NARRATIONNarration refers to the act ofrecounting or telling a story. Thetopic of narration is related to whois telling the story and whoseperspective (point of view) on thestory we are given.
NARRATIONThe narrator is the person whonarrates or tells the story. EmilyGan is the narrator of the play,Emily of Emerald Hill.The eponymous character in aplay is the character whosename is in its title: Emily is theplay’s eponymous heroine.
Identification of Narration When trying to pinpoint NARRATION in texts, we may ask the following questions: Who is telling the story? Point of View How many perspectives are we given? Perspectives What is the style of narration Style
POINT OF VIEW A story can be told from the point of view of a single character who plays a part in the story. In this kind of story the reader can only be told what that character sees or hears or feels. Commonly, the pronoun “I” is used to tell this type of story in which case we call it a “first person narrative”. Emily of EmeraldEmily’s voice is the one and Hill is narrated in the firstonly voice you will hear fromthe beginning to the end. Can person narrative.you trust everything she tellsyou?
Who is speaking to us when we read a text?1. The writer is a real-life person.2. The writer invents a narrator / a speaker / a persona / a voice to tell his story so that the readers out there can read about it.3. In Literature, we learn to APPRECIATE and CRITIQUE what we read.4. To APPRECIATE and CRITIQUE is to form well- informed opinions on what we read.
How many ways can the writer tells his story?1. Nobody can say. Unlimited ways.2. But so far, we can say that it is common to see stories written using a. The FIRST person – “I” b. The THIRD person – “He”, “She”, “It”, “They”, “The man” etc. c. Rarely, the SECOND person – “You”
Why should we be interested toknow how the writer tells his story? When the writer uses “I” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from his / her point of view.
Why should we be interested toknow how the writer tells his story? When the writer uses “They” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from THEIR point of view.
Why should we be interested toknow how the writer tells his story? When the writer uses “The old woman” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from “that old woman’s” point of view.
So, what is POINT OF VIEW?A point of view helps thereaders to place a focus onhow to read, understand andinterpret how and why eventshappen to a any character inthe text.
Why is Point of View important to us readers?Correct understanding of the writer’suse of POINT OF VIEW, will help us tounderstand who the speaker is, how hetells his story, why he tells his story ina certain way or tone or mental state ofmind.
So, every time when we read a text, what must we first do?FIND OUT CORRECTLY, WHETHER THE WRITER IS TELLING THE STORY USING A FIRST PERSON NARRATOR THIRD PERSON NARRATOR SECOND PERSON NARRATOR.
THE WRITER’S CHOICEWHY DOES HE USE THE FIRST PERSON NARRATOR/SPEAKER?1. To bring the readers close to the speaker. “I” in the text is a powerful reference to “I” in the reader. In prolonged reading, the “I” in the reader and the “I” in the text may become one and the same. When this happens, the reader is very likely to be SYMPATHETIC (to feel for the speaker) towards the speaker for what he has done or what other characters may have done to him.
THE WRITER’S CHOICEWHY DOES HE USE THE FIRST PERSON NARRATOR/SPEAKER?2. The story becomes more personal. Because we are sympathetic, we tend to believe in what the speaker “I” is telling us. We become more engaged emotionally. We tend to side with “I”.
What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”?1. “I” – the first person point of view is a narrow one. The speaker here is mainly concerned with his own actions, thinking and feelings. He may or may not be considerate with other characters. He may or may not be reliable in telling us why he does something, how he feels or thinks in the story. We have to rely on him, but we need to stop and think from time to time, whether we should believe everything he says or not. This has nothing to do with the speaker’s intention because not every speaker is out to lie to us. But we have to decide whether to buy into his story or not.
What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”?2. The speaker “I” ’s understanding and interpretation of the events which happen to him may be limited by his own experience as a human person. In this sense, he may sometimes be carried away by his own emotions. It is perfectly all right for us to question his emotions – has he over- reacted? Has he done something wrong? Has he misunderstood other characters’ intentions?
What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”?3. The speaker “I”, either purposely or unintentionally, cuts the readers off, from looking at why and how other characters act, think or feel in a certain way in the text. We are limited to only what the speaker “I” is able to tell us, willing to tell us, or able to tell us. So, we can only see other characters through the speaker alone.
What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”?3. Our impressions which are formed based on the speaker “I” ‘s information alone, are therefore LIMITED – subjective views. We will have to make the best of it by justifying in our response that “According to the speaker, I can say that….”
Two types of viewsSUBJECTIVE VIEW - Narrowly based, seeing things and forming opinions from a personal or restricted point of view. Emotions play a HUGE role in shaping such a view.OBJECTIVE VIEW - Widely based, seeing things and forming opinions from many angles or points of views. Reasoning is involved. Emotions are not necessarily excluded but we are more careful in dealing with personal feelings here.
Which is better?THERE IS NO SUCH A THING. It is important to formyour own personal opinion and not be tied down by itand at the same time, seek other readers’ comments onthe same text which you all have been reading. Also,you have to learn to read with an open mind. Do notjudge the characters in the text. Understand why andhow these characters are motivated to do the things theydo in the text. Then use your feelings and the thingsactually mentioned in the text to help you form a matureresponse. BOTH SUBJECTIVE and OBJECTIVEviews are equally important.
The Use of S.T.A.R. GridSetting ActionTrouble Resolution
S.T.A.R. GridSETTINGHOW / WHEN / WHY / WHAT / WHERE / WHOMTYPE of storyTIMING of storyCHARACTERSATMOSPHEREVOICE / NARRATION / PERSPECTIVETONEMOODISSUE – THEME and SUBJECT MATTER
S.T.A.R. GridTROUBLEWHY DOES THE WRITER BOTHER TO TELL US THIS STORY?ISSUESCONFLICTSSTRUGGLESQUARRELSCONTRADICTIONSIRONIESWHAT THE STORY IS MEANT TO BE ANDWHAT IT IS TURNING OUT TO BE
S.T.A.R. GridACTIONWHAT ARE THE THINKING AND ACTIONS OF THECHARACTERS?HOW DO THE CHARACTERS INTERACT?HOW DO THE CHARACTERS RESOLVE THE ISSUESCONCERNING THEM?HOW DO THE CHARACTERS COMPLICATE THE ISSUESCONCERNING THEM?
S.T.A.R. GridRESOLUTIONEVERY STORY HAS AN ENDING.DOES OUR STORY HAVE AN ENDING?If yes, how does it do so?If no, why not?Is this a satisfactory conclusion to the readers?Is this a satisfactory conclusion to the main characters?Has the major issues (trouble-spots) been resolved?Does the conclusion put an end to all the questions in the story?Does the conclusion open up more questions than before?
The 4-LEVEL Appreciation GuideLEVEL 1 COMPREHENSIONLEVEL 2 INTERPRETATIONLEVEL 3 ANALYSISLEVEL 4 INSIGHT AND RESPONSE
The 4-LEVEL Appreciation GuideLEVEL 1 COMPREHENSIONABILITY TO REPORT AND PARAPHRASE THE TEXTCOMPLETE AND TOTAL MASTERY OF THE TEXTABILITY TO RETELL THE STORY IN ANYWAYABILITY TO SWITCH PERSPECTIVES IN RETELLING AND REFLECTIONABILITY TO USE SELECTED AREAS OF TEXT TO ONE’S ADVANTAGEWHEN QUOTING FOR EVIDENCE / REFERENCE
The 4-LEVEL Appreciation GuideLEVEL 2 INTERPRETATIONABILITY TO READ BETWEEN THE LINESABILITY TO INFER THE THINKING / MOTIVATION / BEHAVIOUROFRESPECTIVE CHARACTERSABILITY TO PUT TOGETHER THE ELEMENTS OF THE LITERARYWORK AND APPRECIATE THE SUPEROBJECTIVE OF THEWORK IN TERMS OF SETTING / TROUBLE / ACTION /RESOLUTIONAPPRECIATE THE CRAFTING SKILLS OF THE WRITER
The 4-LEVEL Appreciation Guide LEVEL 3 ANALYSIS WELL-REASONED REASONABLE AND SENSIBLE AND AND ACCURATE COHERENT WELL-RESEARCHED COMPREHENSION INTERPRETATION ANALYSISREAD THE TEXT CAREFULLY AND DISCOVER FOR YOURSELF WHATTHE CHARACTERS ARE DOING TO MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD AROUNDTHEM AND AS A READER, PROVIDE YOUR TEXTUAL EVIDENCE AND USEYOUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCE TO EXPLAIN AND JUSTIFY WHAT YOU THINKOF THEIR THINKING, MOTIVATIONS AND ACTIONS.
