, there were “observing”, “clarifying” and “negotiating of meaning” – all happen...
Comparison of the illustrator’s work  and the original photograph.
Comparison of the illustrator’s work  and the original photograph.
Comparison of the illustrator’s work  and the original photograph.
In the second round of Lesson Study with 2B, more time was allotted to elicit responses from the student participants.
ACTUAL LESSON STUDY   The students were all paired up.  The maximum was three in any one group to include all to take part...
Lesson Study Observation  Round 1 10 March 2011 1245 – 1345 hrs Class: 2G Lesson: English Language  Facilitators:  Ms Tan ...
Students listening to Facilitator’s Instructions
Instructions to Students   <ul><li>1.  Line your own desks independently in a straight column.  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Make...
Instructions to Students   <ul><li>Do not move your desks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Move your chairs 90 degrees on the spot to f...
Instructions to Students <ul><li>You must have with you a pen and a file or a big book to act as a folder.  </li></ul><ul>...
Let’s  suppose Student A has this picture A1 with him   <ul><li>A1 </li></ul>… and Student B has this other picture A1 wit...
Instructions to Students <ul><li>13. Both Students A and B seem to have the same picture. When you receive YOUR piece of h...
Instructions to Students <ul><li>15. The purpose of your task is to compare by SPEAKING ONLY IN ENGLISH to each other in y...
Instructions to Students <ul><li>17. You are given ample time to work things out with your co-learner.  All pictures must ...
Instructions to Students <ul><li>19.  Do not show anything to your co-learner at all.  Once you have arrived at a decision...
Secondary 2G students seated in straight columns and rows with  a partner each.
Facilitator-teacher Ms. Tan Mei Shan making the ground rules clear to the students of Secondary 2G before the demonstratio...
DEMONSTRATION on the powerpoint slides  STUDENT No. 1 And  STUDENT No. 2
Let’s  suppose Student A has this picture A1 with him   <ul><li>A1 </li></ul>… and Student B has this other picture A1 wit...
THE DESCRIBING PROCESS What do you mean by “inwards”?  Student 2 Yes, I do.  Let me try to make it clear to you. The arrow...
THE DESCRIBING PROCESS There are three.  Like Olympic circles but I have them vertically down on the right hand side of th...
THE DESCRIBING PROCESS ……AFTER FURTHER EFFORTS AT DESCRIBING, COMPARING AND  CLARIFYING…... Ok, then shall we put the word...
Ms. Tan had the choice to use the powerpoint presentation slides to demonstrate to the students how the task was to be car...
The two students demonstrated the task  of describing in the English Language to the  rest of the class.
<ul><li>The demonstration process involves:  </li></ul><ul><li>Careful studying of the picture to be described. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Ms. Tan showing the class the demonstration pictures and emphasizing the importance of careful observation and acc...
Issuing of Handouts Set A, B, C and D.
SET A SET B The paired students are supposed to communicate with each other  without revealing their respective picture sh...
SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
THE DESCRIBING, COMPARING, CONTRASTING,  CLARIFYING PROCESS BEGINS How big  is it? Not big. Small…
The students participating actively in the process
Communication done meaningfully in English
Close but non-intrusive  observation and filming of students’ activity
<ul><li>The students were initially given ten minutes.  Time was extended slightly to allow slower groups to complete thei...
 
THEY WERE SO ACCURATE – THEY’D GOTTEN ALL  THEIR PICTURES RIGHT.
<ul><li>The students completed their self and peer assessments for the activity.  </li></ul><ul><li>They submitted all the...
What did the students realise after taking part in   “SAME OR DIFFERENT?” <ul><li>THE STUDENTS’  </li></ul><ul><li>POST LE...
100 100 I became better aware of the importance of “describing” through this activity with my co-learner.  12 97.3 75 I wa...
97.3 100 I think that  he / she has become better aware of the importance of “describing” through this activity with me.  ...
FINDINGS FROM STUDENTS’ SKETCHES OF THE LIVING ROOM 33.3% 37.5% 47.1% 47.1% INACCURATELY COMMUNICATED 66.7% 62.5% 52.9% 52...
STUDENTS’ FEEDBACK 1. They enjoyed taking part in the activity. 2. They became aware that they had to use accurate English...
