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October november 2006 the world's oceans and rescue of the humpback whale
 

October november 2006 the world's oceans and rescue of the humpback whale

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    October november 2006 the world's oceans and rescue of the humpback whale October november 2006 the world's oceans and rescue of the humpback whale Presentation Transcript

    • October-November 2006How to Protect the Oceans of theWorld / Rescue of the HumpbackVocabulary Package for Revision
    • OCT-NOV 2006 READINGCOMPREHENSION ANDSUMMARY WRITINGQUESTIONS
    • O Level English Paper 2For 3B.3C and 3D.2011
    • The Water Cycle
    • Passage A Paragraph 1 Water covers the greatest part of the Earth’s surface andmost of this water is contained within four oceans – thePacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic Ocean.Despite the vast size of the oceans, little was known aboutthese interlinked areas of the world until comparativelyrecently. It was thought that the ocean floors werefeatureless plains but we now know that they contain justas many hills and valleys as exist on dry land. Healthyoceans are essential to life on earth as they are at the heartof the water cycle. The thousands of cubic kilometres ofwater which evaporate from the oceans every year fall asrain and snow over land, ensuring our survival byreplenishing our reservoirs and supporting our agriculture.However, these oceans also provide for life on earth in amore direct way, in the harvesting of fish and other seacreatures for food. This is an age-old custom, but onlyrecently has it had any serious effect on the oceans andseas and the life dependent on them.
    • Water covers the greatest part of theEarth’s surface and most of this water is VASTcontained within four oceans – the Pacific,the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic INTERLINKEDOcean. Despite the vast size of theoceans, little was known about theseinterlinked areas of the world until COMPARATIVELYcomparatively recently. It was thoughtthat the ocean floors were featurelessplains but we now know that they contain FEATURELESSjust as many hills and valleys as exist ondry land. Healthy oceans are essential tolife on earth as they are at the heart of the ESSENTIALwater cycle. The thousands of cubickilometres of water which evaporate fromthe oceans every year fall as rain and snow ENSURINGover land, ensuring our survival byreplenishing our reservoirs and supporting REPLENISHINGour agriculture. However, these oceansalso provide for life on earth in a moredirect way, in the harvesting of fish and HARVESTINGother sea creatures for food. This is anage-old custom, but only recently has ithad any serious effect on the oceans and AGE-OLDseas and the life dependent on them. DEPENDENT
    • Water covers the greatest part of theEarth’s surface and most of this water is VASTcontained within four oceans – the Pacific,the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic INTERLINKEDOcean. Despite the huge size of theoceans, little was known about theseconnected areas of the world until COMPARATIVELYrelatively recently. It was thought that theocean floors were unspectacular plainsbut we now know that they contain just as FEATURELESSmany hills and valleys as exist on dry land.Healthy oceans are important to life onearth as they are at the heart of the water ESSENTIALcycle. The thousands of cubic kilometres ofwater which evaporate from the oceansevery year fall as rain and snow over land, ENSURINGguaranteeing our survival by refilling ourreservoirs and supporting our agriculture. REPLENISHINGHowever, these oceans also provide for lifeon earth in a more direct way, in thecatching of fish and other sea creatures for HARVESTINGfood. This is an ancient custom, but onlyrecently has it had any serious effect on theoceans and seas and the life reliant on AGE-OLDthem. DEPENDENT
    • Water covers the greatest part of the Earth’s surface andmost of this water is contained within four oceans – thePacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic Ocean.Despite the huge size of the oceans, little was known aboutthese connected areas of the world until relatively recently.It was thought that the ocean floors were unspectacularplains but we now know that they contain just as many hillsand valleys as exist on dry land. Healthy oceans areimportant to life on earth as they are at the heart of thewater cycle. The thousands of cubic kilometres of waterwhich evaporate from the oceans every year fall as rain andsnow over land, guaranteeing our survival by refilling ourreservoirs and supporting our agriculture. However, theseoceans also provide for life on earth in a more direct way, inthe catching of fish and other sea creatures for food. Thisis an ancient custom, but only recently has it had anyserious effect on the oceans and seas and the life reliant onthem.
    • Passage A Paragraph 2 The major impact made by human beings on livingmarine resources has occurred only in the last onehundred years or so, when over-exploitation ofmarine creatures for food and other uses hascaused a considerable reduction in their numbers.The history of whaling in the twentieth century,which seriously reduced most of the large breeds ofwhale, is well known, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more mundane marine life likeherring and haddock. As soon as stocks becometoo low in one sector, the fishing fleets move on toother more profitable areas, leaving behindshattered communities of people on shore.
    • The major impact made by IMPACThuman beings on living marineresources has occurred only inthe last one hundred years or so, OCCURREDwhen over-exploitation ofmarine creatures for food and OVER-EXPLOITATIONother uses has caused aconsiderable reduction in their MARINEnumbers. The history of whalingin the twentieth century, which CONSIDERABLEseriously reduced most of thelarge breeds of whale, is well REDUCTIONknown, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more WELL KNOWNmundane marine life like herringand haddock. As soon as stocks MUNDANEbecome too low in one sector,the fishing fleets move on to SECTORother more profitable areas,leaving behind shattered SHATTEREDcommunities of people on shore.
