• Save
November 2009 1127 paper 2 sleep2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

November 2009 1127 paper 2 sleep2

on

  • 922 views

Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing

Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing

Statistics

Views

Total Views
922
Views on SlideShare
921
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slashdocs.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

November 2009 1127 paper 2 sleep2 November 2009 1127 paper 2 sleep2 Presentation Transcript

  • November 2009 1127 Paper 2 Sleep6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 1 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 2 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 3 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 4 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 5 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 6 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 7 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 8 Kuronekosan
  • General Instructions• Read Passage A and Passage B in the insert and then answer all the questions which follow below. You are recommended to answer the questions in the order set.• Mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar may be penalized in any part of the paper.• NOTE: When a question asks you to answer in your own words, YOU MUST NOT COPY THE WORDS IN THE PASSAGE IN YOUR ANSWER.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 9 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 1• Sleep is of the utmost importance to the way we function as human beings. Recent research suggests that losing sleep night after night [this is the “long term”] can increase the risks of obesity, heart disease and depression. It also impairs manual dexterity and the ability of the brain to work creatively. The long hours expended by “workaholics” preclude sufficient sleep during the working week. Those who try to compensate by sleeping longer at weekends are deluding themselves, because it is the regularity of sleep patterns which is paramount.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 10 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary• “expended” means “spent”.• “preclude” means “prevent” or “rule out”.• “compensate” means “make up”.• “deluding” means “lying to”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 11 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 11. Write down the word from the paragraph which has the same meaning as “of the utmost importance”. [1 mark]• The word is “paramount”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 12 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 12. How do the “long hours” worked by “workaholics” affect them in the short term? Answer in your own words. [2 marks] They do not get enough sleep during weekdays. Even if they try to make up for their lost sleep by staying in bed longer during the weekends, they cannot restore the normal rhythm of sleep which is most important.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 13 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 2• On average, humans sleep for approximately seven hours a night, and this sleep comprises different levels. When we first close our eyes we are gradually transported into the deepest slumber of the night, during which breathing becomes slower and, soon, our heart rate and body temperature decrease. Some time later most of these physiological changes reverse, and our vital signs become closer to those of our waking state. Particularly striking is the way our eyes react: they are seen to move quickly up and down and from side to side behind our closed lids giving rise to the name REM, or Rapid Eye Movement. It is during this type of sleep that dreaming takes place. In experiments, research subjects who are constantly awakened at the REM stage suffer greater adverse side effects than those who are roused from deeper levels of sleep. This phenomenon has led to the idea that allowing us to dream is an essential 6/24/2011 function of sleeping. Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee Kuronekosan 14
  • Passage A Paragraph 2• From paragraph 2:• 3(a) What “physiological” change occurs when we first fall asleep? [1 mark]• PHYSIOLOGICAL - related to the way the body works – the physical aspects.• “Physiological” versus “psychological”.• Psychological – related to the metal processes of the mind.• When we first fall asleep, our breathing becomes slower and our heart rate and body temperature decrease. 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 15 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 2• 3(b) How is it possible to tell when someone is dreaming? [1 mark]• It is possible to do so when rapid eye movements occur during which he or her eyes move quickly up and down and from side to side behind the closed lids.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 16 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 3• One explanation for why we dream is that the brain produces random images during sleep and tricks sleepers into believing they are having real experiences – a likely origin of the word “dream” is, appropriately, the Sanskirt word meaning “deception” – but this fails to explain why dreams appear to be so necessary. Two contradictory hypotheses have been advanced. In the first, dreams are seen as a way of allowing the brain to maintain and reinforce experiences of the day, meaning that material studied just before bedtime will be retained most effectively. The second hypothesis asserts that dreaming allows us to rid the brain of unnecessary information, just as a computer can delete unwanted data.• “Hypothesis” means “theory”.