The 4-LEVEL Appreciation GuideLEVEL 4 INSIGHT AND RESPONSESENSITIVE AND INTELLIGENT GRASP OF THE STORYFRESHNESS IN YOUR ANSWERCOHERENT FOCUSEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS SCLEARLY EXPRESSED LANGUAGECLARITY OF THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION
TWO MAIN CATEGORIES OF QUESTIONS WRITING TO SHOW YOUR MASTERYCONTENT OF THE CONTENT OF THE NOVEL. WRITING TO SHOW YOUWRITER’S UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE HOW THE WRITER (MARK HADDON) HAS CREATED THE STORY ANDCRAFT HOW HIS WRITING AND WRITING SKILLS HAVE AFFECTED YOU.
The Two MAIN categories of questions and what they entail Your complete and accurate knowledge of the story and its characters through S.T.A.R. makes up the CONTENT. CONTENT Setting ActionChristopher is a uniquecharacter. How do youfeel about him? Howdoes the writer make you Trouble Resolutionfeel the way you do? How Haddon crafts the PLOT. How he makes Christopher the NARRATOR. WRITER’S How he develops Christopher’s encounters with other people. How he reveals Christopher’s THINKING. How he writes about Christopher’s BEHAVIOUR CRAFT: How How he unfolds Christopher’s DIFFICULTY IN COPING WITH OUR WORLD. How he makes us see the difficulties faced by Christopher’s primary care-givers, skilful is the writer? And Ed Boone and Judy Boone? How does his writing How he shows us how Christopher is similar to us How he shows us how Christopher is different from us affect you and make you How he develops Christopher’s motivation to make a life-defining escapade from Swindon to London feel? How he makes us love and loathe Christopher at the same time.
LOOK AT THE WAY THE QUESTIONS IN PAPER ONE ARE FORMATTED FOR YOU. ESSAY QUESTION: CHOICE 1Either (a) Christopher is a unique character. Suggest why this is so. How effective is Haddon’s writing and to what extent has he succeeded in making Christopher an endearing character to you? ESSAY QUESTION: CHOICE 2Or (b) The story is told from Christopher’s point of view. Discuss how Mark Haddon’s choice of perspective affect the way you read into the relationships between Christopher and others. (N. B. Do not use the passage below in answering this question.) (c) THE PASSAGE-BASED Question… PASSAGE-BASED QUESTION: CHOICE 3 BEWARE OF THESE.
Beware of this cautionary statement whichappears after the two Essay Question choices. (N. B. Do not use the passage below in answering this question.)SERIOUS AND IMPORTANT: THIS IMPLIES THAT YOU WILL NEED TOREAD THE PASSAGE NO MATTER WHAT BECAUSE YOU MUST KNOWWHICH AREA OF THE STORY YOU CANNOT USE FOR WRITING IF YOUCHOOSE TO DO ANY ONE OF THE TWO ESSAY QUESTIONS.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? “DO OR DIE”1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT.2. DO NOT JUMP IN THE FIRST INSTANT TO ATTEMPT THE PASSAGE-BASED QUESTION JUST BECAUSE YOU THINK IT HAS A GIVEN TEXT TO HELP YOU.3. DO NOT FAIL TO READ ALL THE QUESTIONS BEFORE YOU SET YOUR MIND FINALLY ON ONE.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2 Examined Text: Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury1(a) How does Bradbury strongly criticise censorship in the novel? Support your answer with details from the novel.1(b) In what ways does Bradbury make Captain Beatty such a memorable and important character in the novel? Support your answer with details from the novel.1(c)(i) What do you find striking about the way Bradbury uses words and images to create atmosphere in this passage?1(c)(ii) In what ways do you find this passage significant in the context of the novel as a whole? Support your ideas with details from the rest of the novel.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: Games at Twilight by Anita Desai2(a) Which two of the stories in the book do you think have the most satisfying endings? Explain your choice by close reference to Desai’s writing in the two stories you choose.2(b) Explore how Desai vividly shows that an incident has a life-changing effect on two of the following characters:Bhaiyya in The AccompanistRavi in Games at TwilightSuno in Studies in the Park2(c)(i) What impressions of Rakesh does this passage create for you?2(c)(ii) What do other parts of the story strikingly real to you about Rakesh and his relationship with his parents? Support your answer by close reference.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2 Examined Text: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time by Mark Haddon3(a) What impressions does Haddon give you of Siobhan and of her importance to Christopher? Support your answer by close reference to relevant parts of the novel.3(b) Christopher says, “I always tell the truth”. Why do you think this aspect of his character is an important feature of the novel? Support your answer by close reference to the novel.3(c)(i) How does Haddon make this incident particularly powerful? Support your answer by close reference to this passage.3(c)(ii) Why is the conversation that Christopher has had with Mrs. Alexander outside the shop and in the park such a moving and significant moment in the novel? Support your answer by close reference.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: The Whale Rider by Witi Ihimaera4(a) “It is the need for her great-grandfather’s love that provides Kahu’s real motivation.” How far do you agree with this view of Kahu? Support your ideas with details from the novel.4(b) In what ways do you feel that the writer powerfully expresses his admiration for whales in the novel? Support your answer with details from the novel.4(c)(i) How does the writer build up tension in this passage?4(c)(ii) What do you think is the significance of this event in the wider context of the novel? Support your answer with details from the rest of the novel.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2 Examined Text: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee5(a) Mr. Raymond talks about the “hell peol give other people”. In what ways do you think the novel most clearly shows this? Support your answer by close reference to relevant parts of the novel.5(b) To what extent does Lee change your opinion of Aunt Alexandra in the course of the novel? Support your answer by close reference to the novel.5(c)(i) How does Lee create a sense of tension and danger in this passage?5(c)(ii) Choose one other incident in the novel which you have found particularly tense and dramatic, and explain clearly the reasons for your choice.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 26(a) In what ways do you think that Release is a suitable title for that story? Refer closely to the story in your answer.6(b) In what ways does the writer make a character’s memories an important part of any one of the stories in Island Voices? Refer closely to the story you choose in your answer.6(c)(i) What impressions of the relationship between Helena and her husband do you get from this passage?6(c)(ii) How does the writer memorably portray Helena’s “martyrdom” in the rest of the story? Support your answer by close reference.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: Heartland by Darren Shiau7(a) How does Shiau make Fifth Uncle an interesting and significant character in the novel? Support your answer by close reference to relevant incidents.7(b) To what extent do you think Wing’s National Service affects his life and attitudes? Support your answer by close reference to the novel.7(c)(i) What makes this passage an effective ending to the novel?7(c)(ii) Show how Shiau makes you feel sympathy for May, Wing and Yong. In your answer make close reference to the events leading up to this moment following Wing’s return to Singapore from Thailand.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: Whose Life is it Anyway? By Brian Clark1(a) How does Clark make the Judge such an important character in the play? Support your answer by close reference to the play.1(b) To what extent do you think Clark is critical of the medical profession in the play? Support your ideas with details from the play.1(c)(i) In what ways does Clark amuse you in this passage?1(c)(ii) In what ways do you think this passage makes a significant contribution to the play as a whole? Support your answer by reference to the rest of the play.