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Final Instalment before I move on to the next big thing

Final Instalment before I move on to the next big thing

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    Marker's report 1127 english sec 3 el paper 2 Marker's report 1127 english sec 3 el paper 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Marker’ Marker’s Report English Language 1127 Paper 2 Secondary Two Mid Year Examinations 2011 Set, marked and reported by Yeo Yam Hwee Also7/3/2011 available at www.nekosan-nekosan.blogspot.com Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 1 Kuronekosan
    • YOU NEED TO HAVE A GOOD ENGLISH DICTIONARY WITH YOU AT HOME OR IN YOUR SCHOOL BAG. ALTERNATIVELY, LOG ON TO www.dictionary.com SO THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS HAVE AN ON-LINE REFERENCE WHENEVER YOU READ OR WRITE.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 2 Kuronekosan
    • WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW1. 1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing) is 50 marks.2. Maximum: 60 minutes to be spent on Comprehension and Vocabulary Questions.3. Maximum: 40 minutes to be spent on Summary Writing.4. Do not get stuck on ANY one question.5. Answer the questions in the ORDER set.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 3 Kuronekosan
    • SPECIFICALLY1. 1127 Paper 2 (Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing) is 50 marks.2. YOU MUST READ THE QUESTIONS FIRST, PLOT THE QUESTION SKELETON AND THEN READ THE PASSAGES within 7 – 10 minutes.3. Maximum: 50 minutes to be spent on Comprehension and Vocabulary Questions.4. Maximum: 40 minutes to be spent on Summary Writing.5. Do not get stuck on ANY one question.6. Answer the questions in the ORDER set.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 4 Kuronekosan
    • WATCH and BEAT THE CLOCK 1127 Paper 2 – Comprehension 1 HOUR and Summary Writing Paper 40 MINUTES Reading the questions 7 – 10 Reading the insert passages Marking out the answer skeleton MINUTES Naturally you will need to refer to the questions and the insert passages time and again during the duration of the examination. Working on the Comprehension And Vocabulary Questions 40 MINUTES Working on the Summary Writing 40 MINUTES CHECKING THROUGH YOUR 10 MINUTES ANSWER SCRIPT7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 5 Kuronekosan
    • The Answer Skeleton – Q1 (1m) For a ONE-mark 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave two lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer.INDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 6 Kuronekosan
    • Why bother to leave 3 lines? Scratch away the 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX answer you no longer need neatly and clearly. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATE Rewrite your preferred answer to Question 1THE QUESTION here. However, do not make it a habit.NUMBERS CLEARLY 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 7 Kuronekosan
    • The Answer Skeleton – Q2 (2m) 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX For a TWO-mark question, leave FOUR lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 3 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 8 Kuronekosan
    • FOR THE 5 Vocabulary Questions – Q15 (5m) For each 1-mark 15(1) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave ONE line for writing down your answer. 15(2) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Leave 1 line empty before you begin writing down your answerto the next question.INDICATETHE XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXQUESTIONNUMBERSCLEARLY. “Tentatively” means “gingerly”. 15(5) “Offering” means “sacrifice”. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 9 Kuronekosan
    • FOR THE SUMMARY Question – Q16 (25m) 16 SUMMARY - FINAL DRAFT Write these words clearly.INDICATE THE The factors contributing to the demise of the tiger are……………..SUMMARYQUESTIONNUMBER Leave a line after every written line.CLEARLY. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx YOU SHOULD USE OTHER SHEETS OF PAPER TO WORK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX OUT YOUR POINT ORGANISER AND YOUR FIRST DRAFT. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(148 words) THEN ALWAYS Indicate clearly the total number of words, not BEGIN YOUR counting the helping words. SUMMARY FINAL DRAFT ON A NEW PAGE. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 10 Kuronekosan
    • The General Guidelines for Marking and Awarding of Marks• Read Passages A and B in the insert provided carefully before you attempt any questions. Answer all questions. You are recommended to answer them in the order set. Mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar may be penalized in any part of the paper.• GENERAL UNDERSTANDING FOR MARKING THE SCRIPTS:• Please do not deduct any marks for grammar / misspelling or punctuation sips when marking Questions 1 to 14.• Award marks for comprehension. When in doubt, ask ourselves – Did the answer deliver an understanding of the question asked?• Determine if the candidate has understood the question and provided a reasonable answer before awarding the marks.• Do not award ½ mark under any circumstances when scoring any 1 mark question.• For an incomplete answer to a 1-mark question, award no marks.• Guidelines to O level marking of Paper 2 applies.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 11 Kuronekosan
    • Marker’s Report1. Many students read but did not understand the passages A and / or B.2. Many students also read but did not understand most / some of the questions.3. Because of [1] and [2] above, most did not garner full marks because the answers were mostly incomplete.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 12 Kuronekosan
    • Markers’ Report 4. Weaker students also did not read the question and the information which accompanied the question carefully and use such information to their advantage when answering the question. The question concerns this paragraph. The answer also comes from an understanding achieved after readingFrom paragraph 3 information from this paragraph.7. Explain fully, in your own words as far as possible, why running away from the tsunami is a futile attempt. [2 marks]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 13 Kuronekosan
    • Tear the question apart when reading it so that you do not miss out any one part of the Question7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 14 Kuronekosan
    • [1] Explain fully, [2] in your own words [3] as far as possible, [4] why running away from the tsunami [5] is a futile attempt. Tear the question apart when reading it so that you do not miss out any one part of the7/3/2011 Question Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 15 Kuronekosan
    • How much is the question worth? ASK YOURSELF – WHY?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 16 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 1 All of those broken bones in northern Japan, all of those broken lives and those broken homes prompt us to remember what in calmer times we invariably forget: the most stern and chilling of mantras holds, quite simply, that mankind inhabits this earth subject to geological consent, which can be withdrawn at any time.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 17 Kuronekosan
    • All of those broken bones How painful is the experience in northern Japan, all of for the Japanese? those broken lives and Extremely painful and heart- those broken homes wrenching. prompt us to remember what in calmer times we Invariably – repeatedly / invariably forget: the most constantly / over and over again. stern and chilling of mantras holds, quite simply, Mantra – a principle that mankind inhabits this Mantra – truth Mantra – a rule earth subject to geological consent, which can be “Withdrawn” means “taken withdrawn at any time. back”, “taken away”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 18 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 1 Northeast Region Japan Quake 20117/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 19 Kuronekosan
    • Natori, Miyagi prefecture, April 11, 2011Members of the Japan Self-Defense Force and firemen hold a moment of silence forthe victims of the earthquake and the tsunami. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 20 Kuronekosan
    • Ishinomaki, Miyagi prefecture, April 10, 2011 Tsunami survivor Kenichi Kurosawa and his friends write "Ganbaro!," or "Hang in there," on a billboard lit up by car headlights nearly one month after the area was devastated by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 21 Kuronekosan
    • Destroyed A man walks through Onagawa, Miyagi prefecture, on April 10, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 22 Kuronekosan
    • Grim Task Members of the Metropolitan Police Department search for victims of the tragedy in Rikuzentakata, Miyagi prefecture, on April 9, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 23 Kuronekosan
    • Barely Standing A destroyed building in Otsuchi, Iwate prefecture, on April 9, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 24 Kuronekosan
    • Yamamoto, Miyagi prefecture, April 8, 2011 Members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces bow to pay respect to unidentified victims of the earthquake and tsunami.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 25 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 17/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 26 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 2 For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011. One moment, all were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake. At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. However, minutes later, a low rumble from the east, the coastal waters off the northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out to sea. The rumbling continued. People began to spy a ragged white line on the horizon, and, with unimaginable ferocity, the line became clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height. Seconds later, these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japanese seawalls, surmounted them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond, in what would become a dispassionate and detached orgy of utter destruction. The sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry- docked boats on the roofs of buildings and shuffled houses like playing cards. There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 27 Kuronekosan
    • For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011. One moment, all were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake. At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. However, minutes later, a low rumble from the east, the coastal waters off the northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out to sea. The rumbling continued. People began to spy a ragged white line on the horizon, and, with unimaginable ferocity, the line became clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height. Seconds later, these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japanese seawalls, surmounted them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond, in what would become a dispassionate and detached orgy of utter destruction. The sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roofs of buildings and shuffled houses like playing cards. There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 28 Kuronekosan
    • Ragged white lines on the horizon7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 29 Kuronekosan
    • A stretch of seawall7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 30 Kuronekosan
    • COASTAL TOWN7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 31 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 32 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q1 – 1 mark Quote a sentence which tells you that the normal lives of the Japanese were being disrupted by the forces of nature on 11 March 2011. ANSWER: The normal lives of the Japanese One moment, all were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake.The disruption from the forces of nature That day – 11 March 2011 HOW TO MARK: • Incomplete answer / Incomplete sentence / Any other sentence = 0 • Any part of the sentence being left out, intentionally or otherwise = 0 • Answer must clearly show candidate’s understanding of what a sentence is. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 33 Kuronekosan
    • PA-P2-Q1: Students’ input included: All were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake. For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011. At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. All these are unacceptable.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 34 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q1Raiyan Matin The sentence is “For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2.46 p.m. on 11 March 2011”.Liang Zhen The sentence is “all were going about their day-to-day business and the ground began to shake”.Jerhythm The sentence is “their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake”.Hosea Ho The sentence is “There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables.”. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 35 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q1Farah Nabilah The sentence is “seconds later, these Pacific Ocean hit the Japanese seawalls, surmounted them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond.”Evyn Woon The sentence is “For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness of 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011.”.Sharifah Farah The sentence is “People began to spy a ragged white line on the horizon, and, with unimaginable ferocity, the line became clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height.”Vandetta Ong The sentence is “Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food.” 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 36 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q1Julia The sentence is “all were going about their day to day business and then the ground began to shake”.Felicia Poh The sentence is “The three storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roof of buildings and shuffled houses like playing cards”.Neo Yew The sentence is “the ground began to shake”.ChuanWan Shun The sentence is “There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables”. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 37 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q1Yan Biao The sentence is “this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 pm on 11 March 2011”.Bai Bo Cheng For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 pm on 11 March 2011.Azly Mohd The sentence is “At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well accustomed”.Marcus Ma The sentence is “Seconds later, these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japanese sea walls, summounted them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond, in what would become dispassionate and7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 38 detached orgyKuronekosan of utter destruction”.