• “Hypotheses” means “theories”.Hwee 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam 17 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 3• From paragraph 3:4. The word “dream” could come from the Sanskrit word meaning “deception”. Write down the single word in the paragraph which reinforces this idea of deception. [1]• The word is “tricks”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 18 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 4 Whatever the truth of the matter, the content of dreams has been considered significant ever since 2000 B.C., when the Ancient Egyptians produced a papyrus document containing guidelines for the interpretation of dreams. This document suggested that a whole dream could be considered in terms of opposites, so that a happy dream could predict unhappiness, and vice versa. Furthermore, individual images could be interpreted through association, so that if, for example, you dreamed of a shoe, a journey was imminent.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 19 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 5It was the Ancient Greeks who suggested that there might be a connectionbetween dreams and physical well-being, which was the first time that theinterpretation of dreams did not merely predict future events. The Greeksestablished a number of shrines where sick people could be taken to becured. Here, the invalids would be given potions to induce sleep and,when they awoke, the resulting dreams would be scrutinized by a priest asa guide to diagnosis and healing. The Senoi people of Malaysia believedthat they could use their dreams to promote emotional health by adopting apro-active response to dreaming, so that if, for example, you weremenaced by danger in a dream, you should confront that danger when youawoke. Working on fears in this way was thought to have a beneficialeffect on the dreamer’s everyday life. This belief in the connectionbetween dreams and mental health reached its height at the end of thenineteenth century with the work of Sigmund Freud who, as a psychiatrist,used an analysis of his patients’ dreams in an attempt to cure them of theirmental illnesses.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 20 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 6 Although it is scientifically proven that all humans – even babies – dream, some people find this difficult to believe, and, indeed, most of us have great difficulty in remembering our dream experiences with any real clarity. Exceptions to this happen when people have dreams which recur night after night, often as the result of particularly striking events in their lives. These are sometimes pleasant experiences, but nightmares induced by traumatic episodes are more common and may be particularly disturbing. Occasionally, valuable discoveries have resulted from vividly recollected dreams; for example, the Russian chemist Mendeleyev devised the first periodic table as the result of a dream, while the German acoustics expert Chladni claimed that the appearance of a tuba in a dream led to his invention of this6/24/2011 unusual musical instrument.Hwee rather Prepared by Yeo Yam 21 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 6• From paragraph 6:5. Why do some people believe that they do not dream? [1 mark]• This is because many people cannot recall their dream experiences with any real clarity even when they try very hard to do it.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 22 Kuronekosan
  • Passage A Paragraph 66. In your own words, explain what it was about the dreams of Mendeleyev and Chladni that enabled them to make their “valuable discoveries”. [2 marks]• In the case of Mendeleyev, he claimed to have remembered clearly how he had constructed the periodic table in his dream which had have him to construct one when he woke up. In the case of Chladni, he remembered the image of a tuba in a dream which led him to produce a prototype of it whenbyhe Yam Hwee up. 6/24/2011 Prepared Yeo woke 23 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 24 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 25 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 1 Although May Lin lived in Africa for only a short time, the experiences she had there haunted her sleep for years afterwards. One of her most frequently recurring dreams recalled an encounter she had had when she was out for an afternoon walk…6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 26 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 2 She followed a cow path that rimmed the lake, planning to veer off north and then walk back towards the farm after an hour and be home in time for tea. In the evening she wouldn’t dare to strike out into the bush like this, as hippos came ashore to graze, and leopards slipped down from their trees to hunt. Now she just had to keep a wary eye out for buffalo and choose paths through open ground. Whenever she did walk through an area of scrub, and she felt her body tense and her senses sharpen, as eyes, ears, nose and brain scanned the air for the presence of one of the hulking grey beasts. Passing into the open again, she felt a small thrill of victory, as if she’d cheated one of those old brutes by slipping past unnoticed.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 27 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 2• From paragraph 2:• 7(a) Explain fully why May Lin would be afraid to enter the bush in the evening. [2 marks]• She might be attacked by the wild animals because it was the feeding time for the hippos and the hunting hour for the leopards. She would not know what to do or how to protect herself if she was attacked in the bush.