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November 2008 Cats and the fate of Mau

November 2008 Cats and the fate of Mau

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    November 2008 cats-paragraphs 2 -5 summary step 1 - step 5 November 2008 cats-paragraphs 2 -5 summary step 1 - step 5 Presentation Transcript

    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011SUMMARY STEPS 1 TO 5 Written by Yeo Yam HweeSTEP 1: Reading and understanding the given instructions Determining PRECISELY what is it you are supposed to be summarizing. Using there are two to three things to note.From Passage A: 14. Using your own words as far as possible, summarize the ways in which the attitudes of human beings towards cats, and their treatment of these animals, have changed over the centuries.ASummarise the ways in which the thinking andfeelings of human beings towards cats havechanged over the centuries - Man’s attitudinalchange towards cats over the centuries.From Passage A: 14.Using your own words as far as possible, summarize the ways in which the attitudes of human beings towards cats, and their treatment of these animals, have changed over the centuries.BSummarise how man’s treatment of catshas changed over the centuries. 1
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011STEP 1: Do not neglect reading the instructions COMPLETELY. Never assume the “STANDARD” part of the question will always remain the same.USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 2 TO 5.Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longerthan 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).Begin your summary as follows: The initial attitude of Egyptians towards cats was one of… [25] 2
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011STEP 2: Picking out the RELEVANT pointsPassage A Paragraph 2 A. How man’s attitude towards cats B. How man’s treatment of catsDomestication of the cat probably first took place has changed over the centuries has changed over the centurieswhen the African wild cat, a lithe animal very [1] Ancient Egyptian farmerssimilar to the common striped tabby in colour, made use of cats to protect /took on a practical importance for the Ancient guard their stored grains againstEgyptians. Egypt was the greatest corn-growing mice and rats.area in the ancient world, and the huge granaries,which were constructed to store the grain, needed [2] They generally pampered andcats as custodians to stop the ravages of mice sometimes worshipped cats.and rats. Indeed, cats came to play such acomplex and important role in the lives of these [3] They thought the cat’s unblinkingfarmers that they were much pampered and, in gaze held the key to the truth andsome cases, worshipped. The original Egyptian understanding of the afterlife.name for the cat was “mau”, perhaps from its callof “miaow”, but this also means “to see”, andEgyptians believed that the cat’s unblinkinggaze gave it powers to seek out truth and to see [4] Families mourned when a catinto the afterlife. On the death of a cat, whole died, embalmed it and placed it infamilies would go into mourning, and the cat’s a sacred vault.body would be embalmed and placed in asacred vault. 3
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011Passage A Paragraph 3 A. How man’s attitude towards cats B. How man’s treatment of cats hasThe custom of keeping cats spread slowly has changed over the centuries changed over the centuriesthroughout the Middle East and beyond. ASanskrit document of 1000 B.C. mentions a pet [5] Ancient Indian epicscat, and the Indian epics, “Ramayana” and recorded the worship of“Mahabharata” of about 500 B.C. both contain Sasti, the cat goddess.stories about cats. The Indians at that timeworshipped a feline goddess called Sasti, andfor decades Hindus were obliged to take [6] in which Hindusresponsibility for feeding at least one cat, to believed in feeding cats toextend the life of their family members. By the prolong their familytwelfth century A.D., rich Chinese families were members’ lives.keeping yellow and white cats known as “lion-cats”, which were highly valued as pets, while [7] Later, rich Chinese familiesless sophisticated breeds still continued to be kept “lion-cats” as pets.used to control the problem of vermin. Pet catswere introduced into Japan from China andbecame just as highly prized. It is recorded that [8] while the Chinese still used thewhen, on the tenth day of the full moon, the ordinary cats for pest control.Emperor’s cat gave birth to five white kittens, anurse was appointed to see that they werebrought up as carefully as royal princes and [9] The Japanese Emperor’s nurseprincesses. was task to look after his kittens carefully as his royal children. 4
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011Passage A Paragraph 4 A. How man’s attitude towards cats B. How man’s treatment of cats hasGods of one religion may become demons to has changed over the centuries changed over the centuriesothers, and in medieval Europe, the cat’s [10] Medieval Europeans were“unblinking gaze”, so admired by the suspicious of cats because theyEgyptians, coupled with its nocturnal habits were active at night and movedand independence, invoked considerable about unrestrained.suspicion. Black cats, in particular, came to beregarded as evil, associated with witches, and [11] Black cats were seen asthe devil himself was often pictured as a black evil.cat. In these primitive times, many innocentpeople in Europe were accused of witchcraft. [12] Black cats were associatedWhen witch-hunting, as it came to be known, with witches and the devils.reached its climax, cats figured prominently inmost of the trials of the accused. Even now, [13] Cat owners were unfairlysome people think it is unlucky if a black cat accused of practising witchcraft.crosses their path, although, paradoxically,people in many western countries think of blackcats as a sign of good fortune. [14] Although some people still consider it unlucky if a black cat crosses one’s path [15] …in the West, black cats are now considered a sign of good fortune. 5