    • Herring
    • Haddock
    • The major effect made by IMPACThuman beings on living marineresources has happened only inthe last one hundred years or so, OCCURREDwhen over-catching of seacreatures for food and other uses OVER-EXPLOITATIONhas caused a sizeable declinein their numbers. The history of MARINEwhaling in the twentieth century,which seriously reduced most of CONSIDERABLEthe large breeds of whale, iswidely documented, but over- REDUCTIONfishing is also seriously affectingmore commonplace marine life WELL KNOWNlike herring and haddock. Assoon as stocks become too low MUNDANEin one zone, the fishing fleetsmove on to other more profitable SECTORareas, leaving behinddevastated communities of SHATTEREDpeople on shore.
    • The major effect made by human beings on livingmarine resources has happened only in the lastone hundred years or so, when over-catching ofsea creatures for food and other uses has causeda sizeable decline in their numbers. The historyof whaling in the twentieth century, which seriouslyreduced most of the large breeds of whale, iswidely documented, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more commonplace marine lifelike herring and haddock. As soon as stocksbecome too low in one zone, the fishing fleetsmove on to other more profitable areas, leavingbehind devastated communities of people onshore.
    • Whaling
    • TheWhalingIndustry
    • Passage A Paragraph 3 While the depletion of fish stocks is bad enough, it is themethods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatestcause for concern. The most harmful type of fishingemploys massive drift nets, which accidentally kill a greatmany species, like turtles, which die from a lack ofoxygen. Although the United Nations General Assemblyrecently adopted a resolution calling for the banning ofthese ocean-going drift nets, in practice what actuallyhappens on the high seas remains all too often beyondthe reach of any legislation. Another example is the useof so-called “purse-seine” nets, which are drawn betweentwo ships, and are often employed to catch schools oftuna. For ecological reasons not wholly understood,dolphins frequently accompany the tuna and, despiterecent improvements in technology, these beautiful andintelligent creatures are still being killed in large numbers.
    • While the depletion of fish stocks is badenough, it is the methods used by fishermenthat give perhaps the greatest cause forconcern. The most harmful type of fishingemploys massive drift nets, which accidentallykill a great many species, like turtles, which diefrom a lack of oxygen. Although the United DEPLETIONNations General Assembly recently adopted aresolution calling for the banning of theseocean-going drift nets, in practice what actually MASSIVEhappens on the high seas remains all too oftenbeyond the reach of any legislation. Another ADOPTEDexample is the use of so-called “purse-seine”nets, which are drawn between two ships, and BANNINGare often employed to catch schools of tuna.For ecological reasons not wholly understood, PRACTICEdolphins frequently accompany the tuna and,despite recent improvements in technology,these beautiful and intelligent creatures are still ECOLOGICALbeing killed in large numbers. WHOLLY
    • While the reduction of fish stocks is bad DEPLETIONenough, it is the methods used by fishermenthat give perhaps the greatest cause forconcern. The most harmful type of fishing MASSIVEemploys very huge drift nets, which accidentallykill a great many species, like turtles, which die ADOPTEDfrom a lack of oxygen. Although the UnitedNations General Assembly recently passed a BANNINGresolution calling for the prohibition of theseocean-going drift nets, in reality what actually PRACTICEhappens on the high seas remains all too oftenbeyond the reach of any legislation. Anotherexample is the use of so-called “purse-seine” ECOLOGICALnets, which are drawn between two ships, andare often employed to catch schools of tuna. WHOLLYFor environmental reasons not totallyunderstood, dolphins frequently accompany thetuna and, despite recent improvements intechnology, these beautiful and intelligentcreatures are still being killed in large numbers.
    • While the reduction of fish stocks is bad enough, itis the methods used by fishermen that give perhapsthe greatest cause for concern. The most harmfultype of fishing employs very huge drift nets, whichaccidentally kill a great many species, like turtles,which die from a lack of oxygen. Although theUnited Nations General Assembly recently passed aresolution calling for the prohibition of these ocean-going drift nets, in reality what actually happens onthe high seas remains all too often beyond the reachof any legislation. Another example is the use of so-called “purse-seine” nets, which are drawn betweentwo ships, and are often employed to catch schoolsof tuna. For environmental reasons not totallyunderstood, dolphins frequently accompany the tunaand, despite recent improvements in technology,these beautiful and intelligent creatures are stillbeing killed in large numbers.
    • Drift Net
    • “purse-seine” nets
    • Top Down View
    • Passage A Paragraph 4It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; the otherman-made problem is the pervasiveness of marine litterfrom pole to pole. Although ships in the open sea dischargeoil with impunity, in general these waters are free from theworst effects of pollution. However, thousands of sea birdsdie each year from the effect of oil spills close to land and itis these coastal areas which cause most concern. Just overhalf of the world’s population lives within two hundredkilometers of a sea coast – Africa is the only continent wheremore people live inland than near the sea – and it is herethat pollution is concentrated; it is also exactly where mostmarine life is to be found. Untreated waste from factoriesand sewage are just two of the many further hazards facedby wildlife close to shore.