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 28 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 2• 7(b) What were the “old brutes” which May Lin was anxious to avoid? [1 mark]• The “old brutes” refers to the “buffaloes”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 29 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 3 Soon she found herself in a narrow gully with high, stony sides. There was no danger of buffalo here – they didn’t like the rough, closed ground. It wasn’t beautiful, but she was filled with wonder at the structure of the land, as if the rocks were the bones of the earth and the roots of the trees were steps for her or perches for lizards. Below the cool rocks she knew there must be snakes, and, in the scrubby bushes, birds waiting to sing their evening chorus.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 30 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 3• From paragraph 3:• 8. Which two separate words indicate that, for May Lin, the African countryside had a bodily presence? [2 marks]• What is the meaning of “a bodily presence”?• The two words are “bones“ and “roots“.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 31 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 39. How do we know that May Lin could not see the snakes and birds? [1 mark]• This was because the snakes were likely to be hiding below the cool rocks and the birds were silent, hiding in the scrubby bushes.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 32 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 4 She walked on, knowing she should turn back as she was already late for tea. After another twenty minutes, the gully began to level out. She was surrounded by candelabra trees and, in the distance, she could see a herd of zebra moving across open ground in the direction of the lake.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 33 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 5 The shadows were gaining ground. As she sat on the bare earth, with her back against a tree, the whole scene took on a dreamlike quality. She wanted always to be this still, with the sky cooling, wanted the sun to wait and the world to hold its pose. And just then, as she exhaled, a single male antelope stepped into a space between the trees. He had neither seen her, nor smelled her in the breathless air. He moved on mute hooves, his tail and ears flicking, his dark liquid eyes glancing back towards the open grassland, not expecting her alien presence. And, for that moment, May Lin felt she was not there, not bodily in the clumsy human form that trips and stamps and crushes; it was her dream self which was watching and waiting. In another instant the antelope saw her, or sensed her, and shied away with a sharp bark and skittered from the trees. He looked back at her, as if annoyed that he’d fallen for her ruse of silence, then twitched his tail and watched as she left the wood, following the zebra down towards the lake.• Hoof – singular• Hooves – plural6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 34 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 5• From paragraph 5: 10. Say what you understand by shadows “gaining ground” and explain why this was happening. [2 marks]• The shadows were “gaining ground” because the afternoon was wearing off and the sun was beginning to set. The movement of the sun towards the west would cast a shadow which grew longer and longer as the hours passed May Lin by.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 35 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 5• 11[a] Explain fully why the antelope had been unable to sense the presence of May Lin by smell. [2 marks]• The antelope had not be able to sense her presence because May Lin was so captivated by the scenery before her that she had held her breathe in that instant. At that very short moment, the air was described as “breathless”. However when she breathed out, she was immediately detected by the antelope.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 36 Kuronekosan
  • Passage B Paragraph 5• 11[b] Why were the antelope’s hooves described as “mute”? [1 mark]• The antelope’s hooves were described so because the animal did not make any noise with its feet since it did not sense Mei Lin’s presence at the time.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 37 Kuronekosan
  • Passages A and B: Q12• From Passage A and Passage B:• Fro each of the following words, give ONE word or phrase (of not more than SEVEN words) which has the same meaning as the words has in the passage.• From Passage A:• impairs• comprises• From Passage B:• wary• coursed• ruse [5 marks]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 38 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary 12 (1)• From Passage A:• It also impairs manual dexterity and the ability of the brain to work creatively.• “Impairs” means “damages”.• “Impairs” means “weakens”.• “Impairs” means “harms”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 39 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary 12 (2)• …and this sleep comprises different levels.• “Comprises” means “consists of”.• “Comprises” means “makes up of”.• “Comprises” means “composes of”• “Comprises” means “constitutes”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 40 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary 12 (3)• From Passage B:• Now she just had to keep a wary eye out for buffalo …• “Wary” means ”watchful”.• “Wary” means “careful”.• “Wary” means “cautious”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 41 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary 12 (4)• In the rainy season, water coursed through here…• “Coursed” means “passed”.• “Coursed” means “flew”.• “Coursed” means “ran”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 42 Kuronekosan