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q1Clement The sentence is ‘this consent was withdrawnFoo with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m.”Hazmie The sentence is “For the Japanese, thisAfiq concert was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011”.Mairah The sentence is ‘all were going about their day to day business and then the ground began to shake.’Matthias The sentence is “going about day to day bussiness when the ground shake”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 39 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q1 The sentence is ‘For the Japanese, this consent wasElizabeth withdrawn with shocking suddeness at 2.46 an 11 March 2011.’ “However, minutes later, a low rumble from the east, theAlysha coastal waters off the northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out of the sea.” tells me that the normal lives of the Japanese were being disrupted by the forces of nature on 11 march 2011. People stopped diving under tables. Those who made itYu Qi safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold. In lines that stretched for hours for water and food. The sentence is “The three-storey wall of water dissolvedYi Qi coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roofs of bulidings (sic) and survied (sic) the quake were ravaged by the7/3/2011 waves.” Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 40 Kuronekosan
    • PA-P2-Q1: Advice to studentsQuote a sentence which tells you thatthe normal lives of the Japanese were Understand the conceptsbeing disrupted by the forces of nature ofon 11 March 2011. Sentence Verb Clause Adjective Expression Adverb Phrase Noun Always look for the given One moment, all were sentence which contains going about their day- the closest meaning to-day business and to what is being then the ground began paraphrased or explained to shake. to you by the setter.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 41 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2 (2 marks) What does the expression, “unimaginable ferocity” (line 13) suggest about the nature of the waves?ANSWER: The waves were extremely powerful and/or violent (= ferocity) [1] , quite beyond what anybody could ever think of (= unimaginable) [1]. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 42 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q2Wesley Tei The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the nature of the waves were really huge and how fearful it was that no one could imagine how strong was it.Fila “Unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the nature of the waves was unbelieveably pulled back far away from the shore.Benson Lim It mean “the people had never imagine this kind of wave before.”Yong Kang The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggests that the nature of the waves are surprising dangerous. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 43 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q2Darren Cheah It suggest that the waves were very violent, so violent that it was unimaginable.Nurul It suggested that the nature of the waves is unpredictable asShafiqah at any point of time, it can just swept away the whole island.Sharifah Farah The expression “unimaginable ferocity” tells us that “they were curious and frightened what will happen next”.Jon Tan It suggest that the waves were fierce. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 44 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q2Coen Tay The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the waves were unthinkable and fierce.Justin Ho It suggests that the waves coming in was very fast in speed and fierce in the mount of power it had.Simapreet It suggests that the waves can get very nasty such that no one would ever believe it can happen.Jonathan The expression tells me that the force of the wave was veryChow strong and it was moving very swiftly. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 45 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q2Farah Nabilah The expression of “unimaginable ferocity” is very big and scary and can’t be imagine.Evyn Woon It suggests that the waves were rushing towards the shore with such speed that it was as if the waves were at the people.Lee Xin Wei It suggest that the waves is unimaginable big and strong.Doris Lim The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the waves were so strong and nobody expected it to be so big and sudden. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 46 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q2Yee Ning The “unimaginable ferocity” suggest the nature of the waves were beyond what the people expected and it was extremely strong.Xu Hui It suggests the nature of the waves is very strong and powerful.Darius Lim It sugest that the waves are very strong and huge.Boon Wee The nature of the waves are very strong and unexpected.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 47 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q2Martin Lim It sugest that the line became clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height.Julia The expression of “unimaginable ferocity” suggest about the waves have reach the highest height.Izzaty It suggest that the waves were so much stronger than you ever expect.Stephanie Ng The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the nature of waves are very strong and it swept back inshore at great7/3/2011 height. WrittenKuronekosan Hwee by Yeo Yam 48
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q2Rebecca Tan It suggest that it is incredible and shocking.Deborah Tan It is unpredictable and very strong.Madeline Tan It suggest that the nature of the waves is beyond our imaginary and it is strong.Felicia Poh The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that ‘nobody will know or understand how strong the waves is and nobody had thought that the waves will be so7/3/2011 strong’. Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 49 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Elizabeth It suggests that the waves were so unbelievingly huge and it caused a shock for the Japanese.Khalysha It suggests that the waves were unexpectedly very violent.Matthias It meant that the waves was very strong and deadly.Chloe Lim It suggests that the nature of the waves creates a very strong impact when hit 7/3/2011 and is very ferocious. Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 50 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Jarren The nature of the waves is very strongMah and is very ferocious. It can kill people.Colin The nature of the waves is three-story high, itGiam dissolved coastal towns and the nature of the waves is stronger then expected.Fahmie The waves were more ferocious than one can imagine.Jian Xin The expression suggest that the nature of the wave is very frightening to the people and scary.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 51 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Jin Hui It suggest the wave were naturally fierce and it could homes and buildings.Germaine The expression “unimaginable ferocity” suggest that the waves were unbelievably scary.Peng The nature of the waves is too high andKeat huge to imagine.Kai Ting The nature of the waves was so strong and it is wild that you are unable to think of.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 52 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Mairah The expression ‘unimaginable ferocity’ means that the waves hit Japan hard with force and it was at a very fast speed.Queenie It suggest that the waves are something people will not think of as it is huge.Kumiko It suggest that the waves are so tragic that is beyond our imagination.Say Kiat It suggests that the nature of the waves were very frightening.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 53 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Edgard The waves were very strong and moved very fast.Mandy It mean unthinkable height.ChangRanjitha It suggests that the nature of the waves was atrocious and very fierce.Haziq The expression suggest that the wave is heading to the shore at great height.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 54 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2 (2 marks)HOW TO MARK:• Accept any other answers which MUST adequately explain the expression.• Award full marks so long as BOTH words in the expression are being adequately explained.• Award 1 mark if the given answer is correct but only provides a partial explanation of the given expression. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 55 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2 (2 marks)HOW TO MARK:• Do not award any marks if there is any contradiction in the answer.• Do not award any marks if these words “ferocity”, “ferociousness”, “ferocious”, “imagination”, “imagined”, “imagine” or “image” are found in any part of the student’s answer. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 56 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2: Advice for Students What does the expression, “unimaginable ferocity” (line 13) suggest about the nature of the waves? You may not see the phrase, “USE YOUR OWN WORDS” or “USE YOUR OWN WORDS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE”, you will have to understand that this question challenges you to explain the use of the two words (actually a phrase). You cannot use the same two words in any other forms when explaining by penning down your answer. This question deals with both VOCABULARY and LANGUAGE USE.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 57 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2: Advice for StudentsWhat does the expression, “unimaginable ferocity” (line 13) suggest aboutthe nature of the waves?ASK YOURSELVES IF THIS IS A VALID ANSWER?This expression tells me that the nature of the waves is so ferocious that its force is beyond what the Japanese can imagine. *Language use – In a conversation, there is an opportunity for the parties involved to seek further clarification with regard to the above uttered response. However, when penning down your answer in a formal examination in the use of English Language, the above answer has barely attempted to explain anything.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 58 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2: Advice for Students What does the expression, “unimaginable ferocity” (line 13) suggest about the nature of the waves? Avoid all these directly related words:NOUN VERB ADVERB ADJECTIVEImagination To imagine Imaginably Be imaginable*Unimagination To *unimagine Unimaginably Be unimaginableImaginativeness Imaginatively Be imaginative Unimaginatively Be unimaginativeFerociousness Ferociously Be ferociousFerocity 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 59 Kuronekosan
    • Why is knowledge of word class a prerequisite? What does the expression, “unimaginable ferocity” (line 13) suggest about the nature of the waves? NOUN: What is so Unimaginable ferocity “Unimaginable”? ADJECTIVE: “Unimaginable” describes the word “ferocity”. What kind of “ferocity”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 60 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q2: Advice for StudentsDo not tear apart the phrase to attempt an explanation. You willmore likely than not, produce a misinterpretation such as the one Iam showing here:“Unimaginable ferocity” suggests that the waves were unexpectedand they were powerful. (from an actual candidate’s script)versus“Unimaginable ferocity” suggests that the waves were unexpectedlypowerful.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 61 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q3 ( 1 mark)• “…a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height” (lines 13 – 14). How high was it being reported to be?• ANSWER:• It was three-storey high.• HOW TO MARK:• Award no marks to any other answers given. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee Kuronekosan 62
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q3Fang Yin It was being reported to be a extremely high waves.Aishwarya It was reported to be at the height of the horizon.Liang It is enough to surmounted theZhen Japanese seawalls with ease and clwa across the land.Stephen The height of the waves were very high.Cheong7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 63 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q3Farah It was told that it was high enough to swept all the people and destroy the houses,Nabilah schools and more. It was three story wall.Justin It was reported to be so high to theHo point that it can destroy and topple buildings.Yong It was to b as high as the JapaneseKang seawalls.Fila The waves were going back further away from the shore and it is going to7/3/2011 be very Written by Yeo Yam Hwee high. 64 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q3Yee Ning It was reported to be as high as ten metres.Yan Biao The wave is very high, even it is over the seawall.Xu Hui More than ten metres.Julia The highest level.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 65 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q3Qi En It was so high that it swept the houses that was build near to the sea.Chloe It was high enough to hit the JapaneseWong seawalls.Bo Cheng It being reported to very high, it is like a wave cross a wall.Aysha The wave was 3 storey high.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 66 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Clement It is reported to be the people began ot spy a ragged white line on the horizon and with unimaginable ferocity the line become clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height.Zachary It was being reported that the waves is asSer high as the Japanese seawalls.Kai Ting It was reported the waves was at a great height.Peng It was reported to be as high as theKeat seawalls.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 67 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q3Germaine It was reported as high as the horizon.Queenie It is reported to be as high as the buildings in Japan.Haziq It is very high because the waves hit the seawalls.Edgard It wsa being reported to be very high.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 68 Kuronekosan
    • How to look for the answer to PA P2 Q3? For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011. One moment, all were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake. At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. However, minutes later, a low rumble from the east, the coastal waters off the northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out to sea. The rumbling continued. People began to spy a ragged white line on the horizon, and, with unimaginable ferocity, the line became clear as a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height. Seconds later, these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japanese seawalls, surmounted them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond, in what would become a dispassionate and detached orgy of utter destruction. The sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roofs of buildings and shuffled houses like playing cards. There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 69 Kuronekosan
    • • “…a wall of waves For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 swept back March 2011. One moment, all were going about inshore at great their day-to-day business and then the ground began to shake. At first, the shock was merely a height” (lines 13 – much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well 14). How high accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. However, minutes later, a low was it being rumble from the east, the coastal waters off the reported to be? northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out to sea. The rumbling continued. People began to spy a ragged white line on the horizon, and, with unimaginable ferocity, theLook out for the sentence in which line became clear as a wall of waves sweptthe quoted words (in brackets) from the back inshore at great height. Seconds later,question come from. The answer is these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japaneseusually nearer to you than you think. seawalls, surmounted them with careless easeSo always be patient by going through and began to claw across the land beyond, ineach and every sentence. what would become a dispassionate and detached orgy of utter destruction. The sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on Look for any the roofs of buildings and shuffled houses like playing cards. There were so many aftershocks sentence which that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the sheds the light on the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food. issue of HEIGHT. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 70 Kuronekosan
    • Mass Burial A Buddhist monk chants prayers before burying unidentified victims of the earthquake and tsunami in Yamamoto, Miyagi prefecture, on April 8, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 71 Kuronekosan
    • Royal Greeting Emperor Akihito speaks with evacuees from Fukushima at a shelter in Kazo, Saitama prefecture, on April 8, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 72 Kuronekosan
    • Ishinomaki, Miyagi prefecture, April 7, 2011 A man stands before Kadonowaki Elementary School, which was damaged by the earthquake and tsunami.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 73 Kuronekosan
    • Wasteland A man walks through a devastated part of Ishinomaki, Miyagi prefecture, on April 7, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 74 Kuronekosan
    • Temporary Home On March 27, 2011, an evacuation center in Kesennuma, Miyagi prefecture is full of locals who lost their homes in the earthquake and tsunami, their numbers swelled by others escaping the radiation from the stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima. With evacuees packed so closely together, privacy is almost non-existent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 75 Kuronekosan
