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1127 Paper 2                 25 October 2010                 GCE O level examinations                        At S.H.S.S.QU...
THIS BOOK IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.    MR. YEO IS GOING TO USE THIS BOOK FOR TWO YEARS    WITH YOU.6/25/2011             by Y...
YOU NEED TO HAVE A GOOD ENGLISH DICTIONARY                 WITH YOU AT HOME OR IN YOUR SCHOOL BAG.            ALTERNATIVEL...
WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW1. 1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension   and Summary Writing) is 50 marks.2. Maximum: 60 minutes to...
SPECIFICALLY1.    1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension and Summary      Writing) is 50 marks.2.    YOU MUST READ THE QUESTI...
WATCH and BEAT THE CLOCK            1127 Paper 2 – Comprehension             1 HOUR            and Summary Writing Paper  ...
The Answer Skeleton – Q1 (1m)                                                    For a ONE-mark              1 XXXXXXXXXXX...
Why bother to leave 3 lines?                                                    Scratch away the             1 XXXXXXXXXXX...
The Answer Skeleton – Q2 (2m)              2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX For a TWO-mark                                      ques...
FOR THE 5 Vocabulary Questions                 – Q15 (5m)                                                               Fo...
FOR THE SUMMARY Question                          – Q16 (5m)           16 SUMMARY - FINAL DRAFT                           ...
Man’s Relationship With Bees6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   12
6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   13
Passage A Paragraph 1   Honey is used all over the world to   sweeten the food we eat, but how many of   us have given any...
Passage A Paragraph 2  Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in  buildings, usually make only small nests in wh...
LIFE CYCLE                   OF                  A BEE6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   16
Some bees are more equal than others6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   17
MEAD6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   18
From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of  sophistication. Give ONE other word from  the paragra...
From Passage A Paragraph 2                                         HELP given by the examiner.                            ...
From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word  “clumsily”  suggests a lack  of sophistication.  Give ONE other                    ...
From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word  “clumsily”  suggests a lack  of sophistication.  Give ONE other                    ...
From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word  “clumsily”  suggests a lack  of sophistication.                                    ...
Passage A Paragraph 2STEP TWO - LOCATE THE WORD “CLUMSILY” IN THE PASSAGE.             Wild honey bees, living in hollow t...
Passage A Paragraph 2STEP THREE – UNDERLINE THE SENTENCE CONTAINING “CLUMSILY”.             Wild honey bees, living in hol...
Honeycomb6/25/2011    by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   26
Honeycomb and Wax6/25/2011        by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   27
Bee             Wax6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   28
PARTS OF SPEECH: WORD CLASSNOUN –                       ADJECTIVE –NAMING                       DESCRIPTIVEWORD           ...
PARTS OF SPEECH: WORD CLASSNOUN –             ADJECTIVE – DESCRIPTIVE WORDNAMING WORDVERB –ACTION WORD                   A...
Why is it important to understand        how ADVERBS work.   Adverbials modify or tell us something   about the sentence o...
Why is it important to understand        how ADVERBS work.• When an adverbial modifies a verb, it  changes the meaning of ...
Why is it important to understand        how ADVERBS work.• When an adverbial modifies a sentence,  the meaning of the sen...
Why is it important to understand        how ADVERBS work.• Word groups that are also considered to be adverbials  can als...
Passage A Paragraph 2STEP THREE – UNDERLINE THE SENTENCE CONTAINING “CLUMSILY”.             Wild honey bees, living in hol...
A bee colony6/25/2011     by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   36
Another                                       kind of                                         bee                         ...
Passage A Paragraph 2 STEP FOUR – COMB THE PASSAGE FOR THAT ONE OTHER WORD.     Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or...
We must know what it is we are looking for:          STEP FOUR –another word which also behaves like                 COMB ...
We must know what it is we are looking for:          STEP FOUR –another word which also behaves like                 COMB ...
Passage A Paragraph 2 STEP FOUR – COMB THE PASSAGE FOR THAT ONE OTHER WORD.    Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or ...
STEP FOUR –                               We have just classified “clumsily” asCOMB THE PASSAGE               an adverb bu...
[A] Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. “Demolishing” means “tearing down” o...
From Passage A Paragraph 2  1. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE     other word from the par...
From Passage A Paragraph 2  1. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE     other word from the par...
REVIEW OF THE STEPS WE TAKE TO ATTEMPT              QUESTION 1 SUCCESSFULLY.   STEP ONE – READ AND INTERPRET THE QUESTION ...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-  gatherers that they had to destroy the  hives to obtain...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers   that they had to destroy the hives to obtain ...
From Passage A Paragraph 2 2. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers    that they had to destroy the hives to obtai...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy   the hives to obtain ...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it                    Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in  not matter...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy   the hives to obtain ...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives   to obtain ...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives   to obtain ...
From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives   to obtain ...
REVIEW OF THE STEPS WE TAKE TO ATTEMPT            QUESTION 2 SUCCESSFULLY.              STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE...
Passage A Paragraph 3  At some point in time, humans began to domesticate  bees by putting them into hives made of straw. ...
Straw Bee Hives6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   58
Bees thriving in a straw bee hive6/25/2011          by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   59
A straw hiveMaking straw  bee hives6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010     60
The Worker Bee6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   61
The Queen Bee6/25/2011     by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   62
QUEEN BEE6/25/2011            WORKER BEE                by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   63
From Passage A Paragraph 33. Write down the phrase in the paragraph  which tells us that no-one is quite sure  when human ...
From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.                                                    ...
From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.            What is a phrase?3. Write down the phras...
WHAT IS A PHRASE?   A functional definition for   us: A phrase is a group of   words with a UNIFIED   meaning. It usually ...
From Passage A Paragraph 3 STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.                                                Whe...
From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph  which tel...
From Passage A Paragraph 33.Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us   that no-one is quite sure when human b...
From Passage A Paragraph 3                                                                            STEP TWO – 3.Write d...
From Passage A Paragraph 33.Write down the                  At some point in time, humans                                 ...
From Passage A Paragraph 3                              CONTENT3. Write down the             MATCHED                 At so...
From Passage A Paragraph 33. Write down the phrase in                At some point in time,   the paragraph which tells   ...
From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph  which tel...
From Passage A Paragraph 34. Why did the early bee-keepers still have  to smash the hives to obtain the honey?  [1]       ...
From Passage A Paragraph 35. The early bee-keepers’ understanding of the biology of   bees is described as “limited”. Give...
Passage A Paragraph 4   In settled societies, this destruction of bee colonies meant the   loss of a valuable resource, wh...