    • It is not just the way we fish which isharmful; the other man-made problem isthe pervasiveness of marine litter frompole to pole. Although ships in the opensea discharge oil with impunity, in PERVASIVENESSgeneral these waters are free from theworst effects of pollution. However, DISCHARGEthousands of sea birds die each yearfrom the effect of oil spills close to land IMPUNITYand it is these coastal areas which causemost concern. Just over half of the CONTINENTworld’s population lives within twohundred kilometres of a sea coast – CONCENTRATEDAfrica is the only continent where morepeople live inland than near the sea –and it is here that pollution is UNTREATEDconcentrated; it is also exactly wheremost marine life is to be found. HAZARDSUntreated waste from factories andsewage are just two of the many furtherhazards faced by wildlife close to shore.
    • It is not just the way we fish which isharmful; the other man-made problem isthe prevalence of marine litter from poleto pole. Although ships in the open seadisposed of oil without any PERVASIVENESSpunishment, in general these waters arefree from the worst effects of pollution. DISCHARGEHowever, thousands of sea birds dieeach year from the effect of oil spills IMPUNITYclose to land and it is these coastal areaswhich cause most concern. Just over CONTINENThalf of the world’s population lives withintwo hundred kilometres of a sea coast – CONCENTRATEDAfrica is the only huge land mass wheremore people live inland than near thesea – and it is here that pollution is UNTREATEDintensified; it is also exactly where mostmarine life is to be found. Unprocessed HAZARDSwaste from factories and sewage are justtwo of the many further threats faced bywildlife close to shore.
    • It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; theother man-made problem is the prevalence ofmarine litter from pole to pole. Although ships inthe open sea disposed of oil without anypunishment, in general these waters are free fromthe worst effects of pollution. However, thousandsof sea birds die each year from the effect of oilspills close to land and it is these coastal areaswhich cause most concern. Just over half of theworld’s population lives within two hundredkilometres of a sea coast – Africa is the only hugeland mass where more people live inland than nearthe sea – and it is here that pollution is intensified;it is also exactly where most marine life is to befound. Unprocessed waste from factories andsewage are just two of the many further threatsfaced by wildlife close to shore.
    • Marine Litter
    • Passage A Paragraph 5• There are two other main dangers from litter in these coastal waters. Firstly, animals may become entangled in discarded objects. The most dangerous of these are fishing nets and plastic bags as they reduce movement and can result in serious injury and death by starvation and drowning. Studies show that approximately 30,000 fur seals die annually through entanglement. Secondly, there is the danger of ingestion: animals and fish which confuse plastic items with food frequently suffer from poisoning and suffocation. Whole plastic bags and even gallon drums have been mistakenly identified as edible by some mammal, turtle and shark species. It is estimated that, globally, some 100,000 marine animals die in these ways every year.
    • • There are two other main dangers from ENTANGLED litter in these coastal waters. Firstly, animals may become entangled in discarded objects. The most dangerous DISCARDED of these are fishing nets and plastic bags OBJECTS as they reduce movement and can result in serious injury and death by starvation STARVATION and drowning. Studies show that approximately 30,000 fur seals die annually through entanglement. Secondly, APPROXIMATELY there is the danger of ingestion: animals and fish which confuse plastic items with INGESTION food frequently suffer from poisoning and suffocation. Whole plastic bags and even gallon drums have been mistakenly FREQUENTLY identified as edible by some mammal, turtle and shark species. It is estimated SUFFOCATION that, globally, some 100,000 marine animals die in these ways every year. GLOBALLY
    • Passage A Paragraph 6 While national governments and international agenciesstruggle to find solutions to the wider problems, there arecertain things that we can all do to reduce the amount ofdangerous litter that ends up in the sea. We should alwaysuse fabric shopping bags instead of plastic carriers andavoid buying goods which have an unnecessary amount ofpackaging. Plastic containers should be reused and plasticbottles recycled wherever possible. If plastic is discarded itshould first be made safe by cutting any plastic rings andstrapping before disposal. In addition, rubbish should neverbe thrown over the side of a boat and no litter of any kindshould be left in rivers or on beaches. “Take only memoriesaway with you; leave nothing but footprints behind.” Byremembering these words, we will be making a small butvaluable contribution to the safety of life under the seas.
    • While national governments andinternational agencies struggle to findsolutions to the wider problems, there arecertain things that we can all do to reducethe amount of dangerous litter that endsup in the sea. We should always usefabric shopping bags instead of plasticcarriers and avoid buying goods whichhave an unnecessary amount ofpackaging. Plastic containers should bereused and plastic bottles recycledwherever possible. If plastic is discardedit should first be made safe by cutting anyplastic rings and strapping beforedisposal. In addition, rubbish shouldnever be thrown over the side of a boatand no litter of any kind should be left inrivers or on beaches. “Take onlymemories away with you; leave nothingbut footprints behind.” By rememberingthese words, we will be making a smallbut valuable contribution to the safety oflife under the seas.