  • Vocabulary 12 (5)• He looked back at her, as if annoyed that he’d fallen for her ruse of silence,…• “Ruse” means “trick”.• “Ruse” means “deception”.• “Ruse” means “sham”.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 43 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Writing Q13• From Passage A:• Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the various theories which have been put forward as to why we dream, and the way dreams have been interpreted and used over the centuries.• USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 3 TO 6.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: One possible answer as to why we dream is that… [25 marks]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 44 Kuronekosan
  • How to Go About Writing a Summary 1127 GCE O Level English Language Paper6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 45 Kuronekosan
  • Content = You must try to write down about 17 to 19 FIRST PRIORITY points in the summary paragraph. However, if you are satisfied with 15 points and think that15 / 15 with the given time, you have done your best, then you just have to leave it as that. Time is precious – you must6/24/2011 move Hwee Prepared by Yeo Yam on. 46 Kuronekosan
  • USE OF Grammar - be consistent with the given passage. If presentENGLISH = SECOND PRIORITY tense is used, use the present tense. If past tense is used, use the past tense. Misspelling of words - keep it to the minimum.10 / 10 Sentence structures - make sure your sentences are not complicated. There should be connecting devices - and / so / however / Then again / thus / etc.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 47 Kuronekosan
  • USE OF Use wordsOWN carefully. Do not useWORDS = difficult words to THIRD PRIORITY show off your vocabulary. Do not misspell words. Be clear and simple.10 / 10 Can you understand your own word?6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 48 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 1: Read and understand the instructions given• Look at Question 14 of November 2007:• Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the uses that people have made of astronomy and astrology over the years.• USE ONLY MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM LINE 11 TO LINE 38.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (NOT NOTE FORM), must not be longer than words (not counting the words given to help you begin):• Begin your summary as follows: Astrologers believe that the movement of the moon and planets…. 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 49 Kuronekosan
  • What is the question requirement? What are we supposed to be summarising?6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 50 Kuronekosan
  • Which passage and which paragraphs to summarise?6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 51 Kuronekosan
  • STANDARD INSTRUCTION but do not take it for granted.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 52 Kuronekosan
  • STANDARD INSTRUCTION but do not take it for granted. Always begin your answer with the HELPING WORDS.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 53 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 1: Read and understand the instructions given6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 54 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 1• STEP 1: Analyse the question carefully.• Where is the relevant material in the passage? Between lines 11 and 38 of PASSAGE A.• Who should you be writing the summary to or for? You are writing to inform anybody who may be interested to know how people, over the years, have made use of astronomy and astrology.• Immediately, you have to be clear about three things:• [1] “Over the years” means “from the early days to present time”.• [2] “Astronomy” means “the scientific study of stars and planets”.• [This definition comes from Paragraph One of Passage A.]• Therefore, astronomy = a science.• [3] “Astrology” means “the belief in the influence of the stars on human lives”.• [This definition comes from Paragraph One of Passage A too.]• Thus, astrology = a belief or superstition.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 55 Kuronekosan
  • 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 56 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 3 Remember you should pick out 15 – 19 points.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 57 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 4 Weed out examples, details, repetitions and quotations. Never write anything such as dialogue in your summary.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 58 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 5 Use your own words as far as possible.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 59 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 6 When drafting your summary, write in complete sentences. YOUR SUMMARY IS ALWAYS ONE PARAGRAPH LONG, not more and not less.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 60 Kuronekosan
  • SUMMARY STEP 7 YOU HAVE TO COME UP WITH YOUR DRAFT ONE. MAKE IMPROVEMENTS TO CONTENT/GRAMMAR/ VOCABULARY TO COME UP WITH DRAFT TWO FOR SUBMISSION.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 61 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 3 One explanation for why we dream is that the brain produces random images during sleep and tricks sleepers into believing they are having real experiences – a likely origin of the word “dream” is, appropriately, the Sanskirt word meaning “deception” – but this fails to explain why dreams appear to be so necessary. Two contradictory hypotheses have been advanced. In the first, dreams are seen as a way of allowing the brain to maintain and reinforce experiences of the day, meaning that material studied just before bedtime will be retained most effectively. The second hypothesis asserts that dreaming allows us to rid the brain of unnecessary information, just as a computer can delete unwanted data.