Lorenzo  Langstroth6/25/2011      by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   79
Moveable Bee Hives6/25/2011        by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   80
Moveable Frame Bee Hives6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   81
MOVEABLE FRAMES OF BEE HIVES6/25/2011           by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   82
INSPECTING MOVEABLEFRAMES OF BEE HIVES6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   83
COLLECTION OF HONEY            USING MOVEABLE FRAMES6/25/2011     by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   84
COLLECTION OF HONEYUSING MOVEABLE FRAMES6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   85
From Passage A Paragraph 46.    Describe in your own words the effect that the destruction of the     bee colony had on th...
BROOD                                       CHAMBER6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010             87
Passage A Paragraph 5  A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the   queen bee. As soon as she ha...
SWARMING6/25/2011    by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   89
Clipping the winds of a queen bee6/25/2011     by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   90
From Passage A Paragraph 57. What evidence is there to suggest that the queen bee is larger than  the worker bees? [1]    ...
From Passage A Paragraph 58(a) Why is “swarming” something which  bee-keepers may wish to prevent? [1]            A bee-ke...
From Passage A Paragraph 58(b)  Which TWO things can bee-keepers do to stop their bees from  swarming? [2]                ...
Passage A Paragraph 6   Clearly, tasks like these can be hazardous and, although there is   evidence that bee-keepers deve...
Bee Keeper’s AttirePROTECTIVEVEIL6/25/2011       by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   95
BROAD-BRIMMED HAT                           PROTECTIVE VEIL6/25/2011   by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010     96
The Beekeeper’sSmoker6/25/2011         by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010   97
PASSAGE B Paragraph 1   Whilst Lea read her way laboriously through   the bee-keeping manual her uncle had given   her, he...
From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(a) What does the word “laboriously”  tell us about the book that Lea’s uncle  had given her? [...
From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(a) What does the word “laboriously”  tell us about the book that Lea’s uncle  had given her? [...
From PASSAGE B Paragraph 1 9(b) Describe in your own words how Lea’s reading of her    uncle’s book changed her attitude t...
From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(b) Describe in your own words how Lea’s reading of her   uncle’s book changed her attitude tow...
PASSAGE B Paragraph 2  “Bees are deaf,” her uncle explained, “which is odd when   you consider that they make such a myria...
From Passage B Paragraph 210.     How do bees find their way around? [1]                  “Bees are deaf,” her uncle expla...
From Passage B Paragraph 210.     How do bees find their way around? [1]   They orientate themselves with their sense of s...
PASSAGE B Paragraph 3  “That foraging bee has found a source of nectar,” continued her uncle. “Now    it’s telling the oth...
From Passage B Paragraph 311(a) What does Lea’s uncle mean by “the great warm light”? [1]            “That foraging bee ha...
From Passage B Paragraph 311(a) What does Lea’s uncle mean by “the great warm light”? [1]     “That foraging bee has found...
From Passage B Paragraph 311(b) Where, according to her uncle’s interpretation, would the   “cluster of bees” be going and...
From Passage B Paragraph 311(b) Where, according to her uncle’s interpretation, would the   “cluster of bees” be going and...
PASSAGE B Paragraph 4  “Now I’m going to teach you to clip the queen’s wings.”  “Clip her wings?”  “The hive is full, do y...
PASSAGE B Paragraph 5   The queen stood in a circle of workers. They   bowed respectfully to her, fanned her with their   ...
From Passage B Paragraph 512. The bees treat the queen bee “respectfully”. Give TWO other   words from the paragraph which...
From Passage B Paragraph 512. The bees treat the queen bee “respectfully”. Give TWO other   words from the paragraph which...
From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or    phrase (of not more than SEVEN words)...
From Passage A and Passage B13.    For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more       than SEVEN ...
From Passage A and Passage B13.   For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not      more than SEVEN wo...
From Passage A and Passage B13.   For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not      more than SEVEN wo...
From Passage A and Passage B13.   For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not      more than SEVEN wo...
From Passage A and Passage B13.   For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not      more than SEVEN wo...
From Passage A14.    Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the       procedures which human beings adopted to...
From Passage A                                                          DO TAKE NOTE. But first of                        ...
Passage A Paragraph 2  Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in  buildings, usually make only small nests in wh...
Passage A Paragraph 3  At some point in time, humans began to domesticate  bees by putting them into hives made of straw. ...
Passage A Paragraph 4   In settled societies, this destruction of bee colonies meant the   loss of a valuable resource, wh...
Passage A Paragraph 5  A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the   queen bee. As soon as she ha...
Passage A Paragraph 6   Clearly, tasks like these can be hazardous and, although there is   evidence that bee-keepers deve...
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November 2010 bees and beekeepers

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Transcript of "November 2010 bees and beekeepers"

  1. 1. 1127 Paper 2 25 October 2010 GCE O level examinations At S.H.S.S.QUESTIONS ONLY INSERT ONLY
  2. 2. THIS BOOK IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED. MR. YEO IS GOING TO USE THIS BOOK FOR TWO YEARS WITH YOU.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 2
  3. 3. YOU NEED TO HAVE A GOOD ENGLISH DICTIONARY WITH YOU AT HOME OR IN YOUR SCHOOL BAG. ALTERNATIVELY, LOG ON TO www.dictionary.com SO THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS HAVE AN ON-LINE REFERENCE WHENEVER YOU READ OR WRITE.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 3
  4. 4. WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW1. 1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing) is 50 marks.2. Maximum: 60 minutes to be spent on Comprehension and Vocabulary Questions.3. Maximum: 40 minutes to be spent on Summary Writing.4. Do not get stuck on ANY one question.5. Answer the questions in the ORDER set.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 4
  5. 5. SPECIFICALLY1. 1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing) is 50 marks.2. YOU MUST READ THE QUESTIONS FIRST, PLOT THE QUESTION SKELETON AND THEN READ THE PASSAGES within 7 – 10 minutes.3. Maximum: 50 minutes to be spent on Comprehension and Vocabulary Questions.4. Maximum: 40 minutes to be spent on Summary Writing.5. Do not get stuck on ANY one question.6. Answer the questions in the ORDER set.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 5
  6. 6. WATCH and BEAT THE CLOCK 1127 Paper 2 – Comprehension 1 HOUR and Summary Writing Paper 40 MINUTES Reading the questions 7 – 10 Reading the insert passages Marking out the answer skeleton MINUTES Naturally you will need to refer to the questions and the insert passages time and again during the duration of the examination. Working on the Comprehension And Vocabulary Questions 40 MINUTES Working on the Summary Writing 40 MINUTES CHECKING THROUGH YOUR 10 MINUTES ANSWER SCRIPT6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 6
  7. 7. The Answer Skeleton – Q1 (1m) For a ONE-mark 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave two lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer.INDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 7
  8. 8. Why bother to leave 3 lines? Scratch away the 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX answer you no longer need neatly and clearly. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATE Rewrite your preferred answer to Question 1THE QUESTION here. However, do not make it a habit.NUMBERS CLEARLY 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 8
  9. 9. The Answer Skeleton – Q2 (2m) 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX For a TWO-mark question, leave FOUR lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 3 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 9