    • Leavenothingbutfootprintsbehind.
    • Passage B Paragraph 1 With rhythmical sweeps of its tail, thehumpback whale chugged down theeastern seaboard of Australia. The thirty-ton creature was beginning its migration tothe rich feeding grounds of Antarctica,thousands of miles to the south and stillmany weeks away.
    • Passage B Paragraph 1 With rhythmical sweepsof its tail, the humpback Rhythmical – repetition of actionwhale chugged down theeastern seaboard of Chugged – moved whileAustralia. The thirty-ton making a short, dull, explosive soundcreature was beginning itsmigration to the richfeeding grounds ofAntarctica, thousands ofmiles to the south and stillmany weeks away.
    • EasternSeaboard ofAustralia
    • The humpback whale
    • The Humpback Whale
    • Passage B Paragraph 2Either it failed to pick out the shark net anchored off thecoast near Brisbane, or it didn’t know how to avoid it.Within seconds, six hundred feet of braided nylon mesh andrope enveloped the whale. It was unable to reversebecause humpbacks can’t swim backwards, and goingon was impossible, because the net was welded to theocean bed by a hundred kilos of chain and two veryheavy anchors. In an effort to break free, the animal spunround and threw itself out of the water. The net wrappedever more tightly around its torso and, with its mouth,blowhole, left pectoral fin and tail bound tight, the creaturestruggled to surface for air. Finally, harnessing all itsstrength into one last bid for freedom, it thrashed again andagain until one of the chains snapped and an anchor brokefree. Still bound by a massive weight of rope and chain,and one anchor, but slave to an overwhelming impulseto head south, the whale resumed its migratory path.
    • Passage B Paragraph 3Some time later, the marine centre in Queensland receiveda call that an entangled humpback whale had been spottedand a rescue team was hastily assembled, consisting of twohelicopters and a small boat with three divers. Afterseveral hours of fruitless searching, the captain of theboat received a message on his marine radio. One ofthe helicopter pilots had located the whale a littlefurther out than expected. The pilot had something elseto report: the whale was not alone. Humpbacks sing toeach other across vast stretches of ocean and supportinjured companions, so the whale had been joined bythree others. Because there were now four whalespresent, the rescue mission had suddenly becomepotentially far more dangerous.
    • Passage B Paragraph 4 As they approached the trapped whale, thedivers lowered themselves into the water toassess the situation. Then, suddenly, the threeother giant mammals bore down on them andthey braced themselves for the impact. Six feetfrom them, however, the whales wheeledgracefully away, swimming underneath andaround the men; they were interested,inquisitive even, but did not appear to beaggressive.
    • Passage B Paragraph 5 The divers swam to the humpback’s barnacle-encrustedhead and began slicing the net in which it was caught. It wasexhausting work. The weight of its shackles kept the head ofthe whale largely under water, so the men had to dive, cutand then surface for air. Since the whale was movingforward, they then had to swim back to its head to startagain. The men felt like car mechanics doing repairs to alorry while it was motoring down the road. The humpbackwas struggling to obtain enough air but it watched thedivers intently, one black and white eye the size of ahuman fist following their every move. As the menworked, the mammal seemed to sense that they wantedonly to help and it grew calmer. Then one of itscompanions swam underneath and nudged its head to thesurface, assisting the creature to breathe. As the whalebroke the surface and exhaled through its blowhole, it threwup a fine, cool mist.
    • Passage B Paragraph 6 The long hours spent enmeshed in a shroud of ropeand chains had weakened the whale and it made noreaction as the divers lined up for the final cut.Eventually the rope parted and the snare fell away.Minutes passed and still the whale did not respond.At last, with a gentle sweep of its tail, it slowly swamaway from the boat. Picking up speed, it headedtowards its companions. When it reached them, allfour mammals began tail-slapping the water, as ifapplauding the achievement of the rescue team.Then, turning together, they swam south towardsAntarctica.
    • 1127 Oct-Nov 2006How Man’s Actions Harm The World’s Oceans O Level English Paper 2 For 3B.3C and 3D.2011
    • OCT-NOV 2006 READINGCOMPREHENSION ANDSUMMARY WRITINGQUESTIONS
    • Passage A Paragraph 1 Water covers the greatest part of the Earth’s surface andmost of this water is contained within four oceans – thePacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic Ocean.Despite the vast size of the oceans, little was known aboutthese interlinked areas of the world until comparativelyrecently. It was thought that the ocean floors werefeatureless plains but we now known that they contain justas many hills and valleys as exist on dry land. Healthyoceans are essential to life on earth as they are at theheart of the water cycle. The thousands of cubickilometres of water which evaporate from the oceans everyyear fall as rain and snow over land, ensuring our survivalby replenishing our reservoirs and supporting ouragriculture. However, these oceans also provide for life onearth in a more direct way, in the harvesting of fish andother sea creatures for food. This is an age-old custom,but only recently has it had any serious effect on theoceans and seas and the life dependent on them.