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 62 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 4 Whatever the truth of the matter, the content of dreams has been considered significant ever since 2000 B.C., when the Ancient Egyptians produced a papyrus document containing guidelines for the interpretation of dreams. This document suggested that a whole dream could be considered in terms of opposites, so that a happy dream could predict unhappiness, and vice versa. Furthermore, individual images could be interpreted through association, so that if, for example, you dreamed of a shoe, a journey was imminent.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 63 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 5It was the Ancient Greeks who suggested that there might be a connectionbetween dreams and physical well-being, which was the first time that theinterpretation of dreams did not merely predict future events. The Greeksestablished a number of shrines where sick people could be taken to becured. Here, the invalids would be given potions to induce sleep and,when they awoke, the resulting dreams would be scrutinized by a priest asa guide to diagnosis and healing. The Senoi people of Malaysia believedthat they could use their dreams to promote emotional health by adopting apro-active response to dreaming, so that if, for example, you weremenaced by danger in a dream, you should confront that danger when youawoke. Working on fears in this way was thought to have a beneficialeffect on the dreamer’s everyday life. This belief in the connectionbetween dreams and mental health reached its height at the end of thenineteenth century with the work of Sigmund Freud who, as a psychiatrist,used an analysis of his patients’ dreams in an attempt to cure them of theirmental illnesses.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 64 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 6 Although it is scientifically proven that all humans – evenbabies – dream, some people find this difficult to believe,and, indeed, most of us have great difficulty in rememberingour dream experiences with any real clarity. Exceptions tothis happen when people have dreams which recur nightafter night, often as the result of particularly striking events intheir lives. These are sometimes pleasant experiences, butnightmares induced by traumatic episodes are morecommon and may be particularly disturbing. Occasionally,valuable discoveries have resulted from vividly recollecteddreams; for example, the Russian chemist Mendeleyevdevised the first periodic table as the result of a dream, whilethe German acoustics expert Chladni claimed that theappearance of a tuba in a dream led to his invention of thisrather unusual musical instrument.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 65 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Writing Q13 Using your own words as far as possible summarise the various theories which have been put forward as to why we dream, and the way dreams have been interpreted and used over the centuries.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 66 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Writing Q13 USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 3 TO 6.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 67 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Writing Q13 Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 68 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Writing Q13 Begin your summary as follows: One possible answer as to why we dream is that… [25 marks]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 69 Kuronekosan
  • summarise the various theories which have been put forward as to why we dream, and the way dreams have been interpreted and used over the centuries.A. Why do B. How dreams C. How dreams have been have been usedwe dream interpreted over over the the centuries centuries6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 70 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 3 One explanation for why we dream is that the brain produces random images during sleep and tricks sleepers into believing they are having real experiences – a likely origin of the word “dream” is, appropriately, the Sanskirt word meaning “deception” – but this fails to explain why dreams appear to be so necessary. Two contradictory hypotheses have been advanced. In the first, dreams are seen as a way of allowing the brain to maintain and reinforce experiences of the day, meaning that material studied just before bedtime will be retained most effectively. The second hypothesis asserts that dreaming allows us to rid the brain of unnecessary information, just as a computer can delete unwanted data.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 71 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 3One explanation for why we dream is thatthe brain produces random images duringsleep and tricks sleepers into believingthey are having real experiences – a likelyorigin of the word “dream” is,appropriately, the Sanskirt word meaning“deception” – but this fails to explain whydreams appear to be so necessary. Twocontradictory hypotheses have beenadvanced. In the first, dreams are seen asa way of allowing the brain to maintain andreinforce experiences of the day, meaning A hypothesis – Anthat material studied just before bedtime assumptionwill be retained most effectively. The or possible explanationsecond hypothesis asserts that dreamingallows us to rid the brain of unnecessaryinformation, just as a computer can deleteunwanted data.