  10. 10. FOR THE 5 Vocabulary Questions – Q15 (5m) For each 1-mark 15(1) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave ONE line for writing down your answer. 15(2) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Leave 1 line empty before you begin writing down your answerto the next question.INDICATETHE XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXQUESTIONNUMBERSCLEARLY. “Tentatively” means “gingerly”. 15(5) “Offering” means “sacrifice”. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 10
  11. 11. FOR THE SUMMARY Question – Q16 (5m) 16 SUMMARY - FINAL DRAFT Write these words clearly.INDICATE THE The factors contributing to the demise of the tiger are……………..SUMMARYQUESTIONNUMBER Leave a line after every written line.CLEARLY. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx YOU SHOULD USE OTHER SHEETS OF PAPER TO WORK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX OUT YOUR POINT ORGANISER AND YOUR FIRST DRAFT. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(148 words) THEN ALWAYS Indicate clearly the total number of words, not BEGIN YOUR counting the helping words. SUMMARY FINAL DRAFT ON A NEW PAGE. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 11
  12. 12. Man’s Relationship With Bees6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 12
  13. 13. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 13
  14. 14. Passage A Paragraph 1 Honey is used all over the world to sweeten the food we eat, but how many of us have given any thought as to where this honey comes from?6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 14
  15. 15. Passage A Paragraph 2 Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 15
  16. 16. LIFE CYCLE OF A BEE6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 16
  17. 17. Some bees are more equal than others6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 17
  18. 18. MEAD6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 18
  19. 19. From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE other word from the paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m]6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 19
  20. 20. From Passage A Paragraph 2 HELP given by the examiner. What is the meaning of1. The word “suggests”? It means “one of the possible “clumsily” explanations”. suggests a lack What is the meaning of of sophistication. “a lack of”? It means “the absence of”. Give ONE other What is the meaning of word from the “sophistication”? It means “refinement”. paragraph which expresses a lack of *In the context of this question, “sophistication” refers to “the sophistication. undestructive way” to extract honey from the [1m] STEP ONE – READ bee’s natural and INTERPRET THE QUESTION habitats.6/25/2011 VERY CAREFULLY. Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 by 20
  21. 21. From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE other WHY IS THIS REPEATED? word from the READ CAREFULLY HERE. paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m] Get to the point. STEP ONE – READ and INTERPRET THE QUESTION Give THAT word.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 CAREFULLY. VERY 21
  22. 22. From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE other ANOTHER WORD FROM THE word from the VERY SAME PARAGRAPH. paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m] STEP ONE – READ and INTERPRET THE QUESTION6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 CAREFULLY. VERY 22
  23. 23. From Passage A Paragraph 21. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. SEEMS TO SAY THAT Give ONE other SEEMS TO EXPLAIN THAT word from the paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m] STEP ONE – READ and INTERPRET THE QUESTION6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 CAREFULLY. VERY 23
  24. 24. Passage A Paragraph 2STEP TWO - LOCATE THE WORD “CLUMSILY” IN THE PASSAGE. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or The word holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for “clumsily” their own use. Collecting honey in ancient suggests a lack of times entailed demolishing the entire colony sophistication. of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter- gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 24
  25. 25. Passage A Paragraph 2STEP THREE – UNDERLINE THE SENTENCE CONTAINING “CLUMSILY”. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or The word holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for “clumsily” their own use. Collecting honey in ancient suggests a lack of times entailed demolishing the entire colony sophistication. of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 25
  26. 26. Honeycomb6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 26
  27. 27. Honeycomb and Wax6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 27
  28. 28. Bee Wax6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 28
  29. 29. PARTS OF SPEECH: WORD CLASSNOUN – ADJECTIVE –NAMING DESCRIPTIVEWORD WORDVERB – ADVERB – changing the meaning of VERBS andACTION ADJECTIVES The wild hive wasWORD clumsily broken into…6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 29
  30. 30. PARTS OF SPEECH: WORD CLASSNOUN – ADJECTIVE – DESCRIPTIVE WORDNAMING WORDVERB –ACTION WORD ADVERB – changing the meaning of VERBS and ADJECTIVES [and more] The wild hive was clumsily broken into… What happened? The wild hive was broken into… VERB GROUP In what Manner? The wild hive was CLUMSILY broken into… ADVERB6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 30
  31. 31. Why is it important to understand how ADVERBS work. Adverbials modify or tell us something about the sentence or the verb. It may be a single adverb, a phrase, or a prepositional phrase, or a clause element.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 31
  32. 32. Why is it important to understand how ADVERBS work.• When an adverbial modifies a verb, it changes the meaning of that verb.• For example:-• The students looked at me. The students looked at me anxiously. (The verb “looked” suddenly has a very different meaning).6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 32
  33. 33. Why is it important to understand how ADVERBS work.• When an adverbial modifies a sentence, the meaning of the sentence changes.• For example:-• I passed all of my exams. Surprisingly, I passed all of my exams.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 33
  34. 34. Why is it important to understand how ADVERBS work.• Word groups that are also considered to be adverbials can also modify verbs: a prepositional phrase, a noun phrase, a finite clause or a non-finite clause.• Multi-word adverbials are sometimes called an adverbial phrases.• For example:-• I ran as quickly as I could, but I missed the bus.• If a whole clause acts as an adverbial, its called an adverbial clause.• For example:-• Ill go to bed when the film ends.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 34
  35. 35. Passage A Paragraph 2STEP THREE – UNDERLINE THE SENTENCE CONTAINING “CLUMSILY”. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or The word holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for “clumsily” their own use. Collecting honey in ancient suggests a lack of times entailed demolishing the entire colony sophistication. of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae How clumsy was this which they contained. Then the liquid action? honey was crudely strained through a There is destruction: basket. It was a destructive process but, for “The hive was broken into” hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant and since they could always find more wild “the wax honeycombs colonies to exploit. Later, high quality were taken out along candles came to be made from bee wax, With the eggs…” rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 35
  36. 36. A bee colony6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 36
  37. 37. Another kind of bee colony.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 37
  38. 38. Passage A Paragraph 2 STEP FOUR – COMB THE PASSAGE FOR THAT ONE OTHER WORD. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 38
  39. 39. We must know what it is we are looking for: STEP FOUR –another word which also behaves like COMB THE“clumsily” in such a way that it expresses “a PASSAGE FORlack of sophistication”, that the extraction of THAT ONE OTHERhoney had not been handled properly. WORD. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 39
  40. 40. We must know what it is we are looking for: STEP FOUR –another word which also behaves like COMB THE“clumsily” in such a way that it expresses “a PASSAGE FORlack of sophistication”, that the extraction of THAT ONE OTHERhoney had not been handled properly. WORD. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 40
  41. 41. Passage A Paragraph 2 STEP FOUR – COMB THE PASSAGE FOR THAT ONE OTHER WORD. Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. POSSIBLE ANSWERS Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 41