    • From Passage A Paragraph 1:1. Write down the word which tells us that the oceans of the world run into each other. [1 mark] The word is “interlinked”.
    • From Passage A Paragraph 1:2. What do the words “featureless plains” tell us about the picture we used to have of the ocean floors? [1 mark] The words “featureless plains” tell us that we used to think of ocean floors as “flatlands without any qualities or characteristics for us to talk about”.
    • From Passage A Paragraph 1:3. Apart from “replenishing our reservoirs”, in what other way, according to the passage, is water necessary for our survival? Answer in your own words. [2 marks] The ocean water enables us to plant and grow vegetables, beans and grains from the soil and catch marine animals for consumption.
    • Passage A Paragraph 2The major impact made by human beings on livingmarine resources has occurred only in the lastone hundred years or so, when over-exploitationof marine creatures for food and other uses hascaused a considerable reduction in their numbers.The history of whaling in the twentieth century,which seriously reduced most of the large breedsof whale, is well known, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more mundane marine life likeherring and haddock. As soon as stocks becometoo low in one sector, the fishing fleets move on toother more profitable areas, leaving behindshattered communities of people on shore.
    • Passage A Paragraph 24. Why do you think fishing fleets leave behind “shattered communities” when they move on? [1] The people on shore will lose their means of doing business with the fishing fleets.
    • Whaling
    • Whaling
    • Herring
    • Haddock
    • Passage A Paragraph 3While the depletion of fish stocks is bad enough, it is themethods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatestcause for concern. The most harmful type of fishingemploys massive drift nets, which accidentally kill a greatmany species, like turtles, which die from a lack of oxygen.Although the United Nations General Assembly recentlyadopted a resolution calling for the banning of theseocean-going drift nets, in practice what actually happenson the high seas remains all too often beyond the reach ofany legislation. Another example is the use of so-called“purse-seine” nest, which are drawn between two ships,and are often employed to catch schools of tuna. Forecological reasons not wholly understood, dolphinsfrequently accompany the tuna and, despite recentimprovements in technology, these beautiful and intelligentcreatures are still being killed in large numbers.
    • Dolphins (海豚 ) 海豚
    • Passage A Paragraph 4It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; theother man-made problem is the pervasiveness ofmarine litter from pole to pole. Although ships inthe open sea discharge oil with impunity, ingeneral these waters are free from the worsteffects of pollution. However, thousands of seabirds die each year from the effect of oil spillsclose to land and it is these coastal areas whichcause most concern. Just over half of the world’spopulation lives within two hundred kilometers of asea coast – Africa is the only continent wheremore people live inland than near the sea – and itis here that pollution is concentrated; it is alsoexactly where most marine life is to be found.Untreated waste from factories and sewage arejust two of the many further hazards faced bywildlife close to shore.
    • From Passage A Paragraph 4:5. Explain fully what you understand by the expression “from pole to pole”. [2 marks] The poles here refer to the North and South Poles respectively. It means covering the whole world. So the expression “from pole to pole” suggests “from one end to the other, from the top to the bottom, covering the whole world”.
    • Marine Litter
    • Passage A Paragraph 5There are two other main dangers from litter inthese coastal waters. Firstly, animals maybecome entangled in discarded objects. The mostdangerous of these are fishing nets and plasticbags as they reduce movement and can result inserious injury and death by starvation anddrowning. Studies show that approximately30,000 fur seals die annually throughentanglement. Secondly, there is the danger ofingestion: animals and fish which confuse plasticitems with food frequently suffer from poisoningand suffocation. Whole plastic bags and evengallon drums have been mistakenly identified asedible by some mammal, turtle and shark species.It is estimated that, globally, some 100,000 marineanimals die in these ways every year.
    • Passage A Paragraph 6 While national governments and international agenciesstruggle to find solutions to the wider problems, there arecertain things that we can all do to reduce the amount ofdangerous litter that ends up in the sea. We shouldalways use fabric shopping bags instead of plastic carriersand avoid buying goods which have an unnecessaryamount of packaging. Plastic containers should be reusedand plastic bottles recycled wherever possible. If plastic isdiscarded it should first be made safe by cutting any plasticrings and strapping before disposal. In addition, rubbishshould never be thrown over the side of a boat and no litterof any kind should be left in rivers or on beaches. “Takeonly memories away with you; leave nothing but footprintsbehind.” By remembering these words, we will be making asmall but valuable contribution to the safety of life underthe seas.
    • From Passage A Paragraph 6:6. How will remembering the words “Take only memories away with you, leave nothing but footprints behind” help us to promote the safety of marine life? [1 mark]It will help us remember not to litter therivers, the seas and the oceans withmanmade litter which pollutes thewaters of the world.
    • Passage B Paragraph 1With rhythmical sweeps of its tail, thehumpback whale chugged down theeastern seaboard of Australia. The thirty-ton creature was beginning its migration tothe rich feeding grounds of Antarctica,thousands of miles to the south and stillmany weeks away.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 1:7. Without using the wording of the passage, explain why Antarctica is an ideal destination for whales. [1 mark] It is so because it covers a fertile expanse of the ocean whereby the whales can look for food.