    • Tucked In A tsunami victim wraps herself up in a blanket as she sleeps inside a shelter in Ofunato, Iwate prefecture on March 25, 2011. It has been reported that indoor temperatures at some of the evacuation centers can plummet down to mid-30s Fahrenheit.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 76 Kuronekosan
    • Resting Survivors sit on top of blankets that cushion the hard floor of an evacuation center in Kamaishi, Iwate prefecture on March 24, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 77 Kuronekosan
    • Special VisitCrown Prince Naruhito and PrincessMasako pay a visit to bring words of encouragement to the evacueesresiding in the Ajinomoto Stadium in Tokyo on April 6, 2011. Manyevacuees here are from Fukushima. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 78 Kuronekosan
    • Clean Shave A man smiles as he gets a shave from volunteers at a shelter in Minamisanriku, Miyagi prefecture on March 29, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 79 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks)• Explain fully why people stopped diving under tables (lines 20 – 21).• ANSWER:• There were so many aftershocks which made it useless / futile / dangerous for people to hide under the tables anymore. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 80 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q4 People stopped diving under the tables because they knowZoey Too that nothing could help if they do that, its tsunami and not earthquake. They should be going for the highest floor in a tall building. People stopped diving under the tables because the thingsRaiyan in the buildings randomly move, which makes being under the table an extremely unsafe place, which as a result caused people to stop diving under tables. They stopped diving under tables as they were demoralisedRemus due to the amount of aftershocks that happened after theOng wall of waves struck. People stopped diving under tables because the three-Aish storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roofs of building and shuffled houses like playing cards. There were too many aftershocks too.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 81 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q4Liang Zhen As they are used to the aftershocks tha happened many times in their country and were apparently unaware of the waves.Jerhythem They stopped diving under tables as there was a tsunami coming towards them.Stephen Hiding under tables help prevent earthquake but not huge waves.Lester It is as there were so many aftershocks that houses were shuffled about which made it dangerous and impossible to dive under tables. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 82 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q4Wan Shun Even by seeking of shelter could not be of any help.Yee Ning People stop diving under tables because there was a tsunami attack and it is destroying the homes in Japan.Yan Biao Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark. in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for warter and food.Xu Hui It was because there were so many aftershocks and they made it safely to higher ground. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 83 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q4Darius Lim When the earthquakes happens the people would hide below their table and when flood came they are under the table and they died.Boon Wee They would drown if they dive under tables and not go to higher placesRebecca Tan They stopped diving under tables because it wasn’t just the earthquake but also the tsunami. They went under the tables for protection from the earthquake.Deborah Tan There were many aftershocks.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 84 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q4Elyana People stopped as there were too many aftershocks.Samuel The people got used to the aftershocks.Lee The people stopped diving under tables because theyGrace realised that the earthquake had shook the seabed and itTan caused a tsunami and it was coming their way. People would only need to dive under the table if there wasJason en earthquake. The people are not trying to hide from anTan earthquake but a tsunami. Therefore, there was no need to dive under the table.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 85 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q4Wei Jun People stopped diving under tables because tehre was tsunami after the tremors which shocked the people.Benedict There were too many aftershocks, so theAng people thought that the tremors were just another aftershock.Wei Ren There was aftershocks after aftershocks so the people stopped diving under tables as they will be repeating this process over and over again.Yi Qi The people was used to the aftershocks and they might go to higher ground that make7/3/2011 them much safe. Yam Hwee Written by Yeo 86 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks)You are expected toget PART of the answereither DIRECTLY orINDIRECTLY from the ExplainRELEVANT AREA ofPARAGRAPH 2. fully why peopleBUT you cannot just stopped diving undertake the answer. You tables (lines 20 – 21).must provide yourown intelligent explanationwhy certain thingshappened or needed tohappened. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 87 Kuronekosan
    • For the Japanese, this consent was withdrawn with shocking suddenness at 2:46 p.m. on 11 March 2011. One moment, all were going about their day-to-day business and then the ground began to WITHIN THE shake. At first, the shock was merely a much stronger and rather longer version of the tremors to which most Japanese are well PARAGRAPH, PICK accustomed. There came a stunned silence as there always does. However, minutes later, a low rumble from the east, the coastal waters OUT WHERE off the northern Honshu vanished, sucked mysteriously out to sea. The rumbling continued. People began to spy a ragged white line on THE SENTENCE IN THE ferocity, the line became clear as the horizon, and, with unimaginable QUESTION COMES a wall of waves swept back inshore at great height. Seconds later, these Pacific Ocean waters hit the Japanese seawalls, surmounted FROM: them with careless ease and began to claw across the land beyond, in what would become a dispassionate and detached orgy of utter destruction. The sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry-docked boats on the roofs of buildings and shuffled houses like There were so many playing cards. aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food. by Yeo Yam Hwee7/3/2011 Written 88 Kuronekosan
    • A WORD OF CAUTION IT IS NOT ALWAYS HELPFUL TO THINK THAT A READY ANSWER TO THE QUESTION CAN BE FOUND IN THE SENTENCE BEFORE “There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables.” OR AFTER. It all depends on how much is being said before on the same SPECIFIC topic and how much is being elaborate afterwards on the same topic.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 89 Kuronekosan
    • …The sturdy buildings that survived the quake Same or Different ? were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry- docked boats on the roofs of buildings and There shuffled houses like playing cards. were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 90 Kuronekosan
    • The sentence BEFORE it is not dealing with HIDING under TABLES. This is quite clear to us that this sentence is a one- off The sentence AFTER it is not dealing with HIDING under TABLES. comment.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 91 Kuronekosan
    • …TheDifferent sturdy buildings that survived the quake were ravaged by the waves. The three-storey wall of water dissolved coastal towns, dry- docked boats on the roofs of buildings and There shuffled houses like playing cards. were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. Those who made it safely to higher ground waited in the dark, in the cold, in lines that stretched for hours for water and food. Different7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 92 Kuronekosan
    • Your Relevant Area of Text has been reduced to…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 93 Kuronekosan
    • So why did they stop diving under tables? REASON 1 – which is given to you in the sentence which we have narrowed down: There were too many aftershocks7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 94 Kuronekosan
    • If your answer ends here, you have NOT explained fully. It is an incomplete answer. You will receive only ONE mark.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 95 Kuronekosan
    • Standard Procedure Take Cover Under Tables7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 96 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 97 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 98 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 99 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 100 Kuronekosan
    • So what makes your answer complete? We now know, that the reason is: THERE ARE TOO MANY AFTERSHOCKS… We ask further, SO why did they stop diving under tables?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 101 Kuronekosan
    • YOU NEED TO DO SOME REASONING BEYOND THE WRITTEN INFORMATION There were too many aftershocks which were likely to make people lose confidence in hiding under tables, thinking that it was a pointless thing to do. There were too many aftershocks which probably made people lose hope in hiding under tables, thinking that it was too dangerous for them to do so.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 102 Kuronekosan
    • 1m 1m7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 103 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks)HOW TO MARK:• Award 2 marks if these two parts are found in the answer:• There were so/too many aftershocks.• It was useless / futile / dangerous for them to hide under tables anymore. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 104 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks)• Award 1 mark if only this is found in the answer:• There were so/too many aftershocks.BUT• Do not award any marks if only this is found in the answer:• It was useless / futile / dangerous for them to hide under tables. Yam Hwee 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo 105 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks) Read the following sentence carefully and then you will see that the answer is found within it. There were so many aftershocks that people stopped diving under tables. There were so many aftershocks. So much so that people stopped diving under tables. It probably would not do them any good at all.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 106 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q4 (2 marks) If the candidate’s answer demonstrated his or her understanding of the futility of the people and / or sense of danger in trying to hide for safety under the tables, then marks would have been appropriately awarded. Even if the given answer was incorrect (as in not given as “there were too many aftershocks) , as long as the student backed up what they thought had caused the people’s feeling of futility or sense of danger, the answer was accorded with one mark. There might however, be exceptions where I felt no marks should be given. These exceptional cases, I wish to reassure you, have been consistently attended to. Best luck next time to those affected. However, if the candidate merely provided this answer: “It was useless / dangerous (and so on) for them to do so”, then I am afraid, no marks would have been awarded because the explanation is clearly incomplete.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 107 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q5 (1 mark)• The survivors “waited in lines that stretched for hours for food and water” (line 22). What does this suggest about the progress of outside help to them?• ANSWER:• Outside help took a long time to reach the survivors. (acceptable: a very long time)• Outside help was slow to reach the survivors. (acceptable: very slow)• Outside help had difficulties reaching the survivors.• Outside help was not efficient enough to reach the survivors.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 108 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q5 (1 mark)• HOW TO MARK:• Award 1 mark to any other suitable answer which adequately addresses “the progress of outside help”.• Do not accept:• There was little progress. ( This answer conveniently labels “progress” which is not what the question is asking the candidate to do. The phrase “little progress” also begs the question: how so? )• It is the “pace” which is “ongoing” that has to be addressed.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 109 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q5 (1 mark)• If the candidate’s answer leans towards “outcome” or “extent” or prescribes by handing down a “judgement”, he is not dealing with any suggestion of “progress”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 110 Kuronekosan
    • PA P2 Q5 (1 mark)• Do not accept:• Outside help was insufficient or Outside help was insufficient enough.• Outside help was ineffective or Outside help was ineffective enough.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 111 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 3 Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywhere else. Besides geography, topography also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at all possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeast Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal of inland – but there is almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you inland at the speed of a jetliner, and if the flat terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out of all recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 112 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q5Lester It suggests that it was very slow.Stephen It means progress of outside help isChong very little.Hosea Ho It suggest the progress of outside help ws not enough.Jerhythm It suggest that the progress of outside help to them were very slow as it took hours for water and food to come to the survivors.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 113 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q5Liang The progress must have been slow and rather ineffective.ZhenAish It suggests that the progress of outside help to them was very slow.Remus This suggests that there is not much progress of outside help to them as there are not many peopleOng helping out and lack of food and water to be given out.Raiyan It showed that outside help has not reachedMatin them. If outside help had reached them, it would not be so long to receive supply of7/3/2011 food and WrittenKuronekosan Hwee water. Yam by Yeo 114
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q5Ng Wan Shun There were too many people in need of help that the progress of outside help to them were very slow.Yee Ning This suggest that the progress of outside help to them seems very long and slow as if water and food will never ever reach them.Yan Biao The government may help them to get food and water to survive.Darius Lim It suggests that outside help to them is not much from other countries yet. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 115 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q5Boon Wee They waited for help but there was nobody.Rebecca Tan It suggest that the progress for help is quite slow as the people had to wait for hours for food and water. But is quick to send food and water for them. Help is given when needed, in time.Madeline Tan It suggest that the outside helper are slow.Felicia Poh It was quite slow therefore they have to wait in the dark, cold and that stretched for hours.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 116 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q5Yu Qi It suggest about the progres of outside help to them is not enough, is very less.Alysha The progress of outside help to them were not sufficient as they had to wait for hours for food and water.Elizabeth It suggest that the help from outside is fast and that they show care for the survivors of the horrible event.Khalysha It suggests that the outside help that they were receiving was very limited 7/3/2011 and the WrittenKuronekosan Hwee slow. by Yeo Yam progress was 117