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2 Examined Text: A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry2(a) At which two points in the play are you most aware of the pressures that the Younger family are experiencing? Support your answer by close reference to your chosen points.2(b) How does Hansberry make you feel both pity and contempt for Walter? Support your answer by close reference.2(c)(i) What does this passage reveal about the relationship between Beneatha and George, and what are your feelings about both of them here?2(c)(ii) What, in your opinion, are the reasons for Beneatha cutting her hair? Support your ideas by close reference to other incidents in the play.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: The Royal Hunt of the Sun by Peter Shaffer3(a) How does Shaffer make vivid the conflict between the Spanish and the Incas in the play? Support your ideas with details from the play.3(b) In what ways does Shaffer make de Soto a particularly important character in the play? Support your ideas by close reference to the play.3(c)(i) How does Shaffer strikingly introduce Pizarro in this passage?3(c)(ii) Does your view of Pizarro change during the course of the play? Make reference to what he says and does later in the play to support your answer.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare4(a) Just a piece of light entertainment. A play with serious ideas. Which of these statements is nearer to your opinion of the play? Support your answer by close reference.4(b) Misunderstandings between characters feature strongly feature strongly in the play. Which two examples of this do you find most striking? Support your answer by close reference to relevant parts of the play.4(c)(i) How does Shakespeare make this passage such an amusing introduction to Bottom and the other Mechnicals?4(c) (ii) How does Shakespeare make you like Bottom as well as make you laugh at him? Support your answer with details from other parts of the play.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2Examined Text: Off Center by Haresh Sharma5(a) In your opinion, how effectively does Sharma use humour for serious purposes in this play? Support your answer with close reference.5(b) How does Sharma make Emily a memorable and important character in the play?5(c)(i) In what ways does this speech vividly bring out Vinod’s strong feelings?5(c)(ii) In your view, what is the importance of this speech to the play as a whole? Support your ideas with details from the rest of the play.
GCE O LEVEL 2008 Question Types in Paper 1 and Paper 2 Examined Text: The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams6(a) To what extent does Williams make you feel sorry for Laura? Support your answer by close reference to the play.6(b) How does Williams make the way in which the Wingfield family live and work particularly vivid for you? Support your answer by close reference to the play.6(c)(i) What are your feelings as you read this passage (the ending of the play)?6(c)(ii) What do you think that the play suggests will be the future for Amanda and Laura? Support your answer by reference to other parts of the play.
Writing Clinic 3 Literature in English by Yeo Yam Hwee
SHSS 2008 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions To write systematically What he usually and almost always What kind of in detail in a relevant does, thinks and strongly holds on to? question is this? and organised way Content To state clearly by Or Writer’s craft providing reasons based on your reading / 1(a) Discuss the habits, beliefs understanding / and thoughts which best appreciation and To clearly draw out define and explain the interpretation and draw up the character of Christopher character of Christopher Boone Boone, making him the unique You must SELECT -He is an autistic young person that he is. the best and most Child. You must not EFFECTIVE fail Setting Action idiosyncrasies. to mention this. “Autism” defines How does he cope and Christopher. overcome his BP to survive?Four Level Guide The one and Trouble Resolution onlyL1: Comprehension His autism makes him Is his problem resolved atL2: Interpretation shun / develop fear / the end of the story? Christopher shun interaction / Autism has no cure. It isL3: Analysis not a disease, but a generate defenceL4: Insight and Response mechanism against condition. normal people.
SHSS 2008 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions Both are not TRIGGER Identify him What kind of officially divorced. / REASON immediately to question is this? They merely have the Examiner as Content separated. Ed Boone Or Writer’s craft Identify her 1(b) “Christopher is the immediately to the Examiner as “main” – does main cause of the Judy Boone not mean “only”. breakup between Father So there is room and Mother.” Discuss To write in detail and consider for going beyond with close reference to different ideas / this basic the text. opinions about statement. the given topic. You must have Setting Action COMPLETE and Ed and Judy are parents of an Judy Boone – in her letters – reveals her struggle in her interactions with ACCURATE autistic child. They naturally Christopher. Also she feels the Knowledge and become primary care-givers. estrangement from her husband. She finds herself falling in love with Roger understanding Shears and elopes with him toFour Level Guide of the text. London.L1: Comprehension Trouble ResolutionL2: Interpretation It is a challenge to be a care- There is no suggestion byL3: Analysis giver of a special needs child, Christopher that Ed and JudyL4: Insight and Response especially a growing up one. Boone will get back together.
SHSS 2008 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions “BRIEFLY” does not mean What kind of To write clearly “concisely in an organised question is this? and fully all the way, in terms of Content relevant presentation of ideas, Or Writer’s craft things about a opinions, arguments and so particular topic. on”. You need to answer theThe reasons for question as selectively andthe unravelling fully as you can.of this situation ofInterest. 1[c][i] Explain briefly the cause of this sceneFour Level Guide and what you think is DO NOT LOSEL1: Comprehension going on here in this YOUR FOCUSL2: Interpretation extract.L3: AnalysisL4: Insight and ResponseSetting Action When the question asks you, “what do you think?”, many candidates assume that it is asking for their “opinions”. This is a mistake. Personal response in literature must beTrouble Resolution considered with analysis and evaluation. It cannot be merely “opinions”.
SHSS 2008 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of CLOSE READING/ You must “MILK” question is this? COMPREHENSION/ the given passage Content INTERPRETATION / ANALYSIS first, line by line. Or Writer’s craft You are expected to“Suggest” is not attain complete anda casual question 1[c] [ii] With close reference accurate mastery ofrequirement. to the extract and the text and so able to elsewhere from the novel, select correct areas of“Suggest” here the text to support yourmeans you have suggest who, amongst the answer.to write out the adults, earns yourrelevant claims sympathy and why. For whoever youand support them have selected, youwith TEXTUAL need to provideevidence. Christopher is a reasons. teenager and the story is WHO: To feel concerned for. IdentificationFour Level Guide littered with his To take your side with. SelectionL1: Comprehension interactions Elaboration To feel sorry for.L2: Interpretation with adults, To root for.L3: Analysis particularly hisL4: Insight and Response parents.
SHSS 2008 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions Setting Action What kind of Autism controls He gets what he wants in question is this? Content CONTENT Christopher’s past, present order to be self-adjusted to and future deal with the complicated Or Writer’s craft world of normal functioning people. Trouble Resolution 1[c] [iii] What feelings He lives in his own world Christopher’s will continue do you have for and defends his own to behave the way he is. His Christopher here? survival as his first priority self-indulgent ways areWRITER’S How does the writer over other matters. unlikely to go away just make you feel the way because he claims he is, bySKILLS you do about him? the end of the normal, a more confident person. How similar is Christopher to you?Haddon creates How different is Christopher from you?Christopher to be a Four Level Guide How does Christopher endear himself to you?Loner for life and L1: Comprehension How does Christopher repulse you?Self-defender and L2: Interpretation To what extent do you identify with his attitude,protector of his needs, L3: Analysis motivations, L4: Insight and Response and behaviour.wants and rights. To what extent do you sympathize with him?