    • Passage B Paragraph 2Either it failed to pick out the shark net anchored off thecoast near Brisbane, or it didn’t know how to avoid it.Within seconds, six hundred feet of braided nylon meshand rope enveloped the whale. It was unable to reversebecause humpbacks can’t swim backwards, and going onwas impossible, because the net was welded to the oceanbed by a hundred kilos of chain and two very heavyanchors. In an effort to break free, the animal spun roundand threw itself out of the water. The net wrapped evermore tightly around its torso and, with its mouth, blowhole,left pectoral fin and tail bound tight, the creature struggledto surface for air. Finally, harnessing all its strength intoone last bid for freedom, it thrashed again and again untilone of the chains snapped and an anchor broke free. Stillbound by a massive weight of rope and chain, and oneanchor, but slave to an overwhelming impulse to headsouth, the whale resumed its migratory path.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 2:8(a) What does the author mean by “the net was welded to the ocean bed”? [2 marks] The net was firmly secured as if it was soldered or fused to the ocean bed so that there was no way for any creatures to escape from it.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 2:8(b) In your own words, describe the reason why the whale continued to swim south, even though it was still heavily entangled in the net. [2 marks] The whale seemed to be under the control of a very ultimate, powerful and strong instinct for it to swim towards the south, regardless of what got in its way.
    • Passage B Paragraph 3Some time later, the marine centre in Queenslandreceived a call that an entangled humpback whale hadbeen spotted and a rescue team was hastily assembled,consisting of two helicopters and a small boat with threedivers. After several hours of fruitless searching, thecaptain of the boat received a message on his marineradio. One of the helicopter pilots had located the whalea little further out than expected. The pilot had somethingelse to report: the whale was not alone. Humpbacks singto each other across vast stretches of ocean and supportinjured companions, so the whale had been joined bythree others. Because there were now four whalespresent, the rescue mission had suddenly becomepotentially far more dangerous.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 3:9. Why did the helicopter pilots have difficulty in finding the whale? [1 mark] It was because the whale was only located a little further out than expected by the helicopter pilots.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 3:10. Why do you think the rescue mission “had suddenly become potentially far more dangerous”? [2 marks]The rescue mission “had suddenly becomepotentially far more dangerous” because there werenow four whales to be contending with instead ofmerely one. The mission might not be preparedsufficiently for this situation. The rescuers might nothave known how to deal with the phenomenon athand adequately but they had a job to be done.
    • Passage B Paragraph 4As they approached the trapped whale, thedivers lowered themselves into the water toassess the situation. Then, suddenly, thethree other giant mammals bore down onthem and they braced themselves for theimpact. Six feet from them, however, thewhales wheeled gracefully away, swimmingunderneath and around the men; theywere interested, inquisitive even, but didnot appear to be aggressive.
    • Passage B Paragraph 5The divers swam to the humpback’s barnacle-encrustedhead and began slicing the net in which it was caught. Itwas exhausting work. The weight of its shackles kept thehead of the whale largely under water, so the men had todive, cut and then surface for air. Since the whale wasmoving forward, they then had to swim back to its head tostart again. The men felt like car mechanics doing repairsto a lorry while it was motoring down the road. Thehumpback was struggling to obtain enough air but itwatched the divers intently, one black and white eye thesize of a human fist following their every move. As themen worked, the mammal seemed to sense that theywanted only to help and it grew calmer. Then one of itscompanions swam underneath and nudged its head tothe surface, assisting the creature to breathe. As thewhale broke the surface and exhaled through itsblowhole, it threw up a fine, cool mist.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 5:11(a) Give two reasons why the rescuers felt like “car mechanics doing repairs to a lorry while it was motoring down the road”. [2 marks]The whale was quite a heavy load which wascontinually moving forward and at the same time itwas heading downwards because of the weight ofthe shackles into the waters. This situation forcedthe rescuers to swim back and forth repeatedly inorder to release the shackles from the whale’s head.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 5:11(b) Why did the whale not swim away as soon as it was freed? [1 mark] The whale had to do so because it was at first alarmed by the action of the rescuers.
    • Passage B Paragraph 6The long hours spent enmeshed in a shroud ofrope and chains had weakened the whale and itmade no reaction as the divers lined up for thefinal cut. Eventually the rope parted and thesnare fell away. Minutes passed and still thewhale did not respond. At last, with a gentlesweep of its tail, it slowly swam away from theboat. Picking up speed, it headed towards itscompanions. When it reached them, all fourmammals began tail-slapping the water, as ifapplauding the achievement of the rescue team.Then, turning together, they swam south towardsAntarctica.
    • From Passage B Paragraph 6:12. Why did the whale not swim away as soon as it was freed? [1 mark] It was probably owing to the fact that it had been physically weakened for being enmeshed in the shroud of rope and chains for so long that it did not swim away immediately.