  42. 42. STEP FOUR – We have just classified “clumsily” asCOMB THE PASSAGE an adverb but this does not mean and PICK OUT THAT that the ONE other word has to be an adverb as well. ONE BUT the correctly identified word must OTHER WORD. convey the meaning of “a lack of sophistication” - of a procedure not carried out properly [A] Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. “Demolishing” means “tearing down” or “destroying”. But “demolishing” does not suggest “a lack of sophistication”. [B] Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket.“Crudely” means “rough or unrefined in manner”. Here “crudely” clearlysuggests “a lack of sophistication”. [C] It was a destructive process… “Destructive” means “damaging” or “harmful”. But “destructive”6/25/2011does not suggest “a lackYamsophistication”. by Yeo of Hwee 24112010 42
  43. 43. [A] Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. “Demolishing” means “tearing down” or “destroying”. But “demolishing” does not suggest “a lack of sophistication”. DEMOLISHING [B] Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket.“Crudely” means “rough or unrefined in manner”. Here “crudely” clearlysuggests “a lack of sophistication”. CRUDELY [C] It was a destructive process… “Destructive” means “damaging” or “harmful”. But “destructive” does not suggest “a lack of sophistication”.6/25/2011 DESTRUCTIVE 24112010 by Yeo Yam Hwee 43
  44. 44. From Passage A Paragraph 2 1. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE other word from the paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m]STEP FIVE: WRITE DOWN THE CORRECT ANSWER USING A FULL SENTENCE. The one other word from the paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication is…. The one other word from the paragraph is…. The word is…. A full sentence is a complete sentence. NOT A CLUMSILY LONG sentence with UNNECESSARY words. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 44
  45. 45. From Passage A Paragraph 2 1. The word “clumsily” suggests a lack of sophistication. Give ONE other word from the paragraph which expresses a lack of sophistication. [1m]STEP FIVE: WRITE DOWN THE CORRECT ANSWER USING A FULL SENTENCE. The word is “crudely”. A full sentence is a complete sentence. NOT A CLUMSILY LONG sentence with UNNECESSARY words. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 45
  46. 46. REVIEW OF THE STEPS WE TAKE TO ATTEMPT QUESTION 1 SUCCESSFULLY. STEP ONE – READ AND INTERPRET THE QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY. WHAT KIND OF QUESTION IS THIS? STEP TWO - LOCATE THE WORD “CLUMSILY” IN THE PASSAGE.. STEP THREE – UNDERLINE THE SENTENCE CONTAINING “CLUMSILY”. WHAT IS THE PART OF SPEECH FOR THAT WORD? STEP FOUR – COMB THE PASSAGE FOR THAT ONE OTHER WORD.STEP FIVE: WRITE DOWN THE CORRECT ANSWER USING A FULL SENTENCE. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 46
  47. 47. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter- gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1]6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 47
  48. 48. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] Most likely only requires ONE point. Should be able to get the answer from the text. STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION FIRST. IS THIS A STRAIGHTFORWARD QUESTION OR NOT? HOW TO MAKE IT UNDERSTANDABLE TO YOU? Why were the hunter-gatherers not concerned that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? Why did the hunter-gatherers not show any concern that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey?6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 48
  49. 49. From Passage A Paragraph 2 2. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1]BECAUSE STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION FIRST.FOR IS THIS A STRAIGHTFORWARD QUESTION OR NOT?SINCE HOW TO MAKE IT UNDERSTANDABLE TO YOU?AS Why were the hunter-gatherers not concerned that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? Why did the hunter-gatherers not show any concern that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 49
  50. 50. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, STEP TWO – SEARCH in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they THE PARAGRAPH contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely FOR THE WORDING strained through a basket. It was a destructive WHICH LINKS THE process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more QUESTION WITH wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles THE TEXT. came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 50
  51. 51. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in not matter to buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting the hunter- honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was gatherers clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, that they in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they had to contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive destroy the process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more hives to wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal obtain the fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular. STEP TWO – SEARCH honey? [1] THE PARAGRAPH FOR THE WORDING WHICH LINKS THE6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 QUESTION WITH 51 THE TEXT.
  52. 52. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] STEP TWO – SEARCH THE PARAGRAPH FOR THE WORDING Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in WHICH LINKS THE buildings, usually make only small nests in which to QUESTION WITH THE TEXT. store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken Collecting honey used out along with the eggs and larvae which they to be a destructive contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely process, not taken strained through a basket. It was a destructive seriously by process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more hunter-gatherers wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles as they demolished came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal whole bee colonies by fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became clumsily breaking into very popular. the hives.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 52
  53. 53. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] STEP TWO – SEARCH THE PARAGRAPH Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in FOR THE WORDING buildings, usually make only small nests in which to WHICH LINKS THE store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting QUESTION WITH honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the THE TEXT. entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they BECAUSE contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive AS process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles FOR came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became SINCE very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 53
  54. 54. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to STEP THREE – store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting SEARCH honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was THE PARAGRAPH clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in BEGINNING WITH which the bees stored their honey, were taken out THE IMMEDIATE along with the eggs and larvae which they SURROUNDING contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely SENTENCES – ONE strained through a basket. It was a destructive UP OR ONE DOWN. process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was USE CONNECTORS unimportant since they could always TO HELP YOU IF find more wild colonies to exploit. APPLICABLE. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey- based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 54
  55. 55. From Passage A Paragraph 22. Why did it not matter to the hunter-gatherers that they had to destroy the hives to obtain the honey? [1] It did not matter STEP FOUR: WRITE DOWN THE because they CORRECT ANSWER USING A FULL could always find SENTENCE. more wild bee colonies to exploit.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 55
  56. 56. REVIEW OF THE STEPS WE TAKE TO ATTEMPT QUESTION 2 SUCCESSFULLY. STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION FIRST. IS THIS A STRAIGHTFORWARD QUESTION OR NOT? HOW TO MAKE IT UNDERSTANDABLE TO YOU? STEP TWO – SEARCH THE PARAGRAPH FOR THE WORDING WHICH LINKS THE QUESTION WITH THE TEXT. STEP THREE – SEARCH THE PARAGRAPH BEGINNING WITH THE IMMEDIATE SURROUNDING SENTENCES – ONE UP OR ONE DOWN. USE CONNECTORS TO HELP YOU IF APPLICABLE. STEP FOUR - WRITE DOWN THE CORRECT ANSWER USING A FULL SENTENCE.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 56
  57. 57. Passage A Paragraph 3 At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees attached their honeycombs to the hive walls, the honey still could not be extracted without destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 57