SHSS 2008 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions Write clearly What kind of When the examiner supplies you with question is this? and completely a BACKGROUND statement, do not assume Content that it is always SUPPOSED to be accurate. Or Writer’s craft Do not rush into agreeing with it. This will be disastrous. YOU MUST READ. DO NOT 1(a) Christopher does not usually MAKE HASTY ASSUMPTIONS. interact with people in the ways most people would. Describe and explain how the author, Mark Haddon, makes this obvious to you in any three incidents which you consider as significant in the Provide reasons with supporting novel. (N. B. Do not use the passage below in answering evidence and references from the text. this question.) How does Mark Haddon create these incidents?Four Level Guide Setting Action Setting Action Setting ActionL1: ComprehensionL2: Interpretation Trouble Resolution Trouble Resolution Trouble ResolutionL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response Significant Incident 1 Significant Incident 2 Significant Incident 3
SHSS 2008 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions OPINION - not a casual word What kind of but must be WEIGHTED question is this? RESPONSE which support your Content claims and supporting Or Writer’s craft arguments / evidence / reference. Regarding Judy Boone’s relationshipRegarding Judy Boone with Christopher 1(b) What is your opinion ofSetting Action Christopher’s mother and Setting Action of her relationship with Christopher? Support your answer with closeTrouble Resolution reference to the novel. Trouble Resolution The MAIN supporting The MAIN supporting evidence is found in evidence is found in You need to coverFour Level Guide comprehensively the Judy’s FIVE Judy’s FIVE personalL1: Comprehension encounters and personal letters to her son: Is interactions betweenL2: Interpretation letters to her son: Is Judy mother and son. DoL3: Analysis Judy a good and not forget what EDL4: Insight and Response a strong woman and responsible mother? Boone thinks and does. wife?
SHSS 2008 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions To provide reasons Relevantly, What kind of with claims, evidence coherently question is this? and arguments. and persuasively Content “To what Or Writer’s craft extent” means 1(c)(i) Explain briefly what “how far”. has caused Christopher to DO NOT think of living with his father as being “dangerous” (Line ANSWER: To 02) and to what extent he is some extent / justified in thinking of his father in that manner. To a large extent. Setting ActionFour Level GuideL1: ComprehensionL2: Interpretation Trouble ResolutionL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2008 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? Content Or Writer’s craft 1(c)(ii) With closeSetting Action reference to the extract, identify and explainTrouble Resolution anything in the decision process which you think is strikingly and uniquelyFour Level Guide Christopher.L1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2008 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? Content Or Writer’s craft 1(c)(iii) WhatSetting Action feelings do you have forTrouble Resolution Christopher here? How does the writer make you feel the way you do aboutFour Level GuideL1: Comprehension him?L2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of 1(a) Ed Boone’s question is this? Contentapproach to having a good Or Writer’s craftrelationship with his son, Setting ActionChristopher, is not quitesuccessful. Explain withclose reference to the Trouble Resolutionnovel, how the relationshipwhich has begun firmly,leads eventually to the Four Level Guideson’s fear and loss of trust L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretationin his father. L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of 1(b) Christopher Boone tells question is this?us that he “finds people Content Or Writer’s craftconfusing”. Discuss thedifficulties and challenges he Setting Actionfaces as a person afflicted withautism when trying to Trouble Resolutioncommunicate with anotherperson. Refer to any threerelevant incidents in the text tosupport your answer. Four Level Guide L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretation L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of question is this? 1(c)(i) What are the Content Or Writer’s craft major things which Judy Boone is trying to tell herSetting Action son, Christopher, in the whole letter? Do you thinkTrouble Resolution Christopher and his autism have been the causes of her misery based on what sheFour Level Guide reveals in the whole letter?L1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of1(c)(ii) To what question is this?extent is this letter Content Or Writer’s crafthelpful in yourunderstanding of the Setting Actioncharacter of JudyBoone and, with Trouble Resolutionclose reference tothe whole letter,explain whether youconsider her to be a Four Level Guide L1: Comprehensionstrong or a weak L2: Interpretation L3: Analysischaracter here and L4: Insight and Responseelsewhere in thenovel.
SHSS 2009 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? Content 1(a) In what ways does Or Writer’s craft Christopher behave like a normal teenager and in what ways does he show traits of a teenager afflicted with autism? Discuss with close reference to relevant incidents in the story.Four Level GuideL1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? 1(b) Christopher finds other Content Or Writer’s craft people “confusing” but he responds well to Siobhan.S A With close reference to the novel, trace this teacher-T R student relationship and explain its significance toFour Level Guide Christopher.L1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? 1(c) (i) Based on Content Or Writer’s craft Christopher’s narration of the confrontation betweenS A the adults, explain how it has affected him and his relationship with hisT R parents. Support your answer by close referenceFour Level Guide to the text and the rest ofL1: ComprehensionL2: Interpretation the novel.L3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 N Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? 1(c)(ii) “The unhappiness Content Or Writer’s craft between Ed and Judy Boone is mainly caused byS A Christopher.” To what extent do you agree withT R this statement and which of Christopher’s parents doFour Level Guide you sympathise with?L1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Mid-Year Examination QuestionsWhat kind of question isthis? 1(a) Despite his autism,ContentOr Writer’s craft Christopher manages somehow to understand S A our world of confusions and complications. Identify and discuss some of his T R successes and failures in coping with any threeFour Level Guide situations of significantL1: ComprehensionL2: Interpretation importance in the novel toL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response support your answer.
SHSS 2009 O Level Mid-Year Examination Questions 1(b) “Ed Boone What kind ofcompletely question is this? Contentmismanages his Or Writer’s craftrelationship with his Setting Actionson, Christopher.”What impressions doyou form of Ed and with Trouble Resolutionclose reference, explainwhether you agree ordisagree with this Four Level Guidestatement. L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretation L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of1(c)(i) Explain briefly question is this?Judy Boone’s intention in Content Or Writer’s craftwriting to Christopher, herson, by recalling the Setting Actionimportant emotionaldevelopments which havehappened to her in the Trouble Resolutionwhole letter. Comment onher sincerity based on thetone she has adopted in Four Level Guideher letter. L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretation L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Mid-Year Examination Questions What kind of Setting Action question is this? Content Or Writer’s craft 1(c)(ii) Would you consider Judy Boone to be a strong or a weak character based on her revelations in the whole letter? Explain the consequences of her actions and to what extent does she have your sympathy? Support your argument with close reference to the whole Trouble Resolution letter and elsewhere from the novel.Four Level GuideL1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Preliminary Examination Questions Setting Action What kind of question is this? Content Or Writer’s craft 1(a) “Christopher’s escape from Swindon to London is a life-changing experience for him and the people who love him.” Examine this comment carefully with Trouble Resolution close reference to the novel.Four Level GuideL1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? Setting Action Content Or Writer’s craft 1(b) How effectively do you think Christopher, who is afflicted with autism, manages his life? Explain your views with close reference to relevant Trouble Resolution incidents in the novel.Four Level GuideL1: ComprehensionL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2009 O Level Preliminary Examination Questions 1(c) (i) With close SETTING ACTIONreference to the text What kind ofand your knowledge question is this? Contentof the novel, what Or Writer’s craftdo you think is thesignificance of this Four Level Guideconversation L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretationbetween Ed Boone L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Responseand his son,Christopher? TROUBLE RESOLUTION
SHSS 2009 Preliminary Examination Questions What kind of question is this? Content SETTING ACTION Or Writer’s craft 1(c)(ii) Discuss whether you consider Ed Boone to be a strong or a weak character and whether you sympathise with him. Support your argument with close reference to the novel.Four Level GuideL1: Comprehension TROUBLE RESOLUTIONL2: InterpretationL3: AnalysisL4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2010 O Level Preliminary Examination 1 Questions A complete knowledge of the What kind of question is story is important. The focus is this? on Christopher – his autistic What is self- CONTENT preservation? ways – idiosyncrasies- or Behavioural Problems – his dark Personal WRITER’S CRAFT side survival Your Ideas = 1(a) “Christopher’s story is a Your Personal tale of self-preservation, Four Level Guide Response especially to the exclusion of L1: Comprehension everybody else.” Support L2: Interpretation your ideas by close reference L3: AnalysisBy close to the novel.reference L4: Insight and Responsemeans byclose reading / SETTING ACTIONanalysis/ Christopher’s affliction with Autism causes him to What does Christopher’s failed attempts toevaluation look inwards in the way he deals with life and communicate and negotiate meaning with others relationship with other people inform you?But must be TROUBLE RESOLUTIONbacked up by Christopher is wired differently from “normal” Is there growth and development in Christopher’sRELEVANT areas teenagers and he has problems dealing with our character by the end of the novel?of everything world. He cannot understand us but we are too many Does the novel illustrate the full life of Christopher?mentioned in the for him to deal with. Or does it only tell you that much about Christophernovel. as a teenager and his adventure with interactions with people?