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 72 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 3One explanation for why we dream is that [A1] Our brain producesthe brain produces random images during random images during oursleep and tricks sleepers into believing sleep.they are having real experiences – a likelyorigin of the word “dream” is, [A2] Our brain tricksappropriately, the Sanskirt word meaning Sleepers into believing they“deception” – but this fails to explain why are having real experiences.dreams appear to be so necessary. Twocontradictory hypotheses have beenadvanced. In the first, dreams are seen as [A3] Dreams allow oura way of allowing the brain to maintain and brain to maintain andreinforce experiences of the day, meaning reinforce experiences ofthat material studied just before bedtime the day.will be retained most effectively. Thesecond hypothesis asserts that dreaming [A4] Dreams allow ourallows us to rid the brain of unnecessary brain to get rid ofinformation, just as a computer can delete unnecessary informationunwanted data.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 73 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 4 Whatever the truth of the matter, the content of dreams has been considered significant ever since 2000 B.C., when the Ancient Egyptians produced a papyrus document containing guidelines for the interpretation of dreams. This document suggested that a whole dream could be considered in terms of opposites, so that a happy dream could predict unhappiness, and vice versa. Furthermore, individual images could be interpreted through association, so that if, for example, you dreamed of a shoe, a journey was imminent.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 74 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 4Whatever the truth of the matter,the content of dreams has beenconsidered significant ever since2000 B.C., when the AncientEgyptians produced a papyrusdocument containing guidelines forthe interpretation of dreams. Thisdocument suggested that a wholedream could be considered interms of opposites, so that ahappy dream could predictunhappiness, and vice versa.Furthermore, individual imagescould be interpreted throughassociation, so that if, forexample, you dreamed of a shoe, ajourney was imminent.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 75 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 4Whatever the truth of the matter,the content of dreams has beenconsidered significant ever since2000 B.C., when the AncientEgyptians produced a papyrusdocument containing guidelines for [B1] A dream could bethe interpretation of dreams. This considered in terms ofdocument suggested that a whole opposites.dream could be considered interms of opposites, so that a [B2] A dream of happinesshappy dream could predict could predict unhappinessunhappiness, and vice versa. [B3] Dream images could beFurthermore, individual images interpreted throughcould be interpreted through association.association, so that if, forexample, you dreamed of a shoe, [B4] An object dreamed maya journey was imminent. be associated with a future6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee event in one’s life. 76 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 5It was the Ancient Greeks who suggestedthat there might be a connection betweendreams and physical well-being, which wasthe first time that the interpretation ofdreams did not merely predict futureevents. The Greeks established a numberof shrines where sick people could betaken to be cured. Here, the invalids wouldbe given potions to induce sleep and, whenthey awoke, the resulting dreams would bescrutinized by a priest as a guide todiagnosis and healing. The Senoi peopleof Malaysia believed that they could usetheir dreams to promote emotional healthby adopting a pro-active response todreaming, so that if, for example, you weremenaced by danger in a dream, you shouldconfront that danger when you awoke.Working on fears in this way was thoughtto have a beneficial effect on the dreamer’severyday life. This belief in the connectionbetween dreams and mental healthreached its height at the end of thenineteenth century with the work ofSigmund Freud who, as a psychiatrist,used an analysis of his patients’ dreams inan attempt to cure them of their mentalillnesses.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 77 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 5It was the Ancient Greeks who suggested that theremight be a connection between dreams andphysical well-being, which was the first time that theinterpretation of dreams did not merely predictfuture events. The Greeks established a numberof shrines where sick people could be taken tobe cured. Here, the invalids would be givenpotions to induce sleep and, when they awoke,the resulting dreams would be scrutinized by apriest as a guide to diagnosis and healing. TheSenoi people of Malaysia believed that theycould use their dreams to promote emotionalhealth by adopting a pro-active response todreaming, so that if, for example, you weremenaced by danger in a dream, you shouldconfront that danger when you awoke. Workingon fears in this way was thought to have a beneficialeffect on the dreamer’s everyday life. This belief inthe connection between dreams and mental healthreached its height at the end of the nineteenthcentury with the work of Sigmund Freud who, as apsychiatrist, used an analysis of his patients’dreams in an attempt to cure them of theirmental illnesses.