  58. 58. Straw Bee Hives6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 58
  59. 59. Bees thriving in a straw bee hive6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 59
  60. 60. A straw hiveMaking straw bee hives6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 60
  61. 61. The Worker Bee6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 61
  62. 62. The Queen Bee6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 62
  63. 63. QUEEN BEE6/25/2011 WORKER BEE by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 63
  64. 64. From Passage A Paragraph 33. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1]6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 64
  65. 65. From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION. Where do What is a phrase? we look?3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1] What is THAT phrase we need REFERING to? One mark reminds us that we are looking out for only ONE PHRASE.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 65
  66. 66. From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION. What is a phrase?3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1] A functional definition for us: A phrase is a group of words with a UNIFIED meaning. It usually does not contain a finite verb and does not admit any commas.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 66
  67. 67. WHAT IS A PHRASE? A functional definition for us: A phrase is a group of words with a UNIFIED meaning. It usually does not contain a finite verb and does not admit any commas.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 67
  68. 68. From Passage A Paragraph 3 STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION. Where do we look? 3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1]MORAL OF THE STORY: HAVE EYES MUST SEE. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 68
  69. 69. From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1] TIME / TIMING What is THAT phrase we need REFERING to?6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 69
  70. 70. From Passage A Paragraph 33.Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1]STEP TWO – COMB THE PARAGRAPH FOR THE RELEVANT SENTENCE orSENTENCES WHICH EXPRESS THE STATED CONTENT. At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees attached their honeycombs to the hive walls, the honey still could not be extracted without destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees reproduced. Nor did they6/25/2011 realise that it is only theHwee 24112010 eggs. by Yeo Yam queen who lays 70
  71. 71. From Passage A Paragraph 3 STEP TWO – 3.Write down the At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by COMB THE PARAGRAPH phrase in the putting them into hives made of FOR THE straw. However, as the bees RELEVANT paragraph which attached their honeycombs to the SENTENCE or hive walls, the honey still could tells us that no- not be extracted without SENTENCES WHICH one is quite sure destroying the colony. At these EXPRESS times, human understanding of THE STATED when human the biology of bees was very CONTENT. limited and riddled with beings started superstition and folklore. Ancient to keep bees for observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called their own use. the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees [1] reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays eggs.Your correct understanding of thisIs important. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 71
  72. 72. From Passage A Paragraph 33.Write down the At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by phrase in the putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees paragraph which attached their honeycombs to the Possible hive walls, the honey still could Answers? tells us that no- not be extracted without one is quite sure destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of when human the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with beings started superstition and folklore. Ancient to keep bees for observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called their own use. the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees [1] reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays STEP TWO – COMB THE PARAGRAPH FOR THE The relevant phrase eggs. RELEVANT SENTENCE or concerns “time” / SENTENCES WHICH EXPRESS “timing”. THE STATED6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 CONTENT. 72
  73. 73. From Passage A Paragraph 3 CONTENT3. Write down the MATCHED At some point in time, humans phrase in the began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of paragraph which tells straw. us that no-one is So this is the quite sure when WHERE CAN Relevant Sentence. human beings YOU FIND THE CORRECT started to keep ANSWER? bees for their own At these times, human understanding of the biology of use. [1] CONTENT bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. MISMATCHED The relevant phrase concerns “time” / STEP TWO – COMB THE “timing”. PARAGRAPH FOR THE RELEVANT SENTENCE or SENTENCES WHICH EXPRESS THE STATED6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 CONTENT. 73
  74. 74. From Passage A Paragraph 33. Write down the phrase in At some point in time, the paragraph which tells humans began to domesticate us that no-one is quite bees by putting them into hives sure when human made of straw. beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1] The phrase is “at some point in time”. STEP THREE – ANSWER THE QUESTION IN A FULL SENTENCE.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 74
  75. 75. From Passage A Paragraph 3STEP ONE – READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.3. Write down the phrase in the paragraph which tells us that no-one is quite sure when human beings started to keep bees for their own use. [1] One mark reminds us that IMPLICATION: IT IS NOT A we are looking out for only DIFFICULT QUESTION. THE ONE PHRASE. PHRASE IS LYING WITHIN THE PARAGRAPH, NOT HIDDEN. HENCE THE EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION:6/25/2011 “WRITE DOWN”. by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 75
  76. 76. From Passage A Paragraph 34. Why did the early bee-keepers still have to smash the hives to obtain the honey? [1] At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees attached their RELEVANT honeycombs to the hive walls, the AREA honey still could not be extracted OF TEXT without destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 76
  77. 77. From Passage A Paragraph 35. The early bee-keepers’ understanding of the biology of bees is described as “limited”. Give an example of ONE of their misconceptions. [1] At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees attached their honeycombs to the hive walls, the honey still could not be extracted without destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays eggs. RELEVANT AREAS OF THE TEXT6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 77
  78. 78. Passage A Paragraph 4 In settled societies, this destruction of bee colonies meant the loss of a valuable resource, which made the job of the first bee- keepers an inefficient and sporadic one. However, all this changed in 1852 with the invention, by Lorenzo Langstroth, of the “moveable comb hive”. He had already discovered that bees leave a space between the wax honeycombs. Consequently, he put a series of wooden frames in a box, carefully maintaining a space between the frames. This encouraged the bees to build their honeycombs in the frames without bonding them to the hive walls, thus enabling the bee- keeper to slide individual frames out for inspection and to remove the honey without destroying the combs. In more recent times, hives have been designed with a special area at the bottom, called a brood chamber, where the queen bee lays her eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 78
  79. 79. Lorenzo Langstroth6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 79
  80. 80. Moveable Bee Hives6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 80
  81. 81. Moveable Frame Bee Hives6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 81
  82. 82. MOVEABLE FRAMES OF BEE HIVES6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 82
  83. 83. INSPECTING MOVEABLEFRAMES OF BEE HIVES6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 83
  84. 84. COLLECTION OF HONEY USING MOVEABLE FRAMES6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 84
  85. 85. COLLECTION OF HONEYUSING MOVEABLE FRAMES6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 85