SHSS 2010 O Level Preliminary Examination 1 Questions It is Christopher’s VOICE we listen to when we How does itHaddon is the writer read. He CLAIMS he does not lie and always affectand he has chosen to tells the truth. Do we hear from another voiceattract readers’ your reading / elsewhere? No, except for Judy Boone’sattention and capture understanding / Letters.their hearts appreciatingBy writing the storypretending to be of the story justrecounted by an because it isautistic child in the 1(b) Haddon tells the story from retold byname of Christopher Christopher’s point of view. ChristopherBoone. Boone? Show what effect this has from any two incidents in the novel with regards to parent-child “Show whatSelection of MAJORand relevant interaction. effect this hasIncidents: on you, as the[a] Christopher andhis father, Ed Boone What is the question reader”And focus? Show “HOW”[b] Christopher and Content or and “WHY”.his mother, Judy Writer’s craft Four Level GuideBoone L1: Comprehension L2: Interpretation L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response
SHSS 2010 O Level Preliminary Examination 1 Questions What is the As a writer, what question focus? method of Mark Haddon is the author. You Content or writing does Writer’s craft must know Haddon use to this by now. create thisFour Level Guide book? 1. Concerned for EdL1: Comprehension Boone’s thinking /L2: InterpretationL3: Analysis 1(C)(i) How does Haddon behaviour 2. Like him aL4: Insight and Response make you feel character for what sympathetic towards he thinks / does You are not just a Christopher’s father in 3. Consider his casual reader position but a literature student this passage and favourably vis-à- who has read the book elsewhere in the novel? vis others And has complete 4. Take his side knowledge where necessary of the story. You must EXHAUST 5. Feel sorry for him the given text. You are being Who is Christopher’s father? You must identify Ed Boone tested on You must select relevant sections as a character to demonstrate your CLOSE ANALYSIS of the novel to showcase Haddon’s and EVALUATION skills in this particular area. knowledge. here.
SHSS 2010 O Level Preliminary Examination 1 QuestionsWhat is the question Four Level Guide So important that it creates trouble – issues,focus? struggles, conflict between what Ed Boone L1: ComprehensionContent thinks he is doing and what he actually doesor L2: InterpretationWriter’s Craft L3: Analysis L4: Insight and Response To declareHow – to sayWhen 1(C)(ii) What is the significance clearlyWhy of Ed Boone’s declaration, “IWhat would never, ever do You can only have anything to hurt you”? anWhere answer if you haveWho responded What effect does this have personally and on Christopher? relevantly to these Does Christopher two questions. respond in any way to Ed Support your answer by Boone’s close reference to the rest of Your COMPLETE knowledge of the text Declaration? the novel. Must be there to let If yes, how and you extract relevant why? sections to support If no, why not? your claims.
WRITING CLINIC HOW TO QUOTE“QUOTING” to support your claimand not to narrate. Build anystorytelling into your argument.
HOW TO QUOTEChapter 167 Chapter 167pp. 152 pp. 152 Then Father was silent for a When Christopher bit. realises that Ed Boone is Then he said, “I’m sorry, not joking but has Christopher. I promise you, I actually made a never meant for it to turn out sorrowful confession like this.” that he has And then I knew that it wasn’t a unintentionally joke and I was really “murdered” Willington, frightened. his immediate reaction to his own realisation is to become “really frightened”.
HOW TO QUOTEChapter 167 Chapter 167pp. 152 pp. 152 Christopher’s attitude towards his Father said, “We all make father changes very suddenly and mistakes, Christopher. violently. Although he writes You, me, your mum, about Ed Boone’s pleading with him that it is “only human” to everyone. And sometimes “make mistakes”, Christopher they’re really big mistakes. does not seem to register at all We’re only human.” that his father is attempting to seek his understanding and gain Then he held up his right his sympathy. When Ed attempts hand and spread his to reach out to Christopher by fingers out in a fan. “holding up his right hand and spreading his fingers out in a But I screamed and fan”, Christopher “screams and pushed him backwards so pushes him backwards”. that he fell off the bed and Christopher is so forceful that Ed onto the floor. Boone “falls off the bed and onto the floor”. This shows how very frightened Christopher is of his father all of a sudden.
HOW TO QUOTEChapter 167 Chapter 167pp. 152 - 153 pp. 152 - 153 He sat up and said, “OK. Look. Even after Ed Boone has Christopher. I’m sorry. Let’s leave it apologised and pleaded with for tonight, OK? I’m going to go Christopher to “trust him”, downstairs and you get some sleep and we’ll talk in the morning.” Then he said, Christopher is determined that “It’s going to be all right. Honestly. he “has to get out of his Trust me.” house” because he realises Then he stood up and took a deep that “Father has murdered breath and went out of the room. I sat on the bed for a long time looking Wellington”. Using logical at the floor. Then I heard Toby reasoning, he convinces scratching in his cage. I looked up and himself that “if Ed Boone has saw him staring through the bars at me. murdered Weillington, then, he I had to get out of the house. Father can also murder him. “ had murdered Wellington. That meant he could murder me, because I couldn’t Christopher definitively claims trust him, even though he had said, that he “cannot trust” Ed “Trust me,” because he has told a lie anymore because he has “told about a big thing. a lie about a big thing”.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? “DO OR DIE” 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT. “Significance”“Impressions” “Striking” “Vivid” means meansmeans means “clear” “importance”.“informed “powerful, “Vividly” May refer to any elements ofopinions you unusual, means S.T.A.R. andhave of either a outstanding, “clearly” or how any ofcharacter, attractive “powerfully” these serves toobject, or influence or enough to besituation, affect the story easily “significantly”problem. in any other noticed”. . ways.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? “DO OR DIE” 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT. “DENOTATION” “CONNOTATION” “PARADOX” means“NUANCE” means “the means “the “a statement ormeans “a subtle literal or specific implied meaning proposition thatdifference or or surface or suggestive seems self-distinction in meaning of a associations of a contradictory orexpression, word”. word, usually in a absurd but in realitymeaning, poetic context”. expresses a possibleresponse It also truth. It also refers to “Juxtaposition” means “putting two words or a self-contradictoryrefers to a very ideas opposite in meaning close to each otherslight difference and false proposition. to show contrast between something andor variation in another. e.g. “My home was still in shadow; his lay incolor or tone. the sun.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? Other Terms You Must Know 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT. “SUBJECT“THEME” MATTER” “MOOD” means means “whatmeans the text is “the feelings “TONE” and emotions“the talking about means “the you form afterhidden explicitly”. attitude of the engaging with a text – meaningmessage”. voice / as you read, or speaker / after reading it. “FEELING” means persona / the emotional content narrator. of a text
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? Other Terms You Must Know 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT. “ATMOSPHERE” “Symbol”“GENRE” means means “Diction” “something thatmeans “kind ” “description of the means represents aor “type”. larger idea or surroundings”. “selection of value”There are words to The climate orthree main weather convey ideas” The Singaporeliterary types: or “choice of national flag is a The natural symbol whichPoetry environment words”Prose represents the country andDrama The man-made environment people of Singapore.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? Other Terms You Must Know 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT.“MONOLOGUE” means “aspeech made or written byone person which reveals the “SOLILOQUY” meansinner thoughts of a character.The monologue of a character “a dramatic speech “DIALOGUE”on stage is performed by the made by a character toactor without the intention of means “a express his feelingssharing the thoughts and and thoughts on stage conversationideas with an audience. Thecharacter is not conscious of with the explicit between orthe audience learning about intention of sharing it amongsthis feelings and thoughts. with an audience. The characters”Monologue allows thecharacter to “talk to himself actor speaks to histo organise his thoughts and audience to reveal hisfeelings. emotions to them.