TEACHERS’ OBSERVATION <ul><li>Students found the activity interesting because they needed to actively be involved in oral ...
TEACHERS’ OBSERVATION <ul><li>Slang expressions, Singlish and MT were freely used.  </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious difficulties...
CONCLUSIONS 1.  The  activities in our lesson study project helped our students understand and appreciate the importance o...
CONCLUSIONS 3.   Their post lesson reflections also made them realise their own shortcomings in their communication effort...
IMPLICATIONS 1.  The observations and reflections are useful bases for the teachers to plan further lesson activities to i...
IMPLICATIONS 2.  While we are motivating our students to do well in examinations,  it is also important for us to help the...
IMPLICATIONS 3.  Our lesson study activities are  suitable pedagogical tasks which  are useful and easy  for the teacher-f...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Grace Toh – Leadership / Overall Note-taking / Write-up for Publication  / Research /Observation ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Jaclyn, Nida and Mavis Ho – Research Assistance / Observation / Discussion / Videoing  </li></ul>...
THANK YOU   THANK YOU   THANK YOU   THANK YOU
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  1. 1. LESSON STUDY PLT Project 2011 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT CLARITY AND ACCURACY IN ORAL COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. OUR PLT MEMBERS Mrs Grace Toh – Group Leader Mr Yeo Yam Hwee – Conceptualization Miss Tan Mei Shan – Facilitator for 2G (LS Round 1) Mrs Calais Wong Yim Nam – Facilitator for 2B (LS Round 2) Miss Jaclyn – Trainee Teacher/Helper Miss Nida – Trainee Teacher/Helper Miss Mavis Ho – Trainee Teacher/Helper Miss Tan Seok Cheng – Member Miss Vanessa Cai – Member
  3. 3. OUR BIG IDEA <ul><li>COMMUNICATION is key to moulding effective human relationships. </li></ul>
  4. 4. OUR SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE <ul><li>Students to use proper English to describe things to one another. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tie-in with Paper 3 Oral Communication <ul><li>Part Two: </li></ul><ul><li>PICTURE DISCUSSION </li></ul>
  6. 6. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>PAPER 3 ORAL COMMUNICATION: Examination Weightage is crucial (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>2. FOCUS: PICTURE DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS: TRIGGERING LEARNERS’ AWARENESS OF CLARITY AND ACCURACY IN ORAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tie-in with Paper 3 Oral Communication <ul><li>Picture Discussion involves the skills of </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>based on current examination mark scheme. </li></ul>
  8. 8. OUR FOCUS IN THIS LESSON STUDY PROJECT: TO CREATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF THE SKILL OF DESCRIBING USING PROPER ENGLISH IN ORAL COMMUNICATION.
  9. 9. THIS IS OUR SCOPE AND ALSO THE LIMITATION OF OUR PROJECT IN 2011.
  10. 10. We believe that the ability to DESCRIBE helps the student to say things clearly and in detail. From here, the facilitator and the learners may then proceed to cultivate skills in EXPLANATION and then INTERPRETATION. We also believe in the logical progression of acquisition of skills: DESCRIPTION  EXPLANATION  INTERPRETATION.
  11. 11. THE SUCCESSFUL EXECUTION OF OUR TWO ROUNDS OF LESSON STUDYTHIS TIME ON “DESCRIPTION” GIVES US THE OPPORTUNITY TO MOVEON TO EXPLORE TEACHING-LEARNING METHODOLOGIES ON “EXPLANATION” AND “INTERPRETATION”.
  12. 12. Our Lesson Study activity was inspired by the earlier works of linguists in the field of Communicative Language Teaching <ul><li>Prof. Stephen Hall and Mr. Yap Kok Liang 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching of Oral Communication Skills to Secondary School Students – RELC course 1990 attended by Yeo Yam Hwee </li></ul><ul><li>During the training workshop at RELC, the approach - “Same or Different?” was introduced as a pedagogical task to motivate the students in an English Language classroom to talk to one another to complete a series of problems presented to them. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ANALYTICAL THINKING <ul><li>We also wanted to integrate Analytical Thinking Skills (taught to Secondary 2 students) with English Language Teaching. We leveraged on an AT lesson on communication (taught earlier in Semester 1) which touched specifically on the three C’s of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Common Reference, </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity and </li></ul><ul><li>Context. </li></ul>
  14. 14. THESE THREE C’s OF COMMUNICATION REINFORCE THE NEED FOR THE INTERLOCUTORS IN ANY PROCESS OF SHARING OR EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TO BE CLEAR AND RELEVANT, FULLY AWARE OF THE PURPOSE OR INTENTION OF COMMUNICATION.