    • From Passage A and Passage B: 13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. Selected area of text: However, theseFrom Passage A: oceans also provide for life on earth in a more direct way, in the harvesting of fish and other sea creatures for food.1. Harvesting “Harvesting” means “catching in large quantities”.
    • From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage A: Selected area of text: It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; the other man-made problem is the pervasiveness of marine litter from 2. Pervasiveness pole to pole. “Pervasiveness” means “prevalence”. “Pervasiveness” means “widespread presence”.
    • From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: Selected area of text: Finally, harnessing all its strength into one last bid for freedom, it thrashed again and again until one of the chains snapped 3. Harnessing and an anchor broke free. “Harnessing” means “mustering”.
    • From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: Selected area of text: Finally, harnessing all its strength into one last bid for freedom, it thrashed again 4. Bid and again until one of the chains snapped and an anchor broke free. “Bid” means “attempt”.
    • From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: Selected area of text: The humpback was struggling to obtain enough air but it watched the divers intently, one black and white eye the size of a human fist 5. Intently following their every move. “Intently” means “attentively”. “Intently” means “purposefully”.
    • 14 SUMMARY QUESTION• Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the ways in which human beings have caused harm to marine life.• USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 2, 3, 4 and 5.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by… [25 Marks]
    • Paragraph 2The major impact made by human beings on livingmarine resources has occurred only in the last onehundred years or so, when [1] over-exploitation ofmarine creatures for food and other uses has causeda considerable reduction in their numbers. Thehistory of [2] whaling in the twentieth century, whichseriously reduced most of the large breeds of whale,is well known, but [3] over-fishing is also seriouslyaffecting more mundane marine life like herring andhaddock. [4] As soon as stocks become too low inone sector, the fishing fleets move on to other moreprofitable areas, leaving behind shattered communitiesof people on shore.
    • Paragraph 3• While [5] the depletion of fish stocks is bad enough, it is the methods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatest cause for concern. [6] The most harmful type of fishing employs massive drift nets, which accidentally kill a great many species, like turtles, which die from a lack of oxygen. Although the United Nations General Assembly recently adopted a resolution calling for the banning of these ocean-going drift nets, in practice what actually happens on the high seas remains all too often beyond the reach of any legislation. Another example is the [7] use of so-called “purse-seine” nest, which are drawn between two ships, and are often employed to catch schools of tuna. For ecological reasons not wholly understood, [8] dolphins frequently accompany the tuna and, despite recent improvements in technology, these beautiful and intelligent creatures are still being killed in large numbers.
    • Paragraph 4• It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; the other man-made problem is the [9] pervasiveness of marine litter from pole to pole. Although ships in the open sea discharge oil with impunity, in general these waters are free from the worst effects of pollution. However, [10] thousands of sea birds die each year from the effect of oil spills close to land and it is these coastal areas which cause most concern. Just over half of the world’s population lives within two hundred kilometers of a sea coast – Africa is the only continent where more people live inland than near the sea – and it is here that pollution is concentrated; it is also exactly where most marine life is to be found. [11] Untreated waste from factories and sewage are just two of the many further hazards faced by wildlife close to shore.
    • Paragraph 5There are two other main dangers from litter in thesecoastal waters. [12] Firstly, animals may becomeentangled in discarded objects. [13] The mostdangerous of these are fishing nets and plastic bagsas they reduce movement and [14] can result inserious injury and death by starvation and drowning.[15] Studies show that approximately 30,000 fur sealsdie annually through entanglement. Secondly, [16]there is the danger of ingestion: animals and fishwhich confuse plastic items with food frequentlysuffer from poisoning and suffocation. [17] Wholeplastic bags and even gallon drums have beenmistakenly identified as edible by some mammal,turtle and shark species. It is estimated that, [18]globally, some 100,000 marine animals die in theseways every year.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 1over-exploitation over-harvestingof marine for consumption,creatures for food sizably reducingand other uses its quantity.has caused aconsiderablereduction in theirnumbers.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 2Whaling in the Whaling in thetwentieth century, previous centurywhich seriously dangerouslyreduced most of reduced most ofthe large breeds of the large species.whale.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 3Over-fishing is Over-fishing alsoalso seriously affects moreaffecting more common fish.mundane marinelife like herringand haddock.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 4As soon as stocks When stocksbecome too low in become too low inone sector, the one sector, fishingfishing fleets moves on to othermove on to other more profitablemore profitable regions.areas
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 5The depletion of The decline in fishfish stocks is bad stocks is seriousenough, it is the but fishingmethods used by methods are thefishermen that most worrisomegive perhaps the concern.greatest cause forconcern
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 6The most harmful Sprawling drifttype of fishing nets are mostemploys massive harmful whichdrift nets, whichaccidentally kill a accidentally killgreat many species, many specieslike turtles, which die when they arefrom a lack of deprived ofoxygen. oxygen.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 7 use of so-called “Purse-seine” nets“purse-seine” are used to trapnest, which are tunas.drawn betweentwo ships, and areoften employed tocatch schools oftuna.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 8 dolphins frequently Many dolphins areaccompany the tuna also killed.and, despite recentimprovements intechnology, thesebeautiful andintelligent creaturesare still being killedin large numbers
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 9pervasiveness of Marine litter ismarine litter from prevalent.pole to pole
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 10Thousands of sea Coastal oil spillsbirds die each kill thousands ofyear from the sea birdseffect of oil spills annually.close to land andit is these coastalareas which causemost concern.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 11Untreated waste Untreatedfrom factories and industrial wastesewage are just and sewage aretwo of the many two of the manyfurther hazards hazards harmful tofaced by wildlife wildlife.close to shore.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 12Firstly, animals Animals maymay become become entangledentangled in in litter…discarded objects.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 13The most …which restrictsdangerous of theirthese are fishing movements…nets and plasticbags as theyreduce movementand
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 14can result in …causing hurtserious injury and and death throughdeath by hunger andstarvation and drowning.drowning.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 15Studies show that About 30,000 furapproximately seals die annually30,000 fur seals throughdie annually entanglement.throughentanglement.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 16There is the danger Sea creaturesof ingestion: suffer from foodanimals and fish poisoning andwhich confuseplastic items with suffocation afterfood frequently consuming plasticsuffer from items.poisoning andsuffocation.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 17Whole plastic Manmade articlesbags and even are erroneouslygallon drums have eaten by seabeen mistakenly creatures.identified as edibleby some mammal,turtle and sharkspecies.