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011Passage A Paragraph 5 A. How man’s attitude towards cats B. How man’s treatment of cats hasNowadays, though, we seldom consider cats to has changed over the centuries changed over the centuriesbe either sacred or evil, and they are probablythe most commonly kept domestic animal in [16] Cats are rarely thoughtmost parts of the world. Today’s cat tolerates its of in moral terms today.relationship with humans and takes advantage ofthe comforts of a good home environment whileretaining its independent nature. The innate [17] They are popularbehaviour patterns of the cat’s wild ancestors still household pets.exist in cats kept as pets, and even the most highly-bred and pampered of today’s cats will react to thethrill of hunting and retain all the physical skillsand abilities of their forebears. The specialized [18] Bird lovers see cats asteeth and retractable claws of cats helped to ensure enemies.their survival as carnivores during their evolution,and these qualities still stand a cat in good stead.Indeed, those who value the variety of birdlifein parks and gardens often see the cat as anenemy, and responsible cat owners frequentlyfit small bells to their pets’ collars to warn wildbirds that a cat is approaching. 6
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011STEP 3: Putting the points (sometimes points, sometimes sentences) togetherSENTENCE SUMMARY 1 Ancient Egyptian farmers made use of cats to protect / guard their stored grains against mice and rats. 2 They generally pampered and sometimes worshipped cats. 3 They thought the cat’s unblinking gaze held the key to the truth and understanding of the afterlife. 4 Families mourned when a cat died, embalmed it and placed it in a sacred vault. 5 Ancient Indian epics recorded the worship of Sasti, the cat goddess. 6 in which Hindus believed in feeding cats to prolong their family members’ lives. 7 Later, rich Chinese families kept “lion-cats” as pets. 8 while the Chinese still used the ordinary cats for pest control. 9 The Japanese Emperor’s nurse was task to look after his kittens carefully as his royal children. 10 Medieval Europeans were suspicious of cats because they were active at night and moved about unrestrained. 11 Black cats were seen as evil. 12 Black cats were associated with witches and the devils. 13 Cat owners were unfairly accused of practising witchcraft. 14 Although some people still consider it unlucky if a black cat crosses one’s path 15 …in the West, black cats are now considered a sign of good fortune. 16 Cats are rarely thought of in moral terms today. 17 They are popular household pets. 18 Bird lovers see cats as enemies. 7
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011STEP 4: PUTTING THE FIRST DRAFT TOGETHER COUNTING THE NUMBER OF WORDS TO 150.The initial attitude of Egyptians towards cats was one of… Ancient Egyptian farmers made use of cats toprotect / guard their stored grains against mice and rats. They generally pampered and sometimes worshipped catsThey thought the cat’s unblinking gaze held the key to the truth and understanding of the afterlife. Families mourned whena cat died, embalmed it and placed it in a sacred vault. Ancient Indian epics recorded the worship of Sasti, the catgoddess. in which Hindus believed in feeding cats to prolong their family members’ lives. Later, rich Chinese families kept“lion-cats” as pets. while the Chinese still used the ordinary cats for pest control. The Japanese Emperor’s nurse wastask to look after his kittens carefully as his royal children. Medieval Europeans were suspicious of cats because theywere active at night and moved about unrestrained. Black cats were seen as evil. Black cats were associated withwitches and the devils. Cat owners were unfairly accused of practising witchcraft. Although some people still consider itunlucky if a black cat crosses one’s path …in the West, black cats are now considered a sign of good fortune. Cats arerarely thought of in moral terms today. They are popular household pets. Bird lovers see cats as enemies. [200 overwords]STEP 5: WORKING TO PERFECT THE FIRST DRAFT - Correction / Cancellation / Linking / Shaping the Summary ParaThe initial attitude of Egyptians towards cats was one of… Ancient Egyptian farmers made use of cats toprotect / guard their stored grains against mice and rats. They generally pampered and sometimes worshipped catsThey thought the cat’s unblinking gaze held the key to the truth and understanding of the afterlife. Families mourned whena cat died, embalmed it and placed it in a sacred vault. Ancient Indian epics recorded the worship of Sasti, the catgoddess. in which Hindus believed in feeding cats to prolong their family members’ lives. Later, rich Chinese families kept“lion-cats” as pets. while the Chinese still used the ordinary cats for pest control. The Japanese Emperor’s nurse wastask to look after his kittens carefully as his royal children. Medieval Europeans were suspicious of cats because theywere active at night and moved about unrestrained. Black cats were seen as evil. Black cats were associated withwitches and the devils. Cat owners were unfairly accused of practising witchcraft. Although some people still consider itunlucky if a black cat crosses one’s path …in the West, black cats are now considered a sign of good fortune. Cats arerarely thought of in moral terms today. They are popular household pets. Bird lovers see cats as enemies. 8
    • SUMMARY WRITING KEYNovember 2011 9