  15. 15. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Source: Communicative Language Teaching Today by Jack C Richard SEAMEO </li></ul><ul><li>RELC Portfolio Series 13,2005 </li></ul><ul><li>1. The methodology that we employ is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). </li></ul><ul><li>2. It can be described as a set of very general principles grounded in the notion of communicative competence as the goal of second and foreign language teaching. </li></ul>
  16. 16. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Source: Communicative Language Teaching Today by Jack C Richard SEAMEO RELC Portfolio Series 13,2005 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Communication is seen as a holistic process that involves an integration of several language skills based on tasks that focus greatly on the learning process. These tasks are also authentic. It also involves effective learning and communication strategies. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>4. The activities carried out in our Lesson Study are pedagogical tasks that are part of Task-based Instruction which is an extension of CLT. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The tasks required the use of specific interactional strategies and may also require the use of specific types of language (skills, grammar and vocabulary). </li></ul>
  18. 18. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>6. In our lesson study, the task which involves two learners trying to find the number of differences between two similar pictures is an example of a pedagogical task. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The task itself is not something one would encounter in the real world. However, the interactional processes require input to language development. </li></ul>
  19. 19. LITERATURE REVIEW 8. Learning is not an individual or private activity but a social one that depends upon interaction with others. 9. Our Pre-LS Test and Post-LS Test promoted collaborative efforts in building meaning through the use of English. 10. Our Lesson Study - “Same or Different?” also promoted co-operative learning between and among the students.
  20. 20. LITERATURE REVIEW 11. Target language learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in interaction and meaningful communication. 12. Effective classroom learning tasks and exercises provide opportunities for students to negotiate meaning, expand their language resources, notice how language is used, and take part in meaningful intrapersonal exchange. 13. The role of the teacher in the language classroom is that of a facilitator, who provides opportunities for students to use and practice the language and to reflect on language use and language learning.
  21. 21. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Sourced from Arnold Morgan, Jane et.al, pages 35,51,56, 60, 99, chapter 3 of the book, ORAL SKILLS : RESOURCES AND PROPOSALS FOR THE CLASSROOM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Students need to have a strong database of English vocabulary and grammar to be able to describe elaborately of a picture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. One of the students’ coping strategies was to use their mother tongue in their speech. Rather than viewing the students’ use of mother tongue as a failure in interaction, it actually enabled them to support and sustain their interaction with others. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>The use of MT helps them to clarify and construct collaborative scaffolding. This was observed in our own 2B and 2G students in their use of MT in their attempts to describe appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Research on collaborative learning on students’ part informs us of the need to help student learners to be grammatically and pragmatically accurate. Our 2B and 2G students also see the need to describe clearly and accurately in order for their partners to understand and comprehend their intended meaning. </li></ul>
  23. 23. LITERATURE REVIEW Scott Thornbury’s training in instructional conversation , pg 95 of the book Language in Language Teacher Education 1. Students tend to speak very little during lessons and teachers speak 89% of the time. 2. Even when students are speaking, the conversation present is between a student and the teacher and is made up of IRF ( initiate, response and feedback ). Initiation and feedback were provided by teachers while the only time students speak out is giving responses to the teachers’ question. Such interactions are teacher-led and teacher-dominated. In turn, students are only limited to providing short answers which require less critical thinking and hence, utilize less vocabulary and grammar. 3. It is better to encourage students to direct their own speech conversation than for teachers to direct them.