    • Lifted Words Paraphrased POINT 18Globally, some About 100,000 sea100,000 marine creatures die inanimals die in these waysthese ways every annually.year.
    • Summary (Lifted) Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by over-exploitation ofmarine creatures for food and other uses has caused a considerable reduction intheir numbers. Whaling in the twentieth century, which seriously reduced most of thelarge breeds of whale. Over-fishing is also seriously affecting more mundane marinelife like herring and haddock. As soon as stocks become too low in one sector, thefishing fleets move on to other more profitable areas. The depletion of fish stocks isbad enough, it is the methods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatestcause for concern. The most harmful type of fishing employs massive drift nets,which accidentally kill a great many species, like turtles, which die from a lack ofoxygen. The use of so-called “purse-seine” nest, which are drawn between twoships, and are often employed to catch schools of tuna. Dolphins frequentlyaccompany the tuna and, despite recent improvements in technology, these beautifuland intelligent creatures are still being killed in large numbers. There ispervasiveness of marine litter from pole to pole. Thousands of sea birds die eachyear from the effect of oil spills close to land and it is these coastal areas whichcause most concern. Untreated waste from factories and sewage are just two of themany further hazards faced by wildlife close to shore. Firstly, animals may becomeentangled in discarded objects. The most dangerous of these are fishing nets andplastic bags as they reduce movement and can result in serious injury and death bystarvation and drowning. Studies show that approximately 30,000 fur seals dieannually through entanglement. There is the danger of ingestion: animals and fishwhich confuse plastic items with food frequently suffer from poisoning andsuffocation. Whole plastic bags and even gallon drums have been mistakenlyidentified as edible by some mammal, turtle and shark species. Globally, some100,000 marine animals die in these ways every year.
    • Summary (Edited in Own Words)Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by over-harvesting for consumption, sizably reducing its quantity. Whaling in theprevious century dangerously reduced most of the large species. Over-fishing also affects more common fish. When stocks become too low in onesector, fishing moves on to other more profitable regions. The decline infish stocks is serious but fishing methods are the most worrisome concern.Sprawling drift nets are most harmful which accidentally kill many specieswhen they are deprived of oxygen. “Purse-seine” nets are used to traptunas. Many dolphins are also killed. Marine litter is prevalent. Coastal oilspills kill thousands of sea birds annually. Untreated industrial waste andsewage are two of the many hazards harmful to wildlife. Animals maybecome entangled in litter which restricts their movements causing hurtand death through hunger and drowning. About 30,000 fur seals dieannually through entanglement. Sea creatures suffer from food poisoningand suffocation after consuming plastic items. Manmade articles areerroneously eaten by sea creatures. About 100,000 sea creatures die inthese ways annually. (167 words)
    • Summary (150 words)Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by over-harvesting, sizably reducing its quantity. Whaling in the previouscentury dangerously reduced most of the large species. Over-fishing also affects more common fish. When stocks deplete in onesector, fishing moves on to other more profitable regions. Thedecline in fish stocks is serious but fishing methods are the mostworrisome concern. Sprawling drift nets are most harmful whichaccidentally kill many species when they are deprived of oxygen.“Purse-seine” nets trap tunas, also killing many dolphins. Marinelitter is prevalent. Coastal oil spills kill thousands of sea birdsannually. Untreated industrial waste and sewage are two of the manyharmful hazards. Animals may become entangled in litter whichrestricts their movements causing hurt and death through hungerand drowning. About 30,000 fur seals die annually throughentanglement. Sea creatures suffer from food poisoning andsuffocation after consuming plastic items erroneously. About100,000 sea creatures die in these ways annually.(150 words)