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? Other Terms You Must Know 1. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY QUESTION WHICH CONTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND IN ANY PART OF IT.“EMPATHY” means “the ability to “SYMPATHY” means “the feeling of going beyondunderstand other people’s feelings understanding by being sorry for someone who isand problems after you have in a bad situation”. It is a supportive butconsidered objectively their subjective feeling that you understand someonesituation”. because you are similar to him or her. To To be To be“To emphathise with” means “to be understand concerned supportiveable to understand someone else’s somebody for offeelings or problems especially somebodybecause you have had similar somebodyexperiences . When we empathise and / or thewith somebody, we show our ability To feel sorry To take the causesto understand other people’s for side of theyfeelings and problems”. somebody somebody represent
WHICH QUESTION TO DO? Other Terms You Must KnowEmpathy Sympathy [a] the act or power of sharing the feelings of another.[ a] identification with and [b] a feeling or an expression of pity or understanding of sorrow for the distress of another; compassion or commiseration. another’s situation, [c] a feeling of loyalty; allegiance feelings and motives. [d] a relationship or an affinity between people or things in which whatever affects one correspondingly affects the other.[b] Attribution of one’s own [e] mutual understanding or affection arising feelings to an object. from this relationship or affinity.[c] appreciative perception
CAVEAT – A WARNING Nowadays, the definitions of “empathy” and “sympathy” are blurring. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that:1. “Empathy” is a less personal feeling than “sympathy”.2. “Empathy” is objective but “sympathy” is subjective.3. Before we can “sympathise” with somebody, we need to have “empathised” with him or her first.
USE OF THE VERB “SYMPATHISE”When you “sympathise with” EdBoone, you FEEL SORRY FORHIM, SUPPORT HIS IDEAS ORACTIONS BECAUSE YOUUNDERSTAND HIS PROBLEMS.
Use of the noun word “sympathy”I have a lot of sympathy for Ed Boone.My sympathies are with Ed Boone.My sympathies go out to Ed Boone.My sympathies lie firmly with Ed Boone.
PERSPECTIVESWe can determine howBROAD or NARROW a viewof the action is offered to usand whether or not the tellerof the story is well-informedor ill-informed, truthful oruntruthful and so on.
With respect to a first person narrativeRELIABILITY –Is the narrator, Emily Gan, reliable? She may be full of energy and totally in control of her her household and so on, but she has only so much to share with us in terms of her experiences with other characters in the play. She, for example, cannot lay claim on how much she actually understands her husband, Joo Kheong or her son, Richard. What we are relying on is rather, her interpretation of her understanding.
With respect to a first person narrativeCREDIBILITY –Can the narrator, Emily Gan, be trusted? She claims that she is what she is, and has done what she has done because she is living in a man’s world and so in order to survive, she has to muster all her womanly wits and charms to take advantage of situations to beat off the competition. So can trust her entirely in the ways she has presented Susie, Diana Lee and the other people whom she dislikes or sees as potential competitors?
STYLEEmily is a highly energetic characterand she swings from one mood toanother because she is after all tellingus about her life experiences from thebeginning to the end of the play. As weread the play, we need to ask ourselveswhat the tone (attitude) of the narratoris at any particular one moment andwhat this implies about the style ofnarration.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing mayIf Emily is She is likely to involve criticism ofangry use a critical people and society or issues. The tone is tone of voice often formal, serious and biting in nature.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing style isIf Emily is She is likely to ironic in that the writersarcastic use a ironic may include an ironic twist in the story to tone of voice indirectly raise a problem or awareness about an issue or event.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing style mayIf Emily is She is likely to involve word play. Punshumorous use a light- and other comic devices to entertain the reader. hearted and Sometimes the style entertaining may involve irony in order to poke fun at tone of voice people or situations.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing style is oftenIf Emily is She is likely to serious and the tone isreflective use a reflective in contemplating deeper philosophical issues about human tone of voice nature and the world we live in.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing style isIf Emily is She is likely to casual and may involvecasual / use a casual use of slang,informal tone of voice colloquialisms and even stream of consciousness, which describes directly the thoughts that occur in a character’s mind.
STYLETONE / What this DESCRIPTIONATTITUDE implies about the style The writing style isIf Emily is She is likely to formal and serious informal use a tone. The tone is often objective and the issue conventional / discussed often involves formal tone of a weighty issue that concerns many people. voice
PLOT I woke up at 7a.m., brushed my teeth, got dressed and rushed out of the house to catch A story is an the bus. By the time I account of a reached the bus stop at 8 a.m., there was series of already a crowd of peopleevents that has gathering around. happened, When I drew nearer, Igiven in a step- saw a lifeless body on by-step order. the ground.
PLOT The first thing I sawA plot is an account of a when I reached the bus stop was theseries of events in which crowd of peoplethe events have been gathering around. I was still panting,REARRANGED to having woken up at 7make the text more a.m. and rushed outexciting, dramatic and of the house. When I drew nearer, I saw aemotional. lifeless body on the ground.
A story is A plot is anan account account of aof a series series of events inof events which the events have beenthat has REARRANGED tohappened, make the textgiven in a more exciting,step-by- dramatic andstep order. emotional.
What is the purpose of PLOT?There are many ways(plots) in which awriter or a storytellercan use to tell astory. What are thepossible purposes?
 to make the story more interestingReaders like to be kept in suspense.They may not like to be told everythingfrom the beginning.Therefore, withholding someinformation from the readers may keepthem guessing and therefore keep theminvolved in the story.
 to make the story more dramatic Sometimes the most exciting event is placed at the beginning so that the reader is immediately captivated by the story. On the other hand, writers sometimes keep the most exciting incidents until last so that the story ends dramatically and leaves an impression in the minds of the readers.
 to bring out the message or issue more stronglyWriters may rearrange eventsor include subplot elements sothat at the end of the novel, themajor and minor strandssupport each other andemphasize the message of thetext more strongly.
 to create a strong emotional responseWriters may also reorganize theevents that occurred to buildup a sense of anticipation ordevelop a more compelling andintense mood at the end. Theeffect of this would be to createa deeper emotional responsewithin the reader.
CHARACTERISATION1. Emily Gan2. Richard Gan3. Gan Joo Kheong4. Gan Eng Swee5. Gan Boon Swee6. Emily Gan’s mother7. Emily Gan’s mother-in-law
Why is the study of characterisation important to us?1. How many of us can safely say that “Emily is a good mother”?2. How many of us can claim that “Emily is a loving wife”?3. How many of us can unthinkingly proclaim that “Emily is a fortunate woman”?