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q5Matthias This suggested that help arrived very fast.Chloe Lim It suggests that the progress of outside was insufficient and slow leaving survivors to wait for hours for food and water.Jarren It suggests that the help outside was uselessMah and the progress took very long.Colin There were limited progress of outside helpGiam because many houses had been destroyed.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 118 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q6 (1 mark)• What is the wisest thing to do for those living along high-tsunami-risk coastlines during a tsunami attack?• The wisest thing in this sentence refers to “the axiom” (Passage A Line 26) which is a complete understanding or knowledge held by the people living under similar conditions. It does not break up into discrete courses of action. It refers to the full course of action.• ANSWER:• The people should run inland and then run uphill.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 119 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q6 (1 mark)• HOW TO MARK:• Do not accept any PART or INCOMPLETE answer.• Do not accept any answer which changes the meaning of the original advice given in the passage. This is a wrong answer:• The people should run inland OR run uphill. (The original text does not provide any choice in this sense at all.)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 120 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q6 (1 mark) This is not a TRICK question. However, for candidates who had not been awarded any marks, you might just get that feeling. If you have gotten it WRONG, do not be too upset about it. When I set this question, I had wanted to test your ability to do close and accurate reading. For those of you who got it right because you had simply lifted from the passage, I would also wish to say that, not all lifting is bad. But do so at your on risk. MORAL of the story: Do not underestimate the power of CONNECTIVES such as AND, OR, EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR, IN SPITE OF. DESPITE and so on.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 121 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q6Remus The wisest thing to do for those livign along high- tsunami-risk coastline during a tsunami attack is toOng run away from the tide and to get to higher ground.Jerhythm The wisest thing to do is to get to high ground area.Stephen You either run inland or uphill.CheongHosea Ho The wisest thing to do is to run inland and if possible, run uphill.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 122 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q6Madeline Tan It is to run to inland and possibly best if run to uphill.Wan Shun It is to run uphill.Boon Wee It is to run to a further and higher place.Izzaty It is to run inland and if possible, up a hill. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 123 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q6Jason Tan It is best to look for higher ground and run uphill.Grace Tan The wisest thing to do for those living along high-tsunami risk coastlines during a tsunami attack is to run uphill instead of running inland.Calvin Loo The wisest thing to do is to run uphill or run inland when the sea sucks back.Nurush The wisest thing to do for those living along high-tsunami-risk coastlines during a tsunami attack is to run inland as there is not many uphills.Samuel Lee The wisest thing to do was to run inland or if possible up hill.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 124 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)• Explain fully in your own words why it is hopeless to try to escape from a tsunami if you are on flat land.• RELEVANT AREA OF TEXT from which answer is taken from:• …and if flat terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out of all recognition… (lines 31- 34)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 125 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)You must READ the question carefully: No assumptions should be made that by leaving something unsaid, your This gives you a clear signal examiner would understand your that the answer is given in the relevant answer anyway. area of the text. Explain fully in your own words why it is hopeless to try to escape from a tsunami if you are on flat land. This word tells you that explanation (s) is / are needed. A 2-mark question 7/3/2011 probably means TWO reasons Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 126 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)READ THE QUESTION FURTHER: Explain fully in your own words why [a] it is hopeless to try to escape from a tsunami [b] if you are on flat land.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 127 Kuronekosan
    • LOOK FOR THE RELEVANT AREA OF TEXTYou have been informed that this question comes 1FROM PASSAGE A 2FROM PARAGRAPH 3 3 4 YOU MUST LOOK FOR THE RELEVANT 5 AREA OF TEXT IN PARAGRAPH 37/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 128 Kuronekosan
    • Passage A Paragraph 3 Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywhere else. Besides geography, topographySo what and also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-where to tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at all possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeastlook for Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal ofthe inland – but there is almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you inland at the speed of a jetliner, and if theRELEVANT flat terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, itarea of text? will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out of all recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 129 Kuronekosan
    • IT IS VERY OBVIOUS NOW THAT… READING COMPREHENSION INVOLVES READING BOTH THE QUESTIONS AND THE PASSAGES ACCURATELY.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 130 Kuronekosan
    • Explain fully Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywhere else.in your own Besides geography, topography also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at allwords why it possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeast Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal of inland – but there isis hopeless almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you and if the flat inland at the speed of a jetliner,to try to terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try toescape from escape its wrath, then you cannota tsunami if avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and itsyou are on forces will pulverise you out of allflat land. recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 131 Kuronekosan
    • , and if the flat terrain denies you any chance ofPay close sprinting to a hilltop to tryattention to the to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid theRELEVANT inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and itsAREA OF TEXT forces will pulverise you out of all recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.What does itmean?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 132 Kuronekosan
    • Does not allow / Deprives Opportunity, and if the flat terrain denies you any chance ofsprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath,then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you,it will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out ofall recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.Running very quickly To prevent from being attacked by it. To avoid being attacked by it.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 133 Kuronekosan
    • You cannot run away from the unavoidable thing which you are going to face up to.,and if the flat terrain denies you any chance ofsprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath,then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catchyou, it will drown you, and its forces willpulverise you out of all recognition, as a thing ofutter insignificance. The tsunami 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 134 Kuronekosan
    • crush completely,and if the flat terrain denies you any chance ofsprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath,then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catchyou, it will drown you, and its forces willpulverise you out of all recognition, as athing of utter insignificance. You will disappear totally Nobody will be able to because you have been tell who you originally destroyed completely by the were. tsunami. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 135 Kuronekosan
    • Explain fully Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywherein your own else. Besides geography, topography also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at allwords why it possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeast Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal of inland – but there isis hopeless almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you and if the flat inland at the speed of a jetliner,to try to terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try toescape from escape its wrath, then you cannota tsunami if avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and itsyou are on forces will pulverise you out of allflat land. recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 136 Kuronekosan
    • Explain fully Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywherein your own else. Besides geography, topography also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at allwords why it possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeast Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal of inland – but there isis hopeless almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you and if the flat inland at the speed of a jetliner,to try to terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try toescape from escape its wrath, then you cannota tsunami if avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and itsyou are on forces will pulverise you out of allflat land. recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 137 Kuronekosan
    • Explain fully Japan is at the junction of a web of tectonic plate boundaries that makes it more peculiarly vulnerable to seismic activities than almost anywhere else.in your own Besides geography, topography also played an especially tragic role too – for it is an axiom known to all those who dwell by high-tsunami-risk coastlines that when the sea sucks back, you run inland and, if at allwords why it possible, you run uphill. However, in this corner of northeast Japan, with its wide plains of rice meadows and ideal factory sites and conveniently flat airport locations, there may well be a great deal of inland – but there isis hopeless almost no uphill. So the reality is this: if a monstrous wave is chasing you and if the flat inland at the speed of a jetliner,to try to terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try toescape from escape its wrath, then you cannota tsunami if avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and itsyou are on forces will pulverise you out of allflat land. recognition, as a thing of utter insignificance.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 138 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)• Explain fully in your own words why it is hopeless to try to escape from a tsunami if you are on flat land.• Read the RELEVANT AREA OF TEXT carefully:• …and if flat terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out of all recognition… (lines 31- 34)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 139 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)• ANSWER (Own Words):• There is no highland or high level area for a person to run to higher grounds. [1] When the powerful waves engulf a person, it will certainly overwhelm /smother him and crush him completely, killing him. [1]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 140 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks)• HOW TO MARK:• Award 2 marks if the answer “explains fully” and “given in own words”.• Award I mark to any part of the answer which “explains fully” and “given in own words”.• Do not award any marks for answers not “given in own words”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 141 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks) I was very taken aback by the answers given by the majority of the candidature. Not a single one of you had attempted to use the following sentence (in your own words) to provide an explanation:• …and if flat terrain denies you any chance of sprinting to a hilltop to try to escape its wrath, then you cannot avoid the inevitable: it will catch you, it will drown you, and its forces will pulverise you out of all recognition… (lines 31-34)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 142 Kuronekosan
    • PA P3 Q7 (2 marks) However, to your credit, you managed to spell out to me that you had understood that on a flat land, running away from the tsunami was “futile” because the natural force was “bigger”, “stronger”, “faster”, “fiercer”, “more powerful” (and so on) than you. As long as your answer made sense, you would have been accorded with 1 mark. Still your answer was incomplete because many, if not all, had failed to explain the word “pulverise”, which I had expected to see in your answer.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 143 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q7Hosea Ho The tsunami would eventually reach the person and would kill the person if the person was on a flat land because he could not outrun the tsunami. It is hopeless to try to escape from a tsunami if you are onHidayat flat land as the frightening waves will chase you at a very fast speed and will exterminate anything in its path including you. The tsunami is very fast. Also, the tsunami has a limitedFabian height, therefore, if you run uphill that is higher than the tsunami, you will be safe. The tsunami will eventually outrun you and you will be killedRaiyan drowning or the tremendous force of the tsunami. No human can outrun the speed of the tsunami.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 144 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q7Azly If the waves catches you while you are on flatMohammad land, there is no chance of survival as the wave will drawn you.Marcus Ma The tsunami will drown you if you are on a flatland and it moves with speed equivelent (sic) to a jeltliner.Shadi It is hopeless to escape a tsunami on flat land because there is no high ground to run to.Jin Yang The waves will still be coming after you as there is no high ground to stopthe wave from coming. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 145 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q7Samuel Lee It is hopeless as a big wave that is behind you is moving at the speed of an aircraft is trying to drawn you as you try to run away from it.John Ng On flat land, there is hardly anywhere that you can run to unless there is a high place.Fahmie The waves are too fast to be outrunned and since flat lands have no hills, you will have no higher ground to get away from the waves, and you will be crushed by the tsunami.Jarren Mah On a flat land, there is no uphill nearby. So if a tsunami chases you, there will be no hope on escaping the tiger wave and you cannot avoid the7/3/2011 disaster. Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 146 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q7Chloe Lim You cannot dodge the inevitable, if a tsunami is chasing you at high speed and have no chance of running to the peak of the hill to attempt to save yourself.Matthias It is hopeless to escape a tsunami if you are on flat land because the speed of the wave is too fast for a human to escape and flat area do not have enough height for people to run uphill.Khalysha It is hopeless because there is no uphill to run to since Japan is mostly full of flat land.Elizabeth The wave will be travelling at a very fast speed, the chances of people surviving is very slim as there’s no time for survivors to run uphill they can run all they want, eventually the waves will catch up and drown the victims.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 147 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 148 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 149 Kuronekosan
    • Medical Attention An elderly woman gets medical treatment at a shelter in Kamaishi, Iwate prefecture on March 24, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 150 Kuronekosan
    • Donations Women search through donated clothes at the Big Palette Fukushima convention center in Koriyama on April 5, 2011. Residents of the evacuation zone near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant left their homes with only the essentials, not knowing how long they would be in the shelters.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 151 Kuronekosan
    • Communal Dining Earthquake victims gather around a makeshift dining hall for dinner on March 24, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 152 Kuronekosan
    • Birthday Celebration A boy celebrates his 3rd birthday in Kesennuma, Miyagi prefecture on March 27, 2011.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 153 Kuronekosan
    • Keeping Informed On March 25, 2011, a man mourns while reading the media coverage of the widespread destruction from the earthquake, tsunami and the nuclear crisis. As of April 6, 2011, the National Police Agency has announced that the death toll has risen to 12,468 people while another 15,091 are still missing.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 154 Kuronekosan
    • Killing TimeAn elderly man rests among his belongings at a shelter in Minamisanriku, Miyagi prefecture on March 29, 2011. For many elderly victims living in sheltersthroughout the northeast, a sense of resignation seems to be setting in with the knowledge that rebuilding a new life will be hard. An elderly woman at an evacuation shelter in Yonezawa showed more concern for her grandchildren, saying "Were the people of the past. It doesnt matter what happens to us."7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 155 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage A Paragraph 4 Unknown numbers of bodies lie amid the ashes. Yet however much people are in turmoil, few mope. Rationing of everything from petrol to water has generally been accepted with nary a complaint or raised voice; the idea is that everybody has to share the pain equally. Emergency centres, where more than 450,000 evacuees are being housed in stadiums or schools, are neatly organized, with people constructing origami boxes made of newspaper in which to nestle their shoes. This is a country where people do not wear shoes inside their homes, and the habit extends to the little islands of blankets that each evacuated family claims in their emergency shelter. Even though basic supplies are running low, lines at gas stations and grocery stores are orderly. There have been no reports of looting. In a society seen as the most stoic on earth, the closest thing to chaos was a man cutting in line.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 156 Kuronekosan
    • PA P4 Q8 (2 marks)• Write down, using your own words as far as possible, any two pieces of evidence showing through the actions of the survivors that they desire to return to a semblance of day-to-day orderliness in the aftermath of the natural disaster.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 157 Kuronekosan