  24. 24. Our Lesson Study is entitled: <ul><li>SAME OR DIFFERENT? </li></ul>
  25. 25. TIME LINE <ul><li>CONCEPTUALISATION AND RESOURCE PREPARATION: </li></ul><ul><li>TERM 1 </li></ul><ul><li>LESSON STUDY FIRST ROUND: </li></ul><ul><li>TERM 1 </li></ul><ul><li>LESSON STUDY SECOND ROUND: </li></ul><ul><li>TERM 2 </li></ul><ul><li>POST LESSON STUDY DISCUSSION: </li></ul><ul><li>TERM 3 AND TERM 4 </li></ul>
  26. 26. WORK FLOW <ul><li>Conceptualisation and resource preparations </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Study – Round 1 – Secondary 2G [Express] </li></ul><ul><li>[a] Pre LS Test Session </li></ul><ul><li>[b] Lesson Study: Same or Different? </li></ul><ul><li>[c] Post LS Test Session </li></ul><ul><li>[d] Review of approach and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Study – Round 2 – Secondary 2B [Normal Academic] </li></ul><ul><li>[a] Pre LS Test Session </li></ul><ul><li>[b] Pre-teaching Session </li></ul><ul><li>[c] Preparation of LS with students for modeling purposes </li></ul><ul><li>[d] Lesson Study: Same or Different? </li></ul><ul><li>[e] Post LS Test Session </li></ul><ul><li>[f] Review of approach and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Collation of results – qualitative and quantitative </li></ul>
  27. 27. PRE-LS TEST and POST-LS TEST Sessions OBSERVATION and COMMUNICATION TEST FOR STUDENTS Written by Yeo Yam Hwee
  28. 28. THIS IS THE ACTUAL PICTURE USED DURING THE PRE-TEST. ANOTHER SITTING ROOM PHOTOGRAPH WAS USED FOR THE POST-TEST.
  29. 29. INSTRUCTIONS for the facilitator <ul><li>Do not flash this picture of a furnished room on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the photograph to a student in a pair who is identify as the describer. </li></ul><ul><li>The other student who is not will be the illustrator. Give this student an A4 size white sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the describer to study the photograph and pick out and TWO to FIVE things which he is going to get his illustrator-partner to draw out on the A4 size paper as described. </li></ul>
  30. 30. INSTRUCTIONS for the facilitator <ul><li>Inform the pair that their communication with each other must be as clear and detailed as possible. This is not a game. They must face the same consequence if task is improperly done. They should pay close attention to position (Left, Right, Top, Bottom, Foreground, Background) and details of the selected objects. </li></ul><ul><li>It is perfectly all right to identify objects by naming. It is not allowed for the Describer to show the Illustrator anything at all during the communication process. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep watch of the time. It is not important that the students complete all five. It is important to monitor them when the session is in progress to make sure that both roles are correctly and effectively conducted by the students. </li></ul>
  31. 31. INSTRUCTIONS for the facilitator <ul><li>8. Arrangement of the class should be such that a third student from another group have no easy access to the Describer and Illustrator. Every group should be minding their own business. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Keep the time frame in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Communication is in English only. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Illustrator is supposed to draw and label where necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Facilator teacher is free to make any amendments to this set of instructions. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Instructions for the students Speak in English only. Do not use hand gestures or any other forms of body langauge. 4. Do not share the illustration with your co-learner at all times unless your teacher gives you the permission. 3. Students who are given a blank drawing paper are to listen carefully and draw as best as you can on the provided sheet. 2. Students who are given an illustration will be tasked to describe the contents of the illustration as clearly as you can. 1.
  33. 33. Instructions for the students I repeat: speak in English only. Do not use hand gestures or any other forms of body langauge. 8. The objects and the position of the objects are important information. 7. The describer helps by providing information in English. The illustrator draws based on the describer’s information. 6. Do not rush into drawing. You must ask questions whenever you are unsure. 5.
  34. 34. 2B (NA) students listened carefully to the facilitator’s instructions before the pre-test observation lesson began. PRE-TEST Session with 2B LS Round 2 – T2W1-2.2011
  35. 35. The illustrator listened to the describer and drew what she believed was intended. The describer said as clearly as possible the things she saw in the picture.
  36. 36. Apart from “describing” and “illustrating”, there were “observing”, “clarifying” and “negotiating of meaning” – all happening at the same time.
  37. 37. Apart from “describing” and “illustrating”, there were “observing”, “clarifying” and “negotiating of meaning” – all happening at the same time.
  38. 38. Comparison of the illustrator’s work and the original photograph.