  86. 86. From Passage A Paragraph 46. Describe in your own words the effect that the destruction of the bee colony had on the job of a bee-keeper. [2] In settled societies, this destruction of beeRELEVANT colonies meant the loss of a valuable resource,AREA OF which made the job of the first bee-keepers anTHE TEXT inefficient and sporadic one. However, all this changed in 1852 with the invention, by Lorenzo Langstroth, of the “moveable comb hive”. He had already discovered that bees leave a space between the wax honeycombs. Consequently, he put a series of wooden frames in a box, carefully maintaining a space between the frames. This encouraged the bees to build their honeycombs in the frames without bonding them to the hive walls, thus enabling the bee- keeper to slide individual frames out for inspection and to remove the honey without destroying the combs. In more recent times, hives have been designed with a special area at the bottom, called a brood chamber, where the queen bee lays her eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 86
  87. 87. BROOD CHAMBER6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 87
  88. 88. Passage A Paragraph 5 A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the queen bee. As soon as she has laid enough eggs, the bee-keeper will place above the brood chamber a metal frame with slots. This allows the worker bees, which have been feeding the newly-hatched larvae with pollen and honey in the brood chambers, to move up the higher chambers to store surplus honey in the honeycombs. This honey is formed in their stomachs from the nectar which they have collected from flowers. However, the slots in the frame are too narrow to allow the queen to pass, and so she is prevented from laying eggs in the honeycombs. The keeper must ensure that the queen has sufficient space to lay her eggs; otherwise she will start laying special eggs to provide a new queen and might then leave the hive accompanied by a large number of bees – known as “swarming” – thus greatly reducing the number of honey gatherers in a colony. As a precaution, the keeper may clip the queen’s wings, or he may permit the queen to fly and use the swarm to populate a new hive.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 88
  89. 89. SWARMING6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 89
  90. 90. Clipping the winds of a queen bee6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 90
  91. 91. From Passage A Paragraph 57. What evidence is there to suggest that the queen bee is larger than the worker bees? [1] A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the queen bee. As soon as she has laid enough eggs, the bee- keeper will place above the brood chamber a metal frame with slots. This allows the worker bees, which have been feeding the newly-hatched larvae with pollen and honey in theRELEVANT brood chambers, to move up the higher chambers to store surplus honey in the honeycombs. This honey is formed in theirAREAS OF stomachs from the nectar which they have collected from flowers.THE TEXT However, the slots in the frame are too narrow to allow the queen to pass, and so she is prevented from laying eggs in the honeycombs. The keeper must ensure that the queen has sufficient space to lay her eggs; otherwise she will start laying special eggs to provide a new queen and might then leave the hive accompanied by a large number of bees – known as “swarming” – thus greatly reducing the number of honey gatherers in a colony. As a precaution, the keeper may clip the queen’s wings, or he may permit the queen to fly and use the swarm to populate a new hive.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 91
  92. 92. From Passage A Paragraph 58(a) Why is “swarming” something which bee-keepers may wish to prevent? [1] A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the queen bee. As soon as she has laid enough eggs, the bee- keeper will place above the brood chamber a metal frame with slots. This allows the worker bees, which have been feeding the newly-hatched larvae with pollen and honey in the brood chambers, to move up the higher chambers to store surplus honey in the honeycombs. This honey is formed in their stomachs from the nectar which they have collected from flowers. However, the slots in the frame are too narrow to allow the queen to pass, and so she is prevented from laying eggs in the honeycombs. The keeper must ensure that the queen hasRELEVANT sufficient space to lay her eggs; otherwise she will start laying special eggs to provide a new queen and might thenAREA leave the hive accompanied by a large number of bees –OF THE known as “swarming” – thus greatly reducing the number ofTEXT honey gatherers in a colony. As a precaution, the keeper may clip the queen’s wings, or he may permit the queen to fly and use the swarm to populate a new hive.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 92
  93. 93. From Passage A Paragraph 58(b) Which TWO things can bee-keepers do to stop their bees from swarming? [2] A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the queen bee. As soon as she has laid enough eggs, the bee-keeper will place above the brood chamber a metal frame with slots. This allows the worker bees, which have been feeding the newly-hatched larvae with pollen and honey in the brood chambers, to move up the higher chambers to store surplus honey in the honeycombs. This honey is formed in their stomachs from the nectar which they have collected from flowers. However, the slots in the frame are too narrow to allow the queen to pass, and so she is prevented from laying eggs in the honeycombs. The keeper must ensure that the queen has sufficient space to lay her eggs; otherwise she will start laying special eggs to provide a new queen and might then leave the hive accompanied by a large number of bees – known as “swarming” – thus greatly reducing the number of RELEVANT honey gatherers in a colony. As a precaution, the AREA OF keeper may clip the queen’s wings, or he may THE permit the queen to fly and use the swarm to TEXT populate a new hive.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 93
  94. 94. Passage A Paragraph 6 Clearly, tasks like these can be hazardous and, although there is evidence that bee-keepers develop some immunity to the bees’ poison, no one would wish to be stung. To prevent this, a protective veil is worn, draped over a broad-brimmed hat to keep the fabric away from the face. In addition a kind of bellows – called a smoker – is used. This is filled with smouldering material which subdues the bees and makes handling easier. Thus prepared, when the warmth of the hive has ripened the honey and the bees have sealed it with a layer of wax, the bee-keeper will be able to place a board with a hole in it above the brood chamber. This hole is filled with a metal spring which allows the insects to pass downwards into the brood chamber but not upwards again, so the honeycombs may be removed by the bee-keeper and the honey extracted. The bees must then be given enough sugar syrup to keep them going until they can collect sufficient nectar to feed themselves once again.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 94
  95. 95. Bee Keeper’s AttirePROTECTIVEVEIL6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 95
  96. 96. BROAD-BRIMMED HAT PROTECTIVE VEIL6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 96
  97. 97. The Beekeeper’sSmoker6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 97
  98. 98. PASSAGE B Paragraph 1 Whilst Lea read her way laboriously through the bee-keeping manual her uncle had given her, her fear of the bees slowly disappeared, as she began to see the chaos of the tens of thousands of creeping bees that studded the honeycombs become a comprehensible whole. Two of the hives were purely for observation, where the bees’ daily life could be seen through glass.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 98
  99. 99. From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(a) What does the word “laboriously” tell us about the book that Lea’s uncle had given her? [1] Whilst Lea read her way laboriously through the bee- keeping manual her uncle had given her, her fear of the bees slowly disappeared, as she began to see the chaos of the tens of thousands of creeping bees that studded the honeycombs become a comprehensible whole. Two of the hives were purely for observation, where the bees’ daily life could be seen through glass.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 99
  100. 100. From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(a) What does the word “laboriously” tell us about the book that Lea’s uncle had given her? [1] It tells us that the book probably contains a lot of information which requires a lot of time and effort to go through.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 100
  101. 101. From PASSAGE B Paragraph 1 9(b) Describe in your own words how Lea’s reading of her uncle’s book changed her attitude towards bees, and why. [2] Whilst Lea read her way laboriously through the bee- keeping manual her uncle had given her, her fear of the bees slowly disappeared, as she began toRELEVANT see the chaos of the tens of thousands ofAREA OFTHE TEXT creeping bees that studded the honeycombs become a comprehensible whole. Two of the hives were purely for observation, where the bees’ daily life could be seen through glass. 6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 101