    • PA P4 Q8 (2 marks)• ANSWER:• People build origami boxes from newspaper to put their shoes in. [1]• Lines at gas stations and grocery stores are orderly. [1]• HOW TO MARK:• Do not award any marks to any other answers.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 158 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary Use of the word “evidence” in the question and in your answer: Provide ONE piece of evidence…. Provide any TWO pieces of evidence… WHY? This is because the word “evidence” does not have a plural form. There is no such word as “evidences”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 159 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary In your answer, (if you must include the word “evidence” at the beginning part), then it should be written in the following way: USE THE COLON The two pieces of evidence are:7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 160 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary The two pieces of evidence are: [a]……... …… and [b]…………… …………………………..7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 161 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary The two pieces of evidence are: [1]……... …… and [2]…………… …………………………..7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 162 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary The two pieces of evidence are: [i]……... …… and [ii]…………… …………………………..7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 163 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary The two pieces of evidence are: firstly…….................... …………….. and secondly ……………………………….7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 164 Kuronekosan
    • Grammar and Vocabulary Otherwise, just get straight to the point and write out your answer in this way: EVIDENCE #1 People build origami boxes from newspaper to put their shoes in. Lines at gas stations and grocery stores are orderly. EVIDENCE #27/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 165 Kuronekosan
    • The use of quotation marks People “build origami boxes from newspaper to put their shoes in”. Lines at “gas stations and grocery stores are orderly”.OR simply no quotation marks: People build origami boxes from newspaper to put their shoes in. Lines at gas stations and grocery stores are orderly.THE KEY is: Be consistent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 166 Kuronekosan
    • BUT that is different from this: Identify the word which tells you that…. “ The word is ……………………. . ” QUOTATION MARKS ARE NEEDED.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 167 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q8 Firstly everyone generally accept the complaint or raisedFarah voice eventhough everyone suffered together. Secondly isNabilah supplies are not enough, lines at gas station and grocery stores but they still are in oder. The survivors are trying their best to save on what littleJovin treasures they have as much as possible and not even aWee case of theft has been reported in all hope of their country to regain their peach and life back again.Lee Xin Survivors had centres, stadiums or schools to stay in and making of origami boxes out of newspaper areWei done to nestle their shoes. Firstly, during the natural disater (sic), everybody was veryDoris Lim sad and had never expected such a thing to happen, they all shared their pain. Secondly, food and water was not enough for all the people but lines at gas stations and7/3/2011 grocery stores are orderly. Hwee Written by Yeo Yam 168 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q8Jin Yang The people still take out their shoe at the place they live in. The(sic) was no body(sic) caught for stealing.Royston Ho The two evidence are “they change pretol (sic) into water and they make newspapers so that they can put their shoes in”.Xu Hui Much people are in turmoil. Secondly, people constructing origami boxes made of newsaper in which to nestle their shoes.Felicia Poh Excuses are neatly organised to housed in stadium and schools. People making origami boxes to nestle their shoes. Even those basic supplies are running low gas stations and gocery (sic) stores7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 169 are still orderly. And there are no report of looting. Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q8 In Japan people dont (sic) wear shoes at home. Even afterMairah going through the tsunami they fold and construct origami boxes to keep their shoes in. This is one way of trying to get back to their day-today routine like normal. The two pieces of evidence are, People did not complainQueenie and they just lived with it because they know that they areChan not the only ones. They have also made their own shelters in case there’s a tsunami attack. The people there recycles origami boxes used up withKumiko newspaper to store their footwear and continues to queue patiently at supermarkets even the supplies were going out of stock.Say Kiat They still retain their habits of not wearing shoes inside their homes and7/3/2011 they still lineYeo Yam Hweegas and food. 170 Written by up for Kuronekosan
    • Marker’s Comments Many students ignored the part of the instructions – USE YOUR OWN WORDS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE:Write down, using your own words as faras possible, any two pieces of evidence showingthrough the actions of the survivors that they desire toreturn to a semblance of day-to-day orderliness inthe aftermath of the natural disaster. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 171 Kuronekosan
    • Marker’s Comments Because too many students ignored that part of the given instructions, I had decided to accept answers which were merely lifted from the relevant area of text.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 172 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage B Paragraph 17/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 173 Kuronekosan
    • Japanese quake survivors queuing to get grocery items outside a shop7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 174 Kuronekosan
    • Cars queuing to reach petrol station7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 175 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage B Paragraph 1 How can I describe those several weeks beneath the ice-ridge? Nothing really important happened and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred. I believed we were still prepared to endure cold, exhaustion and danger and to strain our endurance to the limit, our prize being the highest peak in the Garhwal Himalayas and probably the fourth highest mountain in the world, also known as K3.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 176 Kuronekosan
    • PB P1 Q9 (2 marks) “…and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred” (lines 2 -3). Explain the comment made by the narrator with regard to the progress of the expedition.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 177 Kuronekosan
    • How can I describe those several weeks beneath the ice- ridge? Nothing really important happened and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred. I believed we were still prepared to endure cold, exhaustion and danger and to strain our endurance to the limit, our prize being theSTEP 1: Find out where highest peak in the Garhwalthe comment comes Himalayas and probably the fourth highest mountain in thefrom in the paragraph. world, also known as K3.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 178 Kuronekosan
    • How can I describe those several weeks beneath the ice- ridge? Nothing really important happened and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred. I believed we were still prepared to endure cold, exhaustion and danger and to strain our endurance to the limit, our prize being theSTEP 2: Read the highest peak in the Garhwalrelevant sentence and Himalayas and probably the fourth highest mountain in thesee how the highlighted world, also known as K3.Comment fits into thesentence.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 179 Kuronekosan
    • How can I describe those several weeks beneath the ice- ridge? Nothing really important happened and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred. I believed we were still prepared to endure cold, exhaustion and danger and to strain our endurance to the limit, our prize being theSTEP 3: Read the highest peak in the Garhwalsentence and figure out Himalayas and probably the fourth highest mountain in thewhat it means to you. world, also known as K3.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 180 Kuronekosan
    • How can I describe those several weeks beneath the ice-ridge? Nothing really important happened and yet all sorts of troubles short of total disaster seemed to have occurred. I believed we were still prepared to endure cold, exhaustion and danger and to strain our endurance to the limit, our prize being theSTEP 4: Read the highest peak in the Garhwalsentence which Himalayas and probably the fourth highest mountain in thecomes before it and world, also known as K3.the one that follows. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 181 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 182 Kuronekosan
    • 1. There were all sorts of troubles. Which is NEGATIVE. 2. “short of” means “without becoming” 3. “total disaster” means “complete failure”. In this case, what does it mean? They would have to call off the climb if it was a total disaster.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 183 Kuronekosan
    • The first sentence reveals to us that what follows is a personal recount. The writer is looking back and telling us how he feels about what had happened. This sentence tells us more about how the writer and his fellow climbers were feeling then at the time when they were climbing the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 184 Kuronekosan
    • Nothing really important happened. “Yet” means “even though” Or “although”. “seemed to have occurred” means “appeared to have happened”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 185 Kuronekosan
    • What prevented the mountaineers from giving up despite the fact that they had run into many problems?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 186 Kuronekosan
    • PB P1 Q9 (2 marks) ANSWER:• It was an expedition fraught with a lot of problems [1] but none threatening enough to put an end to it. [1]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 187 Kuronekosan
    • PB P1 Q9 (2 marks)• HOW TO MARK:• Award 2 marks for a complete answer.• Award 1 mark if the student provides only the first part of the answer.• Do not award any marks if the student provides only the second part of the answer.• Do not award any marks if both parts of the answer contradict each other. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 188 Kuronekosan
    • PB P1 Q9 (2 marks) This was, admittedly, one of the more DIFFICULT questions in the examination paper. So as long as you had mentioned in any part of your answer which clearly informed me that “the expedition was challenged with many difficulties or problems” and no matter how incomplete your answer was because you somehow did not mention that “none of the problems was threatening enough to put an end to the expedition”, (and even if at times, you might have contradicted yourself) I still rewarded you with 1 mark.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 189 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q9Amelia The narrator mean all the problems and all the disasters all happened at the same time.Kenneth The narrator meant that the troubles theyXu faced were very close to disaster.Lester It means that during the expedition, all the troubles that occured are not serious and that the troubles do not result in disaster.Craig Tay The narrator means that there have been all kinds of trouble for the team, but there has been no huge disaster to destroy the, expendition (sic)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 190 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q9Wan Shun The narrator felt that it was not a likeable experience.Felicia Poh Despite the disater (sic) seemed to have occured (sic) but there are still all sorts of trouble happening.Royston The comment is showing that the narratorHo has alot (sic) of trouble to handle.Jin Yang The progress of the expedition was dangerous and unpredictable.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 191 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q9Grace The comment made by the narrator with regard to the progress of the expedition meant that things were notTan going very well.Fahmie Many personal problems seemed to have erected during the expedition.Samuel The narrator did not do anythingLee important but all types of trouble had occurred.Elyana The narrator meant that all the troubles that happened is not so7/3/2011 serious.Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 192 Kuronekosan
    • Broad Peak which isoriginally known as K3.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 193 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 194 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 195 Kuronekosan
    • What a base camp looks like.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 196 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage B Paragraph 2 Our motley crew of climbers established our base camp as close to the mountain as we could, less than half a mile from the tongue of its lower glacier, and made preparations for the ascent. Our food and equipment were unpacked, inspected, sorted, and then repacked in lighter loads for transportation to more advanced camps. We spent hours studying maps and charts, and more hours studying the mountain through the telescope and field glasses. We surveyed the glacier thoroughly and planned a route across it. Then came the backbreaking labour of moving up supplies and establishing a chain of camps.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 197 Kuronekosan
    • A glacier is a persistent body of ice7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 198 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 199 Kuronekosan
    • CIER GLA OF THE GUE TON7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 200 Kuronekosan
    • Ascending the mountain = Climbing up the mountain To ascend (verb) 爬山 登山 The ascent (noun)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 201 Kuronekosan
    • Descending the mountainAscending the mountain7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 202 Kuronekosan
    • Descending the mountain = climbing down the mountain To descend (verb) The descent (noun)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 203 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 204 Kuronekosan
    • CUTTING ICE INTO STEPS7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 205 Kuronekosan
    • PB P2 Q10 (2 marks)• Why was it crucial for “food and equipment to be repacked in lighter loads” (line 10)?• ANSWER:• It is so because the crew had to share out the loads to make the ascent [1] by establishing a chain of camps [1] in order to climb up the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 206 Kuronekosan
    • PB P2 Q10 (2 marks)• HOW TO MARK:• Accept any other answer which reasonably explains the need for the crew to carry the food and equipment up the mountain for setting up camps so that they could continue their climb.• Award 1 mark to any incomplete but correct answer.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 207 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q10Nurush It was crucial because they might not have enough food to survive.Calvin It is because it would be much easier forLoo them to climb up the mountain with a lighter load than with a heavier load.Jason The food and equipment were to be transported to other camps. Therefore there was a need for them toTan be repacked into lighter loads. This way, transportation would be easier.Haziq They cannot climb the mountain with heavy loads of equipment and food. They need lighter loads to advance more camps.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 208 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q10Julia It was crucial because the heavy the things are, the tiring will be.Sean Too It was crucial as it cannot be too heavy as it might slow them down.Norazah It was crucial for “food and equipment to be repacked in lighter loads” because they had to transport it to more advanced camps.Yew It was for transportation to moreChuan advance camps.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 209 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q10Germaine So when the food and equipment are being packed into lighter loads, it would be slightly easier and lighter for them to bring it up the mountain and it would not make their weight load heavier.Peng Keat It was crucial for transportation to more advanced camps.Kai Ting So that they can climb the mountain without heavy stuff on there back and they can advanced to the camps faster.Hazmie It is to lightened their weight and easier to climb the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 210 Kuronekosan
    • Insert - Passage B Paragraph 3 Camps 1 and 2 were set up on the glacier itself while Camp 3 was built at its upper end, as near as possible to the point where the great rocky backbone of K3 came out of the ice and started its sharp ascent. Camps established higher up would simply serve as shelters for a night or two. Hour after hour and day after day, the long file of men wound up and down the uneven glacier. We just left supplies of food and equipment there in Camps 1 and 2. We needed all the manpower available to work on the higher camps on the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 211 Kuronekosan
    • PB P3 Q11 (1 mark)• Why would the camps built higher up probably not be elaborately furnished?• ANSWER:• They were simply being used as shelters for a night or two.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 212 Kuronekosan
    • PB P3 Q11 (1 mark)• HOW TO MARK:• Do not award any marks if the answer does not include “for a night or two” or suggest “a short / temporary stay”.• Do not accept any other answers.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 213 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q11Craig Tay It was probably not elaborately furnished as it is difficult to bring materials into the camps built higher up and it is just to serve as a shelter for a night or two.Lester It is as the climbers intended to stay in the camps for a short time.Kenneth Camps established higher up wouldXu simply serve as shelters for a night or two.Amelia As these is not enough manpower to help transporting all the things to the higher7/3/2011 camps. Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 214 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q11Norazah The camps would have built higher up because they had to get as near as possible to the point where the rocky backbone of K3 came out of ice and started its sharp ascent.Yew It was built higher up, as near as possible to the point where great rocky backbone of K3 came out of the ice andChuan start its sharp ascent.Randolph The camps built higher up only acted as shelther (sic) to them.TayChermaine It wsould be difficult for people to carry all the equipmentsChew to build a proper camp up so high in the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 215 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q11Byran Camps that was built higher up wouldZhu simply serve as shelter for a night or two, therefore not elaborately furnished.Mandy They just simply serve as shelters for aChang night or two.Hazmie It serves as shelters for a night or two.Zachary It wsa simly serve a role as a root overSer their head for a night or two.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 216 Kuronekosan
    • Insert – Passage B Paragraph 4 With our axes we cut countless thousands of steps in the gleaming walls of ice. We clung to handholds on the cliff face and strained at ropes until we thought our arms would come off. Storms swept down on us, battered us and passed. The wind increased, and the air grew steadily colder and more difficult to breathe. One morning two of the porters woke up with their feet frozen black; they had to be sent down to base camp. A short while later, one more developed an uncontrollable nosebleed and had to go down. However, the enemy we feared most did not return to attack us. No further tremors were felt.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 217 Kuronekosan
    • Cut steps into the ice for climbing7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 218 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 219 Kuronekosan
    • All the different kinds of steps cut into the ice.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 220 Kuronekosan
    • Step cutting procedures7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 221 Kuronekosan
    • RECOMMENDED • http://www.wilderness-survival.net/movement-snow-ice/ice-travel/7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 222 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 223 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 224 Kuronekosan
    • PB P4 Q12 (1 mark)• What was “the enemy we feared most” (line 29)?• ANSWER:• The enemy was “the tremors”.• HOW TO MARK:• Do not accept any other answers.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 225 Kuronekosan
    • PB P4 Q12 (1 mark) Please note that if your answer was structured as such: The enemy was XXXX and the tremors. I am afraid I cannot give you any marks.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 226 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q12Zoey Too It was the porters not being able to proceed up with them, which means those porters would have to be sent down to the base camps due to injure or uncalled sickness.Amelia Tan “The enemy we feared most” was “the tremors”.Fabian The enemy they feared was a tremor.Kenneth Xu It was the earthquake.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 227 Kuronekosan
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q12Royston Ho The enemy the (sic) feared most was the heavy snow.Jin Yang It was the “earthquake”.Shadi It was an avalanche.Azly The enemy that was feared mostMohammad were the tremors.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 228 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q12Wei Jun The enemy is the tremors.Colin The enemy they feared most was theGiam frozen air.Jian Xin They fear most is the illness which they get while they climbing up the mountain.Edgard “The enemy” is a storm.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 229 Kuronekosan
    • Insert – Passage B Paragraph 5 We were climbing from Camp 4 to 5, and an almost perpendicular ice wall had made it necessary for us to come out for a few yards on the exposed crest of the ridge. There were six of us in the party, roped together with the leader in front, myself second, and four porters in the rear. The ridge right here was free of snow, but knife-thin, and the rocks were covered with a smooth coat of ice. On either side the mountain dropped away 5000 feet straight down.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 230 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 231 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 232 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 233 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 234 Kuronekosan
    • 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 235 Kuronekosan
    • Insert – Passage B Paragraph 6 Suddenly the quivers struck causing the last porter to slip. I heard the scrapping of boot nails behind me and turned to see him plunge sideways into space. There was a scream as the next porter was jerked off too. I remember trying desperately to dig into the ridge with my axe, realising as I did it that it would no more hold the weight of the falling men than would a pin stuck in the wall. Our leader shouted, “Jump!” As he said it, the rope went tight around my waist and I went flying after him into space on the opposite side of the ridge from the fallen porters. After me came the porter next behind me. By then the tremors had stopped but we feared an avalanche might have been triggered.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 236 Kuronekosan
    • Insert – Passage B Paragraph 7 I heard myself cry out, and saw the glacier below coming up at me. Then the rope jerked tight at my waist. I hung for a moment, then I swung in slowly to the side of the mountain. Above me the rope lay tight and motionless across the crest of the ridge. Our weight exactly balanced that of the men who had fallen on the far side. The leader’s voice came up from below. “You men on the other side!’ he shouted. “Start climbing slowly. We’re climbing, too.” In five minutes we had all regained the ridge. The porters and I sat gasping on the jagged rocks, our eyes closed, the sweat freezing on our faces. The leader carefully examined the rope that again hung loosely between us. “All right, men,” he said presently, “let’s get to the camp for a cup of tea.”7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 237 Kuronekosan
    • PB P7 Q13 (2 marks)• Explain fully how the leader and the narrator’s quick jump off the ridge had helped save the lives of the porters who had fallen off the other side of the ridge.• ANSWER:• When the leader and the narrator fell off their side of the ridge, they acted as a counterweight to the fallen porters on the other side. [1] Then both parties slowly climbed back up the ridge together to safety. [1]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 238 Kuronekosan
    • PB P7 Q13 (2 marks)• HOW TO MARK:• Award 2 marks to any other answers which fully (and similarly) address the question.• Award 1 mark for each incomplete but correct answer.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 239 Kuronekosan
    • 3B Students’ Inputs – Q13 Their quick jump had save the lives of the porters as theHosea Ho rope could have break and their weight had been balanced. The leader and the narrator’s quick jump off the ridgeRaiyan balanced the weight of the men who were on the other end and made the men who were on the other side to gradually climb back towars the rest of the men.Craig Tay If the leader and the narrator had not jump quickly, the porters on the other side would have fell as there is no weight for the porters to balance themselves on the other side. The leader and the narrator’s quick jump off the ridge hadZoey Too helped save the lives of the porters who had fallen off the other side of the ridge as their weights helped them to7/3/2011 balance those men who had fallen on the far side which 240 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee leds the men to climb Kuronekosan slowly up.
    • 3C Students’ Inputs – Q13Izzaty They were able to balance their weight on the rope. They also climbed back the mountain carefully up again.Qi En The leader carefully examined the rope that again hung losely between us.Chloe Their weight exactly balanced the portersWong weight.Shamila By jumping, the leader and author’s weight exactly balanced that of the men who had fallen on the opposite side of the ridge.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 241 Kuronekosan
    • 3D Students’ Inputs – Q13Elizabeth It was to install teamwork to try to work together to climb the ridge that will also save the fallen porter on the other side. The leader and the narrator’s quick jump off the ridge has helped saveAlysha the lives by the rope lay tight and motionless across the crest of the ridge with their weight exactly balanced that of the men who had fallen on the far side. They eventually climbed up slowly.Yu Qi The leader hung him and incarage them. Weight exactly balanced that of the men who had fallen out the far side.Benedict The leader’s and narrator’s quick jump off the other side of the ridge helped balance the weight between the six men,Ang so the falling would stop and the rope hanging on the7/3/2011 ridge will beWritten by Yeo Yam Hwee stable. 242 Kuronekosan
    • From Passage A and Passage B: Q14(1) - 1 mark• withdrawn (line 4)• The geological consent can be withdrawn at any time.• Recalled Terminated• Removed Revoked• Retracted Withheld• Taken back Discontinued• Taken away• Recanted made invalid• Rescinded Invalidated7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 243 Kuronekosan
    • From PA and PB Q14(2) – 1 mark• conveniently (line 29)• …conveniently flat airport locations…• Easily available• Easily accessible• Easily deployable• Readily available• Readily accessible• Readily deployable7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 244 Kuronekosan
    • From PA and PB Q14(3) – 1 mark• utter (line 34)• …as a thing of utter insignificance…• Total• Absolute• Complete• Pure• Sheer7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 245 Kuronekosan
    • From PA and PB Q14(4) – 1 mark• clung (line 23)• We clung to handholds on the cliff face.• Held (on) tightly• Held tightly• Grip• Grasp• Grab tightly7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 246 Kuronekosan
    • From PA and PB Q14(5) – 1 mark• perpendicular (line 30)• …an almost perpendicular ice wall had made it necessary for us to come out for a few yards …• Exactly vertical• Vertical• Upright7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 247 Kuronekosan
    • PB Q15 (25 marks)• You were a newspaper journalist who was covering the story of the K3 expedition crew. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the preparations, challenges and dangers faced by the crew in their attempt to climb the mountain.• USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE B FROM PARAGRAPHS 2 TO 7.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: The crew members of the K3 expedition team…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 248 Kuronekosan
    • POINTS (A.B.C) A B C Preparations Challenges Dangers made overcome faced7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 249 Kuronekosan
    • A. Preparations1 Established base camp as close to the mountain as possible.2 Unpacked, inspected and sorted supplies3 Repacked into lighter loads for transportation to advanced camps7 Planned route across glacier9 Establishing camps higher up7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 250 Kuronekosan
    • B. Challenges4 Spent long hours studying maps and charts5 Spent longer hours studying the mountain through telescope and field glasses6 Surveyed glacier thoroughly8 Backbreaking labour of moving supplies up mountain10 Moving up and down uneven glacier7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 251 Kuronekosan
    • B. Challenges Shortage of manpower as more camps were11 built Using axes to cut innumerable steps in the12 icewalls Clinging to handholds on the cliff face13 Straining at ropes as far as they could14 tolerate Sending sick and injured men down to base17 camp Climbing an almost perpendicular ice wall197/3/2011 with a knife-thin Yeo Yam Hwee Written by ridge 252 Kuronekosan
    • C. Dangers15 Battling storms and winds16 Dealing with difficulties in breathing / high-altitude related sickness18 Dealing with the threat of tremors20 Forced the crew to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 253 Kuronekosan
    • C. Dangers21 The rocks were coated with smooth ice22 On either side the mountain dropped away 5000 feet straight down23 A porter slipped when the quivers struck24 Plunged sideways into space7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 254 Kuronekosan
    • C. Dangers25 Another screaming porter fell away on the same side26 Man next to leader tried to dig into the ridge with his axe in vain to attempt to hold the weight of the falling men27 The leader shouted for people on his side to jump when he jumped28 Followed by two other men who fell off the other side7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 255 Kuronekosan
    • C. Dangers29 An avalanche had been triggered30 The men hung for a moment31 Then swung in slowly to the side of the mountain32 The weight on both side of the ridge exactly balanced each other33 With the rope at their waist, men on both sides climbed slowly back up the ridge at7/3/2011 leader’sWrittenKuronekosan Hwee command. by Yeo Yam 256
    • SUMMARY WRITING You were a newspaper journalist who was covering the story of the K3 expedition crew. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the preparations, challenges and dangers faced by the crew in their attempt to climb the mountain.The journalist would have to be in the expeditionteam in order to be able to cover the story oftheir climb. The summary will have to be in thethird person perspective because the journalistis supposed to report on the crew members’experience.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 257 Kuronekosan
    • REVISIONFirst Person Second Third PersonPerspective Person Perspective PerspectiveI / me You / Your / He / His /mine Yours HimWe / us She / Hers / Herours They / Theirs / Them7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 258 Kuronekosan
    • If the examiner had wanted a FIRST PERSON PERSPECTIVE answer, he or she would have written the question like this: You were a newspaper journalist who was covering the story of the K3 expedition crew. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the preparations, challenges and dangers faced by you and your crew in your attempt to climb the mountain.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 259 Kuronekosan
    • Compare and Contrast You were a You were a newspaper journalist newspaper journalist who was covering the who was covering the story of the K3 story of the K3 expedition crew. expedition crew. Using your own words Using your own words as far as possible, as far as possible, summarise the summarise the preparations, preparations, challenges and challenges and dangers faced by the dangers faced by you crew in their attempt and your crew in your to climb the mountain. attempt to climb the7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam mountain. Hwee 260 Kuronekosan
    • SUMMARY WRITING USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE B FROM PARAGRAPHS 2 TO 7.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 261 Kuronekosan
    • SUMMARY WRITING• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: The crew members of the K3 expedition team…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 262 Kuronekosan
    • CHECKLIST7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 263 Kuronekosan
    • VERY IMPORTANT YOU WILL NEED 45 MINUTES TO WORK ON AND COMPLETE YOUR SUMMARY WRITING TASK7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 264 Kuronekosan
    • VERY IMPORTANT NEVER EVER START YOUR PAPER 2 BY ATTEMPTING THE SUMMARY QUESTION FIRST.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 265 Kuronekosan
    • ALWAYS BEGIN WRITING DOWN YOUR FINAL DRAFT ON A NEW PIECE OF PAPER – A FRESH SHEET.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 266 Kuronekosan
    • FOR THE SUMMARY Question – Q16 (25m) 16 SUMMARY - FINAL DRAFT Write these words clearly.INDICATE THE The factors contributing to the demise of the tiger are……………..SUMMARYQUESTIONNUMBER Leave a line after every written line.CLEARLY. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx YOU SHOULD USE OTHER SHEETS OF PAPER TO WORK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX OUT YOUR POINT ORGANISER AND YOUR FIRST DRAFT. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(148 words) THEN ALWAYS Indicate clearly the total number of words, not BEGIN YOUR counting the helping words. SUMMARY FINAL DRAFT ON A NEW PAGE. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 267 Kuronekosan
    • SUMMARY WRITING ALWAYS LEAVE A LINE AFTER EVERY WRITTEN LINE WHEN WRITING DOWN YOUR ANSWER. WRITE DOWN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF WORDS (not including the helping words) AT THE END OF YOUR SUMMARY.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 268 Kuronekosan
    • • The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, unpacked, inspected and sorted their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent. They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. They struggled to move supplies as they ascended to establish camps higher up…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 269 Kuronekosan
    • …They moved up and down the unevenglacier, using axes to cut innumerablesteps in the icewalls. They held tightlyonto handholds on the cliff face, strainingat ropes as far as they could tolerate.They were increasingly shorthanded asthey built more camps…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 270 Kuronekosan
    • …They battled storms and windswhile dealing with high-altituderelated sickness. The sick had to besent down to the base camp. Theyalso needed to deal with tremors…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 271 Kuronekosan
    • …While climbing an almost perpendicularicewall with a knife-thin ridge, they wereforced to tread on the exposed crest of theridge with rocks coated with smooth ice.On either side the mountain dropped away5000 feet straight down. A porter slippedwhen the quivers struck, causing him toplunge sideways into space… 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 272 Kuronekosan
    • …When another screaming porter fellaway on the same side, the climber next tothe leader on the other side tried to diginto the ridge with his axe in vain toattempt to hold the weight of the fallenmen…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 273 Kuronekosan
    • …The leader shouted for climbers onhis side to jump as he jumped, as twoothers followed his action. Anavalanche had been triggered. Themen hung for a moment beforeswinging in slowly to the side of themountain…7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 274 Kuronekosan
    • …Because the weight on both sidesexactly balanced each other, withthe rope at their waist, men from theopposite sides climbed slowly backup the ridge at the leader’scommand.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 275 Kuronekosan
    • The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to themountain, unpacked, inspected and sorted their supplies. They repacked them intolighter loads for the ascent. They spent long hours studying maps and charts andeven longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan theirroute across the latter. They struggled to move supplies as they ascended toestablish camps higher up. They moved up and down the uneven glacier, usingaxes to cut innumerable steps in the icewalls. They held tightly onto handholds onthe cliff face, straining at ropes as far as they could tolerate. They wereincreasingly shorthanded as they built more camps. They battled storms and windswhile dealing with high-altitude related sickness. The sick had to be sent down tothe base camp. They also needed to deal with tremors. While climbing an almostperpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on theexposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. On either side themountain dropped away 5000 feet straight down. A porter slipped when the quiversstruck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. When another screaming porterfell away on the same side, the climber next to the leader on the other side tried todig into the ridge with his axe in vain to attempt to hold the weight of the fallen men.The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two othersfollowed his action. An avalanche had been triggered. The men hung for amoment before swinging in slowly to the side of the mountain. Because the weighton both sides exactly balanced each other, with the rope at their waist, men fromthe opposite sides climbed slowly back Yeo the ridge at the leader’s command. 276 7/3/2011 Written by up Yam Hwee Kuronekosan
    • Markers’ Report You will be awarded with 1 mark for every valid point which is fully established by you in your answer. There is no need to furnish all the points listed in this report and maximum points of 15 will be awarded to all deserving candidates.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 277 Kuronekosan
    • Use the Helping Words provided to begin your answer The crew members of the K3 expedition team…by linking it to the very first point whichyou think should kick start your summary A1 Established base camp as close to the mountain as possible.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 278 Kuronekosan
    • The crew members of the K3 expedition Secure your veryteam established their base camp as first mark right fromclose to the mountain as possible. the start. Summary needs no introduction.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 279 Kuronekosan
    • Do Not Waste Your Helping Words by doing this: The crew members of the K3 expedition team made a lot of preparations, faced many challenges and ran into many dangers. THIS IS WHAT WE CALL “STATING THE OBVIOUS”. WE CERTAINLY DO NOT NEED TO WASTE AWAY THE HELPING WORDS WITH AN INTRODUCTION. GET TO THE POINT RIGHTAWAY. Why do you throw away 13 words to score ABSOLUTELY NOTHING for content points?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 280 Kuronekosan
    • Neither do you include these phrases in your summary……. The preparations the crew members had to make were….. The challenges they faced were…. Finally the dangers they ran into were…. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 281 Kuronekosan
    • IMAGINE: ALL THESE WORDS - 21 of them. They are not goingMORAL OF THE STORY: to produce any“SUMMARY” means “GET TO THE POINT”. CONTENTGIVE YOUR READERS the“ESSENTIALS ONLY” POINTS forand spare them the “OBVIOUS”. you at all. 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 282 Kuronekosan
    • What do we mean by “OWN WORDS”?“OWN WORDS” will have to be:• USEFUL WORDS which keep to the meaning of the original text.• WORDS which are appropriate for use to fit into the context or the topic at hand.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 283 Kuronekosan
    • When do we use our OWN words?1. When we are confident in using them.2. When the “own words” are effective for us to see a reduction in the number (even if it is only ONE less word) of original words used to mean the same thing in the text. If we can put the same meaning across using less words, why not?3. When we can spell our “own words” properly.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 284 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words] The woman selling freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men maintaining law and order in her neighbourhood. [20 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 285 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words] The woman selling flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men maintaining order in her neighbourhood. [18 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 286 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words] The female flower seller witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men maintaining order in her neighbourhood. [18 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 287 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words] The flower seller witnessed the robbery and reported it to the police officers in her neighbourhood. [16 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 288 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words] The florist witnessed the robbery and reported it to the policemen in her neighbourhood. [14 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 289 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The florist witnessed the robbery and reported it to the policemen in her neighbourhood. [14 words] The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the policemen in her neighbourhood. [13 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 290 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the policemen in her neighbourhood. [13 words] The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the police in her neighbourhood. [13 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 291 Kuronekosan
    • An example of USE YOUR OWN WORDS The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the police in her neighbourhood. [13 words] The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the neighbourhood police. [11 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 292 Kuronekosan
    • IMAGINE THE POWER OF the correct use of “OWN WORDS”.BEFORE: The woman who sells freshly cut flowers witnessed the robbery and reported it to the men who maintain law and order in the neighbourhood. [22 words]AFTER: The florist witnessed and reported the robbery to the neighbourhood police. [11 words] 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 293 Kuronekosan
    • So what does “USING YOUR OWN WORDS” involve? We drop the description (especially detailed ones) and make use of commonly understood labels and We reorder (restructure) some parts of the original sentence without changing the meaning.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 294 Kuronekosan
    • So what does “USING YOUR OWN WORDS” involve? We drop the description The woman who sells (especially detailed freshly cut flowers” ones) and make use of commonly understood labels “the florist” and We reorder (restructure) some parts of the …witnessed the robbery original sentence and reported it to… without changing any meaning. “witnessed and reported7/3/2011 the robbery to… Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 295 Kuronekosan
    • This has nothing to do with USING YOUR OWN WORDS We used the axes to cut steps into the icewalls. (10 words) We used the axes to cut steps into the walls of ice. (12 words)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 296 Kuronekosan
    • An icewall7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 297 Kuronekosan
    • “Icewalls” is given to you as as ONE word. ASK YOURSELVES: What is the point of changing it to “WALLS OF ICE” which has THREE words.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 298 Kuronekosan
    • A WORD OF CAUTION Using “own words” does not mean using words which you invent on your own. Never introduce your own HYPENATED words. Never use SINGLISH words and think that they are OWN WORDS.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 299 Kuronekosan
    • NOTE:A hyphenated word is ONE word.Contracted words should never be used:Do not use “can’t” ; use “cannot” instead.Do not use “won’t”; use “will not” instead.Do not use “wouldn’t”; use “would not” instead.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 300 Kuronekosan
    • NOTEMary’s coming to town. [5 words]Mary is coming to town. [5 words]They are going to Mary’s house. [6 words]They are going to the house of Mary. [X] [8 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 301 Kuronekosan
    • NOTE:“Can’t” is considered as ONE word. [CANNOT]“Wouldn’t” is TWO words. [WOULD NOT]“Shouldn’t” is TWO words. [SHOULD NOT]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 302 Kuronekosan
    • USE OF OWN WORDS NOT APPLICABLE APPLICABLE WHEN YOU ARE ONLY WHEN YOU TAKING OUT ARE MAKING RELEVANT IMPROVEMENTS POINTS FOR TO DRAFT ONE WRITING OUT TO COME UP DRAFT ONE OF WITH YOUR YOUR SUMMARY. FINAL DRAFT. 3037/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee Kuronekosan
    • If your DRAFT ONE goes slightly beyond 150 words (REMEMBER to EXCLUDE the helping words) by about 10 to 15 per cent, it is quite all right. Just be prepared to have your last two to three lines of your Summary struck off by the examiner because of “EXCESS7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee DENIES”. 304 Kuronekosan
    • HOWEVER, IT IS NOT ALL RIGHT IF YOU HAVE WRITTEN EXCESSIVELY FOR DRAFT ONE. REMEMBER: IN SO DOING, YOU ARE TELLING THE EXAMINER YOU DIDN’T KNOW HOW TO DEAL WITH THE SUMMARY TASK AT HAND.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 305 Kuronekosan
    • “Words” reduction - Sentence combination – Use of Own Words• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, unpacked, inspected and sorted their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent. Manageable MOST IMPORTANT ACTION Packages Inspected examined7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 306 Kuronekosan
    • When there are many ACTION words in a sentence… The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, unpacked, inspected and sorted their supplies. VERB VERB VERB #1 #2 #37/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 307 Kuronekosan
    • The more verbs (action words) there are in a sentence, the more detailed the description of the actions are. SUMMARY is not about details. It is about informing your reader what is MOST important. So of these three verbs, which one is the MOST IMPORTANT?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 308 Kuronekosan
    • Examine the verbs in turns Suppose we kept “unpacked” and took away the other two action words in the sentence: The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and unpacked their supplies. Does this verb “UNPACKED” make the purpose of dealing with “their supplies” complete? Or is there a dangling feeling here that “unpacking their suppliers” is not the ultimate purpose? So is “unpacked” the most important action word?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 309 Kuronekosan
    • Examine the verbs in turns Suppose we kept “sorted” and took away the other two action words in the sentence: The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and sorted their supplies.Does this verb “SORTED” make the purpose of dealing with“their supplies” complete? Or is there a dangling feeling here that“sorting their suppliers” is not the ultimate purpose?So is “sorted” the most important action word? Or at least, more importantthan “unpacked”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 310 Kuronekosan
    • Examine the verbs in turns Suppose we kept “inspected” and took away the other two action words in the sentence: The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and inspected their supplies. Compared with “unpacked”, “inspected” seems to be more important. But why did they inspect their supplies? So that they could “sort” them. So, “inspected” seems rather important here but it is not the final purpose. The purpose is to sort the supplies.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 311 Kuronekosan
    • REMEMBER: We cannot stare at a particular sentence alone and ponder aimlessly. We need to examine the relevant sentences around it: the ones before and the ones that follow.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 312 Kuronekosan
    • The next sentence is: The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and sorted their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 313 Kuronekosan
    • If we put both sentences together…• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and unpacked their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 314 Kuronekosan
    • I then made the following decision: The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and inspected their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent. The meaning of SORT I think this is the mostI made sure I is I think, included in this Important action worddo not repeat action word found in the even though theInformation in next sentence. This is why final purpose for theSummary writing. I have chosen to by Yeo“SORT”. Inspection is to SORT. 7/3/2011 Written drop Yam Hwee 315 Kuronekosan
    • Can further restructuring be done to these two sentences? The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and inspected their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent. Can a longer sentence be formed?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 316 Kuronekosan
    • Can further restructuring be done to these two sentences? The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain and inspected their supplies. They repacked them into lighter loads for the ascent. The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, inspected and repacked their supplies into lighter loads for the ascent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 317 Kuronekosan
    • After that, any further improvements? The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, inspected and repacked their supplies into lighter loads for the ascent. The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages for the ascent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 318 Kuronekosan
    • Words reduction - Sentence combination – Use of Own Words The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages for the ascent.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 319 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 320 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. THE FORMER THE LATTER7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 321 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. What are maps and charts really? Information Data Knowledge So do you write: “data and information” to replace “maps and charts”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 322 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. So do you write: “data and information” to replace “maps and charts”? REMEMBER: “Data and information” and “maps and charts” are THREE WORDS each. What is the point of using your OWN WORDS?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 323 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Word Reduction They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. REMEMBER: “Data and information” and “maps and charts” are THREE WORDS each. What is the point of USING YOUR OWN WORDS? And by the way, ask yourselves: INFORMATION? What kind of? Any specific information?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 324 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: The issue of COLLOCATION They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. REMEMBER: “Data and information” and “maps and charts” are THREE WORDS each. What is the point of USING YOUR OWN WORDS? And by the way, ask yourselves: INFORMATION? What kind of? Any specific information?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 325 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: The issue of COLLOCATION They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. And by the way, ask yourselves: INFORMATION? What kind of? Any specific information? Where were they? At the mountain? So: Is it “mountain information”? Or “mountainous information”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 326 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: The issue of COLLOCATION They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. And by the way, ask yourselves: INFORMATION? What kind of? Any specific information? Where were they? At the mountain? So: Is it “mountain information”? Or “mountainous information”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 327 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: The issue of COLLOCATION They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. Where were they? At the mountain? So: Is it “mountain information”? Or “mountainous information”? Or do we go for “mountainous information and data” or “mountain information and data”? REMEMBER: “charts and maps” only 3 words.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 328 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: The issue of COLLOCATION They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. Or do we go for “mountainous information and data” or “mountain information and data”? REMEMBER: “charts and maps” only 3 words. HAVE YOU HEARD OF “SITE INFORMATION”?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 329 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Avoid Repetition of Meaning They spent long hours studying site information and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. In a survey, people did a lot of researching and questioning. They were likely to do a THOROUGH job.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 330 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Avoid Repetition of Meaning They spent long hours studying site information and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. In a survey, people did a lot of researching and questioning. They were likely to do a THOROUGH job. So in this case, there is no need to keep this word, “thoroughly”.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 331 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: They spent long hours studying site information and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 332 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Just one more sweep They spent long hours studying site information and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier to plan their route across the latter. (24 words) What can be done about this?7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 333 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Just one more sweep They spent long hours studying site information and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier to plan their route across the latter. (24 words) longer still7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 334 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words: Just one more sweep They spent long hours studying site information and longer still, surveying the mountain and the glacier to plan their route across the latter. (23 words)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 335 Kuronekosan
    • Before and after They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. [26 words] They spent long hours studying site information and longer still, surveying the mountain and the glacier to plan their route across the latter.(23 words)7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 336 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words (UOW) STOP FOR A MINUTE TO THINK: Do not push it too hard to use your own words in summary because the instructions are quite clear: As far as possible… However, it does not mean that you do not try to anything about it.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 337 Kuronekosan
    • USE YOUR OWN WORDS You will realise that sometimes, if not most of the time, you cannot treat ONE sentence in ISOLATION (alone). You have to see how any one particular sentence is related to the one that comes before it and the one that follows.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 338 Kuronekosan
    • SENTENCE COMBINATION1. It does not mean that we must combine two short(er) sentences into a long(er) sentence.2. Consider combining sentences dealing with the same or similar ideas.3. Leave sentences dealing with different ideas alone unless you can use effective connectives to join these ideas together.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 339 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They struggled to move supplies as they ascended to establish camps higher up. They moved up and down the uneven glacier, using axes to cut innumerable steps in the icewalls. [30 words] They struggled with the supplies as they built advanced camps, crisscrossing the uneven glacier with axes, cutting innumerable steps in the icewalls. [22 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 340 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They held tightly onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes as far as they could tolerate. [18 words] They gripped onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes with extreme endurance. [14 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 341 Kuronekosan
    • REMEMBER THIS When we combine sentences, we are sometimes performing an operation on paper called RESTRUCTURING. This is also a reflection of your understanding of what you have read. It is important that you apply RESTRUCTURING as and when appropriate.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 342 Kuronekosan
    • An example of RESTRUCTURING He visited the library. He needed to use the reference resources there for his research on global warming.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 343 Kuronekosan
    • An example of RESTRUCTURING He visited the library because he needed to use the reference resources there for his research on global warming.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 344 Kuronekosan
    • An example of RESTRUCTURING Whenever he needed to use the reference resources there for his research on global warming, he visit the library. WOULD7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 345 Kuronekosan
    • Why RESTRUCTURING must be used carefully Because whenever we tinker a sentence or any cluster of sentences by inverting them or reordering them or even by inclusion of a connective or connectives, there is a risk which may come up: we might inadvertently (accidentally) modify somewhat the meaning of the original text.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 346 Kuronekosan
    • An example of RESTRUCTURING He visited the library whenever he needed to use the reference resources there for his research on global warming.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 347 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They were increasingly shorthanded as they built more camps. They battled storms and winds while dealing with high- altitude related sickness. The sick had to be sent down to the base camp. They also needed to deal with tremors.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 348 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They were increasingly Leave this shorthanded as they sentence alone. built more camps. They battled storms and winds while These three dealing with high- sentences altitude related sickness. The sick are dealing had to be sent down with related to the base camp. They also needed to matters. deal with tremors.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 349 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They battled storms They battled and winds while tremors, storms dealing with high- and winds while altitude related dealing with sickness. The sick hypothermia, had to be sent down sending those to the base camp. afflicted down to They also needed to the base camp. deal with tremors. [18 words] [29 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 350 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They battled They battled tremors, storms forces of nature and winds while while dealing with dealing with hypothermia, hypothermia, sending those sending those afflicted down to afflicted down to the base camp. the base camp. [17 words] [18 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 351 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing They battled They battled forces of nature natural forces while dealing with while dealing with hypothermia, hypothermia, sending those sending those afflicted down to afflicted down to the base camp. the base camp. [17 words] [16 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 352 Kuronekosan
    • The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest tothe mountain, unpacked, inspected and sorted their supplies. They repackedthem into lighter loads for the ascent. They spent long hours studying mapsand charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacierthoroughly to plan their route across the latter. They struggled to movesupplies as they ascended to establish camps higher up. They moved up anddown the uneven glacier, using axes to cut innumerable steps in the icewalls.They held tightly onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes as far asthey could tolerate. They were increasingly shorthanded as they built morecamps. They battled storms and winds while dealing with high-altituderelated sickness. The sick had to be sent down to the base camp. They alsoneeded to deal with tremors. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewallwith a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of theridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. On either side the mountaindropped away 5000 feet straight down. A porter slipped when the quiversstruck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. When another screamingporter fell away on the same side, the climber next to the leader on the otherside tried to dig into the ridge with his axe in vain to attempt to hold theweight of the fallen men. The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jumpas he jumped, as two others followed his action. An avalanche had beentriggered. The men hung for a moment before swinging in slowly to the sideof the mountain. Because the weight on both sides exactly balanced eachother, with the rope at their waist, men from the opposite sides climbedslowly back up the ridge at the leader’s Yam Hwee 7/3/2011 Written by Yeo command. 353 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. On either side the mountain dropped away 5000 feet straight down.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 354 Kuronekosan
    • If we need to remove anything, do so with proper reasoning. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. On either side the mountain dropped away 5000 feet straight down. I made the decision to remove this sentence because it was merely a piece of information, which requires a lot of explanation to connect it to the idea of challenge or danger. Too much trouble to7/3/2011 get into. So IYam Hwee it. Written by Yeo dropped 355 Kuronekosan
    • If we need to remove anything, do so with proper reasoning. A porter slipped when the quivers struck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. When another screaming porter fell away on the same side, the climber next to the leader on the other side tried to dig into the ridge with his axe in vain to attempt to hold the weight of the fallen men. I think this information is too detailed for inclusion in my FINAL DRAFT.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 356 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two others followed his action. I left this sentence intact.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 357 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary WritingAn avalanche had been triggered. This is beyond the control of the climbers. the avalanche, though it had happened, did not cause any direct challenge. Neither did it endangered the lives of the climbers. So I decided that I should remove it.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 358 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing The men hung for a moment before swinging in slowly to the side of the mountain. No immediate danger and neither was it a direct challenge. So I decided that it should be removed too.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 359 Kuronekosan
    • Use of Own Words In Summary Writing Because the weight on both sides exactly balanced each other, with the rope at their waist, men from the opposite sides climbed slowly back up the ridge at the leader’s command. I will try to fit this into my Draft 2 (Final draft) because It is quite well written.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 360 Kuronekosan
    • WRITING FINAL DRAFT BE CAREFUL The clock is ticking away. Nice to make an effort to improve your Draft One but you will need to work fast.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 361 Kuronekosan
    • Putting everything together for FINAL DRAFT• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages for the ascent. They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. They struggled with the supplies as they built advanced camps, crisscrossing the uneven glacier with axes, cutting innumerable steps in the icewalls. They gripped onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes with extreme endurance. They battled tremors, storms and winds while dealing with hypothermia, sending those afflicted down to the base camp. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. A porter slipped when the quivers struck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two others followed his action. Because the weight on both sides exactly balanced each other, with the rope at their waist, men from the opposite sides climbed slowly back up the ridge at the leader’s command.• [191 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 362 Kuronekosan
    • NOTE: SOMETIMES, EVEN AFTER SOME SERIOUS EDITING, WE STILL NEED TO DO FURTHER TRIMMING. THIS IS BECAUSE 191 WORDS IS STILL QUITE EXCESSIVE.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 363 Kuronekosan
    • TRIM A LITTLE FURTHER FOR YOUR FINAL DRAFT (if you still have time to do so)• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages. They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. They struggled with the supplies as they built advanced camps, crisscrossing the uneven glacier with axes, cutting innumerable steps in the icewalls. They gripped onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes with extreme endurance. They battled tremors, storms and winds while dealing with hypothermia, sending those afflicted down to the base camp. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. A porter slipped when the quivers struck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two others followed his action. Because the weight on both sides exactly balanced each other, with the rope at their waist, men from the opposite sides climbed slowly back up the ridge.• [185 words]7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 364 Kuronekosan
    • What does your FINAL DRAFT look like at 158 words?• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages. They spent long hours studying maps and charts and even longer hours, surveying the mountain and the glacier thoroughly to plan their route across the latter. They struggled with the supplies as they built advanced camps, crisscrossing the uneven glacier with axes, cutting innumerable steps in the icewalls. They gripped onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes with extreme endurance. They battled tremors, storms and winds while dealing with hypothermia, sending those afflicted down to the base camp. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. A porter slipped when the quivers struck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two others followed his action.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 365 Kuronekosan
    • What does your FINAL DRAFT look like at 150 words?• The crew members of the K3 expedition team built their base camp closest to the mountain, examined and repacked their supplies into manageable packages. They spent long hours studying site information and longer still, surveying the mountain and the glacier to plan their route across the latter. They struggled with the supplies as they built advanced camps, crisscrossing the glacier, cutting innumerable steps in the icewalls. They gripped onto handholds on the cliff face, straining at ropes with extreme endurance. They battled natural forces while dealing with hypothermia, sending those afflicted down to the base camp. While climbing an almost perpendicular icewall with a knife-thin ridge, they were forced to tread on the exposed crest of the ridge with rocks coated with smooth ice. A porter slipped when the quivers struck, causing him to plunge sideways into space. The leader shouted for climbers on his side to jump as he jumped, as two others followed his action.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 366 Kuronekosan
    • REMEMBER Sometimes, you simply cannot include all the points. As long as you have done an honest piece of work, you should be happy about it. Make sure you watch out for the time.7/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 367 Kuronekosan
    • FROM DRAFT 1 A more or less 150 word summary paragraph which is your FINAL DRAFT TO FINAL DRAFT Also known as DRAFT 27/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 368 Kuronekosan
    • Thank You I would like to thank Miss Ng Kiew Ling for her understanding, support and assistance during the setting of this examination paper. Her invaluable insights have helped make my paper a better paper. I also want to thank the English Department for giving me the trust and opportunity to mark the full set of questions and also across the whole Secondary Three level. Finally, I wish to thank all the candidates for having unflinchingly and courageously sat this paper. I wish you all the best in your future endeavours. Yeo Yam Hwee 25 May 20117/3/2011 Written by Yeo Yam Hwee 369 Kuronekosan