  39. 39. Comparison of the illustrator’s work and the original photograph.
  40. 40. Comparison of the illustrator’s work and the original photograph.
  41. 41. In the second round of Lesson Study with 2B, more time was allotted to elicit responses from the student participants.
  42. 42. ACTUAL LESSON STUDY The students were all paired up. The maximum was three in any one group to include all to take part. Students were tasked to share and exchange information by comparing and contrasting twelve diagrams on their respective information sheets to decide for themselves if each and every one of the corresponding diagrams was “same” or “different”.
  43. 43. Lesson Study Observation Round 1 10 March 2011 1245 – 1345 hrs Class: 2G Lesson: English Language Facilitators: Ms Tan Mei Shan Mr. Yeo Yam Hwee Observer: Ms. Calais
  44. 44. Students listening to Facilitator’s Instructions
  45. 45. Instructions to Students <ul><li>1. Line your own desks independently in a straight column. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make sure that your desks are also in line when you position them in rows. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Your desks in class should look like this: </li></ul>
  46. 46. Instructions to Students <ul><li>Do not move your desks. </li></ul><ul><li>Move your chairs 90 degrees on the spot to face your neighbour directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for further instructions from your teacher. </li></ul>== <ul><li>If you are seated in a </li></ul><ul><li>single column, please wait </li></ul><ul><li>for your teacher to make </li></ul><ul><li>alternative arrangements for you. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are without a co-learner </li></ul><ul><li>Because there is nobody else to </li></ul><ul><li>pair up with you, please wait </li></ul><ul><li>Patiently. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Instructions to Students <ul><li>You must have with you a pen and a file or a big book to act as a folder. </li></ul><ul><li>You are going to receive individually a piece of handout containing instructions and information which you cannot reveal to anybody else. </li></ul><ul><li>For now, pay attention to your teacher. You must watch the [DEMONSTRATION] provided by your teacher and your classmates carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>12. When you receive the piece of handout, read the instructions and study the contents immediately and carefully. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Let’s suppose Student A has this picture A1 with him <ul><li>A1 </li></ul>… and Student B has this other picture A1 with her. A1
  49. 49. Instructions to Students <ul><li>13. Both Students A and B seem to have the same picture. When you receive YOUR piece of handout, read the instructions and study the contents immediately and carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>14.Do not look at other people’s handout. I will ask you to leave the activity area immediately. You will only be allowed into your classroom when this activity ends. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Instructions to Students <ul><li>15. The purpose of your task is to compare by SPEAKING ONLY IN ENGLISH to each other in your paired group to come to a decision whether Picture A1 (and you have more than one picture to do) is SAME or DIFFERENT. </li></ul><ul><li>16.Do not look at anybody else’s handout. I will ask you to leave the activity area immediately. You will only be allowed into your classroom when this activity ends. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Instructions to Students <ul><li>17. You are given ample time to work things out with your co-learner. All pictures must be described. </li></ul><ul><li>18. You describe clearly and carefully what you have with you to your co-learner. He or she does the same process as you. Both of you must come to a decision todetermine if your respective A1s are indeed SAME or DIFFERENT. Write “SAME” or “DIFFERENT” within the box which contains A1. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Instructions to Students <ul><li>19. Do not show anything to your co-learner at all. Once you have arrived at a decision for A1, move on to the next picture. Make sure both of you are referring to the same picture number before you begin “describing” to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>20. Complete all boxes within the time given. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold your answers to yourselves until further instructions from your teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>21. Begin only when your teacher allows you to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>22. If you have questions, raise them now. </li></ul><ul><li>23. The handout will now be handed over to you. Please wait. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Secondary 2G students seated in straight columns and rows with a partner each.
  54. 54. Facilitator-teacher Ms. Tan Mei Shan making the ground rules clear to the students of Secondary 2G before the demonstration-trigger activity
  55. 55. DEMONSTRATION on the powerpoint slides STUDENT No. 1 And STUDENT No. 2
  56. 56. Let’s suppose Student A has this picture A1 with him <ul><li>A1 </li></ul>… and Student B has this other picture A1 with her. A1
  57. 57. THE DESCRIBING PROCESS What do you mean by “inwards”? Student 2 Yes, I do. Let me try to make it clear to you. The arrow is not black and its direction is pointing inwards. Student 1 Yes, but in the big black square, do you have an arrow? Student 2 I have with me in Picture A1 three circles and a big black square. Do you have them with you too? Student 1
  58. 58. THE DESCRIBING PROCESS There are three. Like Olympic circles but I have them vertically down on the right hand side of the box. They are all the same size. Student 2 I think you are quite right. Your description seems to fit my arrow. What about the circles? Student 1 Let me see. Where is it in the black box? Mine is on the top left hand side. It is a broad arrow, shaped like a house fallen on its side, lying horizontally… Student 2 I mean it is pointing towards the three circles. By the way, the arrow is not black. It is not shaded. It is empty. About 10 centimetres wide. Student 1
  59. 59. THE DESCRIBING PROCESS ……AFTER FURTHER EFFORTS AT DESCRIBING, COMPARING AND CLARIFYING…... Ok, then shall we put the word “same” and then quickly move on to the next picture? Which number is that? Student 4 Most of the things described seem the same. Student 3 Me too… but I am still not sure. Student 2 I think I am quite sure, our pictures are the same… Student 1
  60. 60. Ms. Tan had the choice to use the powerpoint presentation slides to demonstrate to the students how the task was to be carried out but In this case, she preferred to use two student volunteers for the trigger activity.
  61. 61. The two students demonstrated the task of describing in the English Language to the rest of the class.
  62. 62. <ul><li>The demonstration process involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Careful studying of the picture to be described. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of English Language at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from using body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from using hand gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from using other languages. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Ms. Tan showing the class the demonstration pictures and emphasizing the importance of careful observation and accurate verbal description. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Issuing of Handouts Set A, B, C and D.
  65. 65. SET A SET B The paired students are supposed to communicate with each other without revealing their respective picture sheets.
  66. 66. SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
  67. 67. SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
  68. 68. SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
  69. 69. SET A SET B SAME OR DIFFERENT?
  70. 70. THE DESCRIBING, COMPARING, CONTRASTING, CLARIFYING PROCESS BEGINS How big is it? Not big. Small…
  71. 71. The students participating actively in the process
  72. 72. Communication done meaningfully in English
  73. 73. Close but non-intrusive observation and filming of students’ activity
  74. 74. <ul><li>The students were initially given ten minutes. Time was extended slightly to allow slower groups to complete their tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Students were asked to comment on their tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Students were asked to show each other the pictures in their respective handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>More comments came from the students. </li></ul>
  75. 76. THEY WERE SO ACCURATE – THEY’D GOTTEN ALL THEIR PICTURES RIGHT.
  76. 77. <ul><li>The students completed their self and peer assessments for the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>They submitted all their activity sheets and assessment forms to Ms. Tan afterwards. </li></ul>
  77. 78. What did the students realise after taking part in “SAME OR DIFFERENT?” <ul><li>THE STUDENTS’ </li></ul><ul><li>POST LESSON STUDY SESSION </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECTIONS </li></ul>
  78. 79. 100 100 I became better aware of the importance of “describing” through this activity with my co-learner. 12 97.3 75 I was able to complete the given task within the time allowed by my teacher. 11 94.6 97.2 I carefully thought through my descriptions and my co-learner’s descriptions before deciding whether our pictures were “same” or “different”. 10 97.3 72.2 I attempted to use hand gestures or any other form of body language when I faced difficulty in describing to my co-learner. 9 83.8 100 I understood that for understanding to take place, I needed to work closely in sharing and exchange of “descriptions” with my co-learner. 8 100 97.2 I clarified / checked or cross-checked with my co-learner as often as I could whenever I was in doubt. 7 100 97.2 I listened to what my co-learner was telling me as attentively as I could. 6 100 91.6 I described as accurately as I could to speak to my co-learner. 5 97.3 88.8 I thought carefully before I described anything to my co-learner. 4 94.6 91.6 I studied my material carefully to prepare adequately for describing it to my co-learner. 3 91.9 97.2 I used English as accurately as I could in the activity. 2 100 100 I understood and linked the demonstration activity to the task I had to do afterwards with my co-learner. 1 2B 2G SELF ASSESSMENT
  79. 80. 97.3 100 I think that he / she has become better aware of the importance of “describing” through this activity with me. 12 94.6 73.5 He / she was able to complete the given task within the time allowed by our teacher. 11 100 97.1 He / she carefully thought through his / her descriptions and my descriptions before deciding whether our pictures were “same” or “different”. 10 81.1 73.5 He / she attempted to use hand gestures or any other form of body language when he / she faced difficulty in describing to me. 9 94.6 97.1 He / she understood that for understanding to take place, he / she needed to work closely in sharing and exchange of “descriptions” with me. 8 97.3 94.1 He / she clarified / checked or cross-checked with me as often as I could whenever I was in doubt. 7 100 100 He / she listened to what I was telling him / her as attentively as he / she could. 6 100 94.1 He / she described as accurately as he / she could when speaking. 5 97.3 100 He / she thought carefully before describing anything to me. 4 100 97.1 He / she studied the material carefully to prepare adequately for describing it to me. 3 98.9 100 He / she used English as accurately as he / she could in the activity. 2 94.6 100 My co-learner understood and linked the demonstration activity to our shared task. 1 2B 2G PEER ASSESSMENT
  80. 81. FINDINGS FROM STUDENTS’ SKETCHES OF THE LIVING ROOM 33.3% 37.5% 47.1% 47.1% INACCURATELY COMMUNICATED 66.7% 62.5% 52.9% 52.9% ACCURATELY COMMUNICATED POST- TEST PRE-TEST POST- TEST PRE-TEST 2B 2G
  81. 82. STUDENTS’ FEEDBACK 1. They enjoyed taking part in the activity. 2. They became aware that they had to use accurate English words and expressions in oral communication. 3. They had learnt to describe better. 4. They had learnt that communication could be challenging when one had to pay attention to accuracy. 5. They had learnt that one had to be alert and attentive during communication.
  82. 83. TEACHERS’ OBSERVATION <ul><li>Students found the activity interesting because they needed to actively be involved in oral interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>They were rather casual and to some extent, crude (use of swearing words) in their use of language with rampant code-switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3. They (especially so of 2G) seemed rather impatient with the facilitator’s instructions. </li></ul>
  83. 84. TEACHERS’ OBSERVATION <ul><li>Slang expressions, Singlish and MT were freely used. </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious difficulties in estimation of distance between objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain in the use of strategies to describe things from simple to difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious difficulties in describing size and shape of objects. </li></ul>
  84. 85. CONCLUSIONS 1. The activities in our lesson study project helped our students understand and appreciate the importance of being clear and accurate when sharing and exchanging information to achieve effective communication. 2. Our hands-on approach also enabled our students to learn more with the teacher teaching less. The learners needed to pay close attention to others and be accurate and clear when using English to interact with others.
  85. 86. CONCLUSIONS 3. Their post lesson reflections also made them realise their own shortcomings in their communication efforts and hopefully motivate them to be more self-directed in putting in efforts to correct them to become better communicators.
  86. 87. IMPLICATIONS 1. The observations and reflections are useful bases for the teachers to plan further lesson activities to improve the learners’ oracy skills in Picture Discussion.
  87. 88. IMPLICATIONS 2. While we are motivating our students to do well in examinations, it is also important for us to help them develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of the need to be clear and accurate when sharing and exchanging information with others.
  88. 89. IMPLICATIONS 3. Our lesson study activities are suitable pedagogical tasks which are useful and easy for the teacher-facilitators to execute in the classroom. The approach to teaching clarity and accuracy in oral communication remains relevant even with the implementation of the new English Language syllabus.
  89. 90. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Grace Toh – Leadership / Overall Note-taking / Write-up for Publication / Research /Observation /Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Wong Yim Nam – Facilitation/ Observation / Research / Video Equipment / Videoing </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Mei Shan – Facilitator / Observation/ Research / Videoing / Discussion </li></ul>
  90. 91. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Jaclyn, Nida and Mavis Ho – Research Assistance / Observation / Discussion / Videoing </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Seok Cheng – Encouragement and Support / Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Vanessa Cai – Encouragement and Support / Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Yeo Yam Hwee – Conceptualisation /Material Preparation/ Research / Time-keeping / Observation/ Videoing / Write-up for presentation </li></ul>
  91. 92. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU

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