  102. 102. From PASSAGE B Paragraph 19(b) Describe in your own words how Lea’s reading of her uncle’s book changed her attitude towards bees, and why. [2] She was initially frightened of the confusing activities of the bees but she gradually came to understand what they were doing and realise that the bees were doing something meaningful together.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 102
  103. 103. PASSAGE B Paragraph 2 “Bees are deaf,” her uncle explained, “which is odd when you consider that they make such a myriad of different buzzing sounds. But maybe they sense the vibrations from the buzzing, or maybe they make sounds we can’t perceive. They orientate themselves with their sense of smell and their eyesight. Although they are partly colour- blind, they can see all the ultra-violet which our eyes can’t, so that they can make subtle distinctions between different shades of white. Look there. They’re talking to each other now.” A migrating bee stood on the alighting board of one of the hives, wriggling back and forth in a sort of dance.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 103
  104. 104. From Passage B Paragraph 210. How do bees find their way around? [1] “Bees are deaf,” her uncle explained, “which is odd when you consider that they make such a myriad of different buzzing sounds. But maybe they sense the vibrations from the buzzing, or maybe they make sounds we can’t perceive. They orientate themselves with their sense of smell and their eyesight. Although RELEVANT they are partly colour-blind, they can see all the AREA OF ultra-violet which our eyes can’t, so that they TEXT can make subtle distinctions between different shades of white. Look there. They’re talking to each other now.” A migrating bee stood on the alighting board of one of the hives, wriggling back and forth in a sort of dance.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 104
  105. 105. From Passage B Paragraph 210. How do bees find their way around? [1] They orientate themselves with their sense of smell and their eyesight. Although they are partly colour-blind, they can see all the ultra-violet which our eyes can’t, so that they can make subtle distinctions between different shades of white. BLATANT LIFTING AND EXCESS DENIES Bees make use of their sense of smell and sight to find their way around.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 105
  106. 106. PASSAGE B Paragraph 3 “That foraging bee has found a source of nectar,” continued her uncle. “Now it’s telling the others about the place and the kind of flower. Had it found a source of pollen, the dance would have been quite different.” “By wriggling like that?” “Mmm. I wonder what it’s saying,” he mused. “It must be impossible to translate.” “I’m not so sure about that. I think it’s very factual. Everything that’s beautiful and wonderful and poetic is often very factual. I think the bee is saying something like this: The wind is coming towards you from the northwest. Your wings must beat very fast. Fly up towards the great warm light, past the apple tree that has shed its blossoms, past the field clover, the orchids, and the two tulip trees. Go behind the tulip trees to where, in their shadow, the wild berry bushes are blooming. Go now.” Suddenly the cluster of bees that had been watching the dancing bee flew away.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 106
  107. 107. From Passage B Paragraph 311(a) What does Lea’s uncle mean by “the great warm light”? [1] “That foraging bee has found a source of nectar,” continued her uncle. “Now it’s telling the others about the place and the kind of flower. Had it found a source of pollen, the dance would have been quite different.” “By wriggling like that?” “Mmm. I wonder what it’s saying,” he mused. “It must be impossible to translate.” “I’m not so sure about that. I think it’s very factual. Everything that’s beautiful and wonderful and poetic is often very factual. I think the bee is saying something like this: The wind is coming towards you from the northwest. Your wings must beat very fast. Fly up towards the great warm light, past the apple tree that has shed its blossoms, past the field clover, the orchids, and the two tulip trees. Go behind the tulip trees to where, in their shadow, the wild berry bushes are blooming. Go now.” Suddenly the cluster of bees that had been watching the dancing bee flew away.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 107
  108. 108. From Passage B Paragraph 311(a) What does Lea’s uncle mean by “the great warm light”? [1] “That foraging bee has found a source of nectar,” continued her uncle. “Now it’s telling the others about the place and the kind of flower. Had it found a source of pollen, the dance would have “The great been quite different.” “By wriggling like that?” “Mmm. I wonder what it’s saying,” he mused. warm light” “It must be impossible to translate.” “I’m not so sure about that. I think it’s very refers factual. Everything that’s beautiful and wonderful and poetic is often very factual. I think the bee is saying something like this: to “the sun”. The wind is coming towards you from the northwest. Your wings must beat very fast. Fly up towards the great warm light, past the apple tree that has shed its blossoms, past the field clover, the orchids, and the two tulip trees. Go behind the tulip trees to where, in their shadow, the wild berry bushes are blooming. Go now.” Suddenly the cluster of bees that had been watching the dancing bee flew away.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 108
  109. 109. From Passage B Paragraph 311(b) Where, according to her uncle’s interpretation, would the “cluster of bees” be going and why? [2] “That foraging bee has found a source of nectar,” continued her uncle. “Now it’s telling the others about the place and the kind of flower. Had it found a source of pollen, the dance would have been quite different.” “By wriggling like that?” “Mmm. I wonder what it’s saying,” he mused. “It must be impossible to translate.” “I’m not so sure about that. I think it’s very factual. Everything that’s beautiful and wonderful and poetic is often very factual. I think the bee is saying something like this: The wind is coming towards you from the northwest. Your wings must beat very fast. Fly RELEVANT up towards the great warm light, past the apple AREA OF tree that has shed its blossoms, past the field TEXT clover, the orchids, and the two tulip trees. Go behind the tulip trees to where, in their shadow, the wild berry bushes are blooming. Go now.” Suddenly the cluster of bees that had been watching the dancing bee flew away.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 109
  110. 110. From Passage B Paragraph 311(b) Where, according to her uncle’s interpretation, would the “cluster of bees” be going and why? [2] The wind is coming towards you from the northwest. Your wings must beat very fast. Fly up towards the great warm light, past the apple tree that has shed its blossoms, past the field clover, the orchids, and the two tulip trees. Go behind the tulip trees to where, in their shadow, the wild berry bushes are blooming. Go now.” The bees would be heading towards the wild berry bushes which were blooming because they would provide a rich source of nectar for the bees to collect.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 110
  111. 111. PASSAGE B Paragraph 4 “Now I’m going to teach you to clip the queen’s wings.” “Clip her wings?” “The hive is full, do you see that? The bees are at their best and richest now: the honey is glistening. Soon the old queen will lay new queen eggs and, after that, she will fly out with almost the whole colony to establish a new home. They might even disappear completely, so we clip the queen’s wings. When she flies outside, she will fall to the ground. Then we can sweep the swarm back into the old hive or put it in an empty one.”6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 111
  112. 112. PASSAGE B Paragraph 5 The queen stood in a circle of workers. They bowed respectfully to her, fanned her with their wings to cool her and showed every sign of veneration. The queen herself seemed a little slow and listless. Without further ado, the old man picked up the monarch and, holding her between his thumb and index finger, snipped with a pair of scissors. It was sad to watch, Lea thought, but the queen did not seem bothered by losing a part of her wings and, when he put her back, her subjects continued their graceful exercises in subjugation, undisturbed.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 112
  113. 113. From Passage B Paragraph 512. The bees treat the queen bee “respectfully”. Give TWO other words from the paragraph which show that the queen is treated as a superior by the other bees. [2] The queen stood in a circle of workers. They “Veneration” means “respect”. bowed respectfully to her, fanned her with their “Veneration” means wings to cool her and showed every sign of “worship”. veneration. The queen herself seemed a little “Veneration” means slow and listless. Without further ado, the old “reverence”. man picked up the monarch and, holding her between his thumb and index finger, snipped with a pair of scissors. It was sad to watch, Lea thought, but the queen did not seem bothered by losing a part of her wings and, when he put her back, her subjects continued their graceful “Subjugation” means exercises in subjugation, undisturbed. “submission”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 113
  114. 114. From Passage B Paragraph 512. The bees treat the queen bee “respectfully”. Give TWO other words from the paragraph which show that the queen is treated as a superior by the other bees. [2] The two words are “veneration” and “subjugation”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 114
  115. 115. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage A:1. Riddled2. ImmunityFrom Passage B:3. Myriad4. Subtle5. Listless6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 115
  116. 116. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage A [Paragraph 3] At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore.1. “Riddled” means “plagued”. “Riddled” means “overwhelmed”. “Riddled” means “filled”. “Riddled” means “swarmed”. “Riddled” means “smothered”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 116
  117. 117. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage A [Paragraph 6] Clearly, tasks like these can be hazardous and, although there is evidence that bee-keepers develop some immunity to the bees’ poison, no one would wish to be stung.2. “Immunity” means “inborn protection”. “Immunity” means “body resistance”. “Immunity” means “natural defense”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 117
  118. 118. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage B [Paragraph 2] “Bees are deaf,” her uncle explained, “which is odd when you consider that they make such a myriad of different buzzing sounds.3. “Myriad” means “a very large number”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 118
  119. 119. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage B [Paragraph 2] Although they are partly colour-blind, they can see all the ultra-violet which our eyes can’t, so that they can make subtle distinctions between different shades of white.4. “Subtle” means “delicate”. “Subtle” means “faint”. “Subtle” means “fine”. “Subtle” means “astute”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 119
  120. 120. From Passage A and Passage B13. For each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the word has in the passage. [5]From Passage B [Paragraph 5]The queen herself seemed a little slow and listless.5. “Listless” means “weary”. “Listless” means “sluggish”. “Listless” means “uninterested”. “Listless” means “tired”.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 120
  121. 121. From Passage A14. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the procedures which human beings adopted to obtain honey, from early times to the present day. [25] USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPH 2 TO PARAGRAPH 6. Your summary, which must be in continuous writing(not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin). Begin your summary as follows: In early times, people obtained honey from wild bees by…6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 121
  122. 122. From Passage A DO TAKE NOTE. But first of all, get the points from the14. Using your own words as far as Passage first and make sure possible, summarise the procedures the use of langauge is correct. which human beings adopted to obtain honey, from early times to the present day. [25] USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPH 2 TO PARAGRAPH 6. Your summary, which must be in continuous writing(not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin). Begin your summary as follows: In early times, people obtained honey from wild bees by…6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 122
  123. 123. Passage A Paragraph 2 Wild honey bees, living in hollow trees or holes in buildings, usually make only small nests in which to store sufficient honey for their own use. Collecting honey in ancient times entailed demolishing the entire colony of bees. The wild hive was clumsily broken into, and the wax honeycombs, in which the bees stored their honey, were taken out along with the eggs and larvae which they contained. Then the liquid honey was crudely strained through a basket. It was a destructive process but, for hunter-gatherers, this was unimportant since they could always find more wild colonies to exploit. Later, high quality candles came to be made from bee wax, rather than animal fats, and a honey-based drink called mead became very popular.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 123
  124. 124. Passage A Paragraph 3 At some point in time, humans began to domesticate bees by putting them into hives made of straw. However, as the bees attached their honeycombs to the hive walls, the honey still could not be extracted without destroying the colony. At these times, human understanding of the biology of bees was very limited and riddled with superstition and folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen bee was actually a male, called the “king bee”, and they had no understanding of how bees reproduced. Nor did they realise that it is only the queen who lays eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 124
  125. 125. Passage A Paragraph 4 In settled societies, this destruction of bee colonies meant the loss of a valuable resource, which made the job of the first bee- keepers an inefficient and sporadic one. However, all this changed in 1852 with the invention, by Lorenzo Langstroth, of the “moveable comb hive”. He had already discovered that bees leave a space between the wax honeycombs. Consequently, he put a series of wooden frames in a box, carefully maintaining a space between the frames. This encouraged the bees to build their honeycombs in the frames without bonding them to the hive walls, thus enabling the bee- keeper to slide individual frames out for inspection and to remove the honey without destroying the combs. In more recent times, hives have been designed with a special area at the bottom, called a brood chamber, where the queen bee lays her eggs.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 125
  126. 126. Passage A Paragraph 5 A bee-keeper’s schedule is very much dictated by the activity of the queen bee. As soon as she has laid enough eggs, the bee-keeper will place above the brood chamber a metal frame with slots. This allows the worker bees, which have been feeding the newly-hatched larvae with pollen and honey in the brood chambers, to move up the higher chambers to store surplus honey in the honeycombs. This honey is formed in their stomachs from the nectar which they have collected from flowers. However, the slots in the frame are too narrow to allow the queen to pass, and so she is prevented from laying eggs in the honeycombs. The keeper must ensure that the queen has sufficient space to lay her eggs; otherwise she will start laying special eggs to provide a new queen and might then leave the hive accompanied by a large number of bees – known as “swarming” – thus greatly reducing the number of honey gatherers in a colony. As a precaution, the keeper may clip the queen’s wings, or he may permit the queen to fly and use the swarm to populate a new hive.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 126
  127. 127. Passage A Paragraph 6 Clearly, tasks like these can be hazardous and, although there is evidence that bee-keepers develop some immunity to the bees’ poison, no one would wish to be stung. To prevent this, a protective veil is worn, draped over a broad-brimmed hat to keep the fabric away from the face. In addition a kind of bellows – called a smoker – is used. This is filled with smouldering material which subdues the bees and makes handling easier. Thus prepared, when the warmth of the hive has ripened the honey and the bees have sealed it with a layer of wax, the bee-keeper will be able to place a board with a hole in it above the brood chamber. This hole is filled with a metal spring which allows the insects to pass downwards into the brood chamber but not upwards again, so the honeycombs may be removed by the bee-keeper and the honey extracted. The bees must then be given enough sugar syrup to keep them going until they can collect sufficient nectar to feed themselves once again.6/25/2011 by Yeo Yam Hwee 24112010 127

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