Why is the study of characterisation important to us?1. How many of us can safely say that “Richard is a soft-hearted young man”?2. How many of us can claim that “Richard knows what he wants out of life”?3. How many of us can unthinkingly proclaim that “Richard is a lucky first grandson of the Gan household ”?
Why is it so useful to study CHARACTERISATION?Emily as a woman living in Singapore What is she like as a womanin the 1920s to 1970s living in that period of time?Emily as a wife to a husband twice her How has she performed her roleage as a wife?Emily as a mother to four children What do you think of her as a mother?Emily as an individual leading her life What do you think of her abilityin the period whereby Singapore to cope as an individual living inprogressed from pre-independence to a surrounding which is largelyself-government and then to being an beyond her control?independent country
What do you see?How a Emily is at She plays her various stages various rolesperson in her life: a differently.behaves, is child, a young We aretied in with bride, a young interested in whythe roles wife, a mother, she plays her a roles in thethat he or grandmother. different waysshe plays. she does and how successful she is in each of those roles.
Why is the study of characterisation important to us?How Emily feels and How other people feelsthinks of herself? How and thinks of her? Howshe sees herself? others see her?What Emily does for How do you see Emilyherself? What she does as a child / wife / motherfor other people around and a woman inher? general?
Understanding Tone Tackling the UnseenLesson by Yeo Yam Hwee 9 June 2011
THREE IMPORTANT THINGS you shouldbe conscious about as a serious readerSUBJECT MATTERTHEMETONE / MOOD
What is TONE?TONE refers to theATTITUDE of the WRITERbehind the text.
The Writer’s CraftAs Literature students, we are consciousabout what we are reading and at thesame, we think and ask ourselvesquestions about the content as well as themotivation (intention / motive ) of the writerof the text.
Why is an accurate understandingof tone important when you are writing about Literature?
TONE of the writer isreflected in the meaninghe or she conveys inthe writing through the wordshe or she uses in communicatingfeelings and thoughts tothe readers.
I am a person who bears grudges and Ihave a lot against three of my children,Manuel, Roberto and Consuelo. Mybody is becoming half-paralysed frombeing so angry with these children ofmine. I am ashamed to talk about it. It ishard for a father to have such sons.They turned out bad because of badsurroundings and bad companions.Their friends are doing these boys nogood. It is a shame that I cannot doanything about it. In spite of my advice,they go the other way instead of takingthe straight path.
There is nothing better in this world thanupright work. I am a poor and humbleperson but I try to do things the best way Ican. My son cannot say their father camehome drunk or abandoned them. An uncleof theirs just died of drink. It seems theytake after their uncle more than they do me.I do not understand it.
The tone of the narrator’s speech is one of[a] cheerfulness.[b] liveliness.[c] despair.[d] helplessness.
2. The narrator’s tone reinforces an attitude of[a] weariness, from earning an honest but poor living.[b] confidence, since everything will be fine.[c] pride, because his family pleases him.[d] disappointment, caused by his children.
3. The passage ends in a tone of[a] clever deceitfulness.[b] tense expectation.[c] firm determination.[d] sad bewilderment.
I am a person who bears grudges and I have a lotagainst three of my children, Manuel, Roberto andConsuelo. My body is becoming half-paralysedfrom being so angry with these children of mine. Iam ashamed to talk about it. It is hard for a fatherto have such sons. They turned out bad becauseof bad surroundings and bad companions. Theirfriends are doing these boys no good. It is a shamethat I cannot do anything about it. In spite of myadvice, they go the other way instead of taking thestraight path. There is nothing better in this world than uprightwork. I am a poor and humble person but I try to dothings the best way I can. My son cannot say theirfather came home drunk or abandoned them. Anuncle of theirs just died of drink. It seems they takeafter their uncle more than they do me. I do notunderstand it.
I am a science fan. My education is scientific. Ihave even written a short article for a scientificmagazine. Science, to my mind, is the onereliable means we have to discover the truth.This is why when an error is made in the nameof science, I feel the way a man would if hisfavourite uncle had taken to drink. Over theyears, I have come to feel that way about whatscience has done to food. I agree that people inthe United States set as good a table as anyother people in the world. I agree that the food isnutritious. The only trouble with it is this: Overthe years, the food has become less and lesspalatable. It appeals more and more to the eye.But do we eat with our eyes? Almost everythingused to taste better when I was a child. Noweverything looks great but tastes like cardboard.
1. The author succeeds in striking a balance between two tones:[a] admiration and envy.[b] humour and annoyance.[c] realism and sentimentality.[d] eagerness and frustration.
2. The author plays the role of[a] an amateur critic.[b] a learned expert.[c] a willing accomplice.[d] an uninterested bystander.
3. The text ends on a tone of[a] hopeful expectation.[b] satisfied revenge.[c] sincere approval.[d] undisguised disappointment.
It will probably come as a mild shock to no one thatthere are four hundred different kinds ofmushrooms, but why they call them toadstools isbeyond me. I have yet to see a toad sitting on astool. It seems a strange name to give an innocentmushroom, doesn’t it? It was probably made up bysomeone who hated mushrooms and thought hecould get even. But why should anyone hatemushrooms? The little fellows go about theirbusiness quietly. Once in a while one of them killsa family of twenty or thirty people, but then, whatright has anyone to have a family numbering twentyor thirty people?
1. The tone of the text is[a] sad.[b] formal.[c] serious.[d] humorous.
2. How does the author feel about mushrooms?[a] The author has a deep hatred for them.[b] The author is angry with families for eating them.[c] The author believes they are potentially dangerous and should not be sold.[d] The author is amused by them.
3. The author expects that the reader will be[a] mildly entertained.[b] deeply insulted.[c] scientifically instructed.[d] aroused to action.
It will probably come as a mild shock to no one that there are four hundred different kinds of mushrooms, but why they call them toadstools is beyond me. I have yet to see a toad sitting on a stool. It seems a strange name to give an innocent mushroom, doesn’t it? It was probably made up by someone who hated mushrooms and thought he could get even. But why should anyone hate mushrooms? The little fellows go about their business quietly. Once in a while one of them kills a family of twenty or thirty people, but then, what right has anyone to have a family numbering twenty or thirty people?Pick out the sentence that proves thatEXAGGERATION may be used to create aHUMOROUS tone.
It was around midnight when I wakened. I laylistening to the beat of the storm, which rattled thewindows, swished in the maples, and moaned in thegiant spruce. Then I heard the sound that hadawakened me. A dog howled, close beside thehouse.A dog howling in the night…is enough to scare thesense right out of me. It’s a primitive sound, a wailright out of the wilderness. I lay and listened andhoped it wouldn’t waken my wife. Then I heard asharp intake of breath and she asked in a tensewhisper, “What’s that?””The wind,” I suggested, hoping the dog wouldn’thowl again. But it did.“It’s a dog,” she said, “or a wolf.”“A dog, just a dog,” I said.
1. This paragraph creates a mood of[a] mounting suspense.[b] subtle humour and lighthearted adventure.[c] open hostility between characters.[d] cheerful lightness.
2. The narrator’s words suggest a tone of[a] guilt on the part of the narrator.[b] strong religious convictions on the part of the wife.[c] tension as the events unfold.[d] willingness to accept whatever fate has to offer.
3. Although the howling of the dog is the focal point ofthe scene, the “beat of the storm” adds an additionalelement of[a]relaxation.[b]humour.[c]intrigue.[d]uneasiness.