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 78 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 5It was the Ancient Greeks who suggested that there [C1 & C2] Greek shrinesmight be a connection between dreams and for the sick let theirphysical well-being, which was the first time that theinterpretation of dreams did not merely predict patients takefuture events. The Greeks established a number sleeping potions andof shrines where sick people could be taken to the priest analysed theirbe cured. Here, the invalids would be given dreams to diagnose andpotions to induce sleep and, when they awoke,the resulting dreams would be scrutinized by a heal their ailments.priest as a guide to diagnosis and healing. TheSenoi people of Malaysia believed that they [C3 & C4] Malaysia’s Senoicould use their dreams to promote emotionalhealth by adopting a pro-active response to people used their dreamsdreaming, so that if, for example, you were to promote emotionalmenaced by danger in a dream, you should health by adopting aconfront that danger when you awoke. Working pro-active response toon fears in this way was thought to have a beneficialeffect on the dreamer’s everyday life. This belief in dreaming.the connection between dreams and mental healthreached its height at the end of the nineteenthcentury with the work of Sigmund Freud who, as a [C5] Sigmund Freudpsychiatrist, used an analysis of his patients’ analysed dreams todreams in an attempt to cure them of their cure his patients’mental illnesses. mental illnesses.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 79 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 6Although it is scientifically proven that allhumans – even babies – dream, some peoplefind this difficult to believe, and, indeed, mostof us have great difficulty in remembering ourdream experiences with any real clarity.Exceptions to this happen when people havedreams which recur night after night, often asthe result of particularly striking events in theirlives. These are sometimes pleasantexperiences, but nightmares induced bytraumatic episodes are more common and maybe particularly disturbing. Occasionally,valuable discoveries have resulted from vividlyrecollected dreams; for example, the Russianchemist Mendeleyev devised the first periodictable as the result of a dream, while theGerman acoustics expert Chladni claimed thatthe appearance of a tuba in a dream led to hisinvention of this rather unusual musicalinstrument.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 80 Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 6Although it is scientifically proven that allhumans – even babies – dream, somepeople find this difficult to believe, and,indeed, most of us have great difficulty inremembering our dream experiences withany real clarity. Exceptions to this happenwhen people have dreams which recurnight after night, often as the result ofparticularly striking events in their lives.These are sometimes pleasantexperiences, but nightmares induced bytraumatic episodes are more commonand may be particularly disturbing.Occasionally, valuable discoveries haveresulted from vividly recollected dreams; forexample, the Russian chemistMendeleyev devised the first periodictable as the result of a dream, while theGerman acoustics expert Chladniclaimed that the appearance of a tuba ina dream led to his invention of this rather 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 81unusual musical instrument. Kuronekosan
  • PARAGRAPH 6Although it is scientifically proven that all humans– even babies – dream, some people find thisdifficult to believe, and, indeed, most of us have [A5] Striking personalgreat difficulty in remembering our dream events caused recurringexperiences with any real clarity. Exceptions to dreams.this happen when people have dreams whichrecur night after night, often as the result ofparticularly striking events in their lives.These are sometimes pleasant experiences, [A6] Traumatic experiencesbut nightmares induced by traumatic generate nightmaresepisodes are more common and may beparticularly disturbing. Occasionally, valuablediscoveries have resulted from vividly recollecteddreams; for example, the Russian chemist [C6] Mendeleyev dreamedMendeleyev devised the first periodic table as and came devised the firstthe result of a dream, while the German Periodic table.acoustics expert Chladni claimed that theappearance of a tuba in a dream led to hisinvention of this rather unusual musical [C7] Chladni dreamedinstrument. and invented the first tuba.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 82 Kuronekosan
  • A. Why do we dream B. How dreams have been C. How dreams have been used interpreted over the centuries over the centuries1. Our brain produces 1. A dream could be 1 and 2. Greek shrines for the sick letrandom images during our sleep. considered in terms of opposites. their patients take sleeping potions and the priest analysed their dreams to2. Our brain tricks 2. A dream of happiness diagnose and heal their ailments.Sleepers into believing they could predict unhappinessare having real experiences.3. Dreams allow our brain to maintain 3. Dream images could be 3 and 4. Malaysia’s Senoi people usedand reinforce experiences of the day. interpreted through association. their dreamsto promote emotional health by adopting a pro-active response to dreaming.4. Dreams allow our brain to get rid of 4. An object dreamed may 5. Sigmund Freud analysed dreams tounnecessary information be associated with a future cure his patients’ mental illnesses. event in one’s life.5. Striking personal events caused 6. Mendeleyev dreamed and camerecurring dreams. devised the first periodic table.6. Traumatic experiences generatenightmares 7. Chladni dreamed and invented the first tuba. 6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 83 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Draft OneOne possible answer as to why we dream is that our brain producesrandom images during our sleep. Our brain tricks sleepers into believingthey are having real experiences. Dreams allow our brain to maintain andreinforce experiences of the day.Dreams allow our brain to get rid ofunnecessary information. Striking personal events caused recurringdreams. Traumatic experiences generate nightmares. A dream could beconsidered in terms of opposites. A dream of happiness could predictunhappiness. Dream images could be interpreted through association. Anobject dreamed may be associated with a future event in one’s life. Greekshrines for the sick let their patients take sleeping potions and the priestanalysed their dreams to diagnose and heal their ailments. Malaysia’s Senoipeople used their dreamsto promote emotional health by adopting a pro-active response to dreaming. Sigmund Freud analysed dreams to cure hispatients’ mental illnesses. Mendeleyev dreamed and came devised the firstperiodic table. Chladni dreamed and invented the first tuba. [151 words]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 84 Kuronekosan
  • Use of connectives You need to Use of correct tense consider the Use of correct spelling Logical sequencing of points use of English.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 85 Kuronekosan
  • USE OF VOCABULARY – YOUR OWN WORDS WHICH DO NOT ADD NEW MEANING OR CHANGE ANY MEANING OF THE ORIGINAL PASSAGE.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 86 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Draft OneOne possible answer as to why we dream is that our brain producesrandom images during our sleep. Our brain tricks sleepers into believingthey are having real experiences. Dreams allow our brain to maintain andreinforce experiences of the day.Dreams allow our brain to get rid ofunnecessary information. Striking personal events caused recurringdreams. Traumatic experiences generate nightmares. A dream could beconsidered in terms of opposites. A dream of happiness could predictunhappiness. Dream images could be interpreted through association. Anobject dreamed may be associated with a future event in one’s life. Greekshrines for the sick let their patients take sleeping potions and the priestanalysed their dreams to diagnose and heal their ailments. Malaysia’s Senoipeople used their dreams to promote emotional health by adopting a pro-active response to dreaming. Sigmund Freud analysed dreams to cure hispatients’ mental illnesses. Mendeleyev dreamed and devised the firstperiodic table. Chladni dreamed and invented the first tuba. [150 words]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 87 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence• One possible • One possible answer as to why answer as to why we dream is that we dream is that our brain produces our brain produces random images random images during our sleep. during our sleep. It Our brain tricks tricks sleepers into sleepers into believing they are believing they are having real having real experiences. experiences.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 88 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence Dreams allow Dreams allow our brain to our brain to maintain and maintain and reinforce reinforce experiences of experiences of the day. Dreams the day and get allow our brain rid of to get rid of unnecessary unnecessary information. information.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 89 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence Striking Striking personal events personal events caused recurring caused recurring dreams. dreams while Traumatic traumatic experiences experiences generate generate nightmares. nightmares.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 90 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence A dream could be A dream could be considered in considered in terms of terms of opposites A . ; opposites a dream of dream of happiness could happiness could predict predict unhappiness. unhappiness.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 91 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence Dream images could Dream images be interpreted could be through interpreted association. An through object dreamed may association; an be associated with a object dreamed future event in one’s may be life. associated with a future event in one’s life.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 92 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by Sentence Greek shrines for the sick let their patients There seems to be no need to do anything to these take sleeping potions sentences. and the priest analysed their dreams to diagnose and heal their ailments. Malaysia’s Senoi people used their dreams to promote emotional health by adopting a pro-active response to dreaming.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 93 Kuronekosan
  • Sentence by SentenceSigmund Freud Sigmund Freudanalysed dreams to analysed dreams tocure his patients’ cure his patients’mental illnesses. mental illnesses.Mendeleyev dreamed Mendeleyev dreamedand devised the first and devised the firstperiodic table. periodic table whileChladni dreamed and Chladni dreamed andinvented the first invented the firsttuba. tuba.6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 94 Kuronekosan
  • Summary Draft Two One possible answer as to why we dream is that our brain produces random images during our sleep. It tricks sleepers into believing they are having real experiences. Dreams allow our brain to maintain and reinforce experiences of the day and get rid of unnecessary information. Striking personal events caused recurring dreams while traumatic experiences generate nightmares. A dream could be considered in terms of opposites; a dream of happiness could predict unhappiness. Dream images could be interpreted through association; an object dreamed may be associated with a future event in one’s life. Greek shrines for the sick let their patients take sleeping potions and the priest analysed their dreams to diagnose and heal their ailments. Malaysia’s Senoi people used their dreams to promote emotional health by adopting a pro-active response to dreaming. Sigmund Freud analysed dreams to cure his patients’ mental illnesses. Mendeleyev dreamed and devised the first periodic table while Chladni dreamed and invented the first tuba. [149 words]6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 95 Kuronekosan
  • Prepared by6/24/2011 Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 96 Kuronekosan