4. Underline three words in the passage that suggestthe sound of someone crying out in pain, terror ordespair. It was around midnight when I wakened. I lay listening to the beat of the storm, which rattled the windows, swished in the maples, and moaned in the giant spruce. Then I heard the sound that had awakened me. A dog howled, close beside the house. A dog howling in the night…is enough to scare the sense right out of me. It’s a primitive sound, a wail right out of the wilderness. I lay and listened and hoped it wouldn’t waken my wife. Then I heard a sharp intake of breath and she asked in a tense whisper, “What’s that?” ”The wind,” I suggested, hoping the dog wouldn’t howl again. But it did. “It’s a dog,” she said, “or a wolf.” “A dog, just a dog,” I said.
Finally the lights lowered and the projector beganto roll. The audience hushed as my new CharlieChaplin film began. It showed the credit titles tothe usual first night applause. Then at last the firstscene opened. My heart pounded. It was acomedy scene of the unveiling of a statue. Theybegan to laugh! The laughter, hesitant at first,increased. I had captured their emotions. All mydoubts and fears began to melt away. And Iwanted to weep. For three reels they laughed.And from sheer nerves and excitement I waslaughing with them. All in all, the picture went well.During the final scene I noticed Einstein wiping hiseyes. To me it was further evidence that scientistsare incurably sentimental.
1. The author’s attitude goes from[A] anxiety to joy.[B] fear to regret.[C] optimism to despair.[D] indifference to self-satisfaction.
2. The tone at the very end of the paragraph is[A] alarm.[B] defeat.[C] touching.[D] indignant.
3. The mood at the film preview, as seen from the viewpoint of the author is[A] boring during the first reel.[B] depressing for the first few minutes.[C] restless towards the end of the film.[D] exciting throughout the whole preview.
4. Underline two sentences that show that the tone of the film was humorous. Finally the lights lowered and the projector began to roll. The audience hushed as my new Charlie Chaplin film began. It showed the credit titles to the usual first night applause. Then at last the first scene opened. My heart pounded. It was a comedy scene of the unveiling of a statue. They began to laugh! The laughter, hesitant at first, increased. I had captured their emotions. All my doubts and fears began to melt away. And I wanted to weep. For three reels they laughed. And from sheer nerves and excitement I was laughing with them. All in all, the picture went well. During the final scene I noticed Einstein wiping his eyes. To me it was further evidence that scientists are incurably sentimental.
John trudged by the canal with his hands in hispockets, his head bowed to the wind and rain.Ahead of him in the darkness the team of horsesbowed their necks against their collars. The strainof pulling a canal boat was difficult. John could notsee them in the darkness. When he lifted his face,the rain cut at his eyes. And when lightning splitthe darkness, he shut his eyes tight and pulled hishead closer into his coat collar, waiting blindly forthe thunder. Once in a lull he looked back.Somewhere in the back of the boat his father stoodby the rudder, his beard curled and wet, his eyesslit. John wanted to be in the bunk with his headburied in the blankets where the storm could notreach him. He had gone back once, but his fatherhad reached for his belt, saying, “Go on back.Water never hurt a man. It keeps his hide fromcracking.”
1. John views his situation with an attitude of[a] fear of the unknown.[b] hatred for the circumstances.[c] admiration for his father.[d] hope for the future.
2. John’s father views his situation with an attitude of[a] joy in human suffering.[b] respect for nature.[c] eagerness to accomplish great things.[d] indifference to discomfort.
3.The mood of the scene can best be described as[a] cheerful.[b] gloomy.[c] frightening.[d] fantastic.
4. Underline TWO expressions that make the weather seem fierce, almost vicious. John trudged by the canal with his hands in his pockets, hishead bowed to the wind and rain. Ahead of him in the darknessthe team of horses bowed their necks against their collars. Thestrain of pulling a canal boat was difficult. John could not seethem in the darkness. When he lifted his face, the rain cut athis eyes. And when lightning split the darkness, he shut hiseyes tight and pulled his head closer into his coat collar, waitingblindly for the thunder. Once in a lull he looked back.Somewhere in the back of the boat his father stood by therudder, his beard curled and wet, his eyes slit. John wanted tobe in the bunk with his head buried in the blankets where thestorm could not reach him. He had gone back once, but hisfather had reached for his belt, saying, “Go on back. Waternever hurt a man. It keeps his hide from cracking.”
Mother met me with a white, strained face, “Yourfather is suffering terribly. Go for the doctor atonce.” I could hear my father groan as I moved about thekitchen, putting on my coat and lighting the lantern.It was about one o’clock in the morning, and thewind was cold as I picked my way through the mudto the barn. The thought of the long miles to townmade me shiver, but as the son of a soldier, I couldnot falter in my duty. Blowing out my lantern, Ihung it on a peg, led Kt from her stall out into thenight, and swung into the saddle. She made off witha spattering rush through the yard out into the road.It was dark as pitch, but I was fully awake now. Therain in my face had cleared my brain, but I trustedthe mare to find the road, which showed only in thestrips of water that filled the wagon tracks.
1.The mood is one of[a] intense urgency.[b] relaxed calm.[c] helpless confusion.[d] childish sorrow.
2.The narrator’s tone helps to emphasize• [a] an attitude of criticism and reproach.• [b] a feeling of wonder and admiration.• [c] a sarcastic sense of humour.• [d] a sense of obligation.
3.The tone that the mother uses in speaker to her son is filled with[a] confusion.[b] directness.[c] lightheartedness.[d] weariness.
Underline at least two phrases that help to set a tone of difficulty forthe boy’s journey. Mother met me with a white, strained face, “Your father is suffering terribly. Go for the doctor at once.” I could hear my father groan as I moved about the kitchen, putting on my coat and lighting the lantern. It was about one o’clock in the morning, and the wind was cold as I picked my way through the mud to the barn. The thought of the long miles to town made me shiver, but as the son of a soldier, I could not falter in my duty. Blowing out my lantern, I hung it on a peg, led Kt from her stall out into the night, and swung into the saddle. She made off with a spattering rush through the yard out into the road. It was dark as pitch, but I was fully awake now. The rain in my face had cleared my brain, but I trusted the mare to find the road, which showed only in the strips of water that filled the wagon tracks.
• During the first week of September 1900, everybody in Galveston Beach, Texas, went swimming. There’d never been such fine surf – great rolling combers that swept in from the Gulf. Yet there was hardly a breath of wind.• A blanket of humid heat lay over the city. Storm warnings had gone out to the Gulf shipping companies. The barometer was falling. Those signs should have been of concern to the people of a town built on a sandbar only nine feet above the sea at its highest point, but nobody seemed to be worried. Scientists had said that the city was safe from storm and flood because the long, gentle slope of the sea bottom would protect it.• On Friday afternoon of that week swimming had to be stopped. The surf was becoming too dangerous. But still there was no wind. Other citizens began to study the sky towards the southeast, towards the Caribbean where hurricanes are born.
1. The overall tone of the text is one of[a] gloom.[b] liveliness.[c] uneasiness.[d] hopelessness.
2. The general attitude of the Galveston residents duringthe first week of September 1900 suggests that they were[a] impatient and bored with the calm weather.[b] calm and unconcerned about possible danger.[c] excited and expectant over an approaching storm.[d] tense and resentful over inaccurate weather forecasts.
3.The extract ends on a note of[a] happiness.[b] worry.[c] hopefulness.[d] indifference.
4. Underline the sentence that suggests that the author views the residents with a certain degree of impatience.• During the first week of September 1900, everybody in Galveston Beach, Texas, went swimming. There’d never been such fine surf – great rolling combers that swept in from the Gulf. Yet there was hardly a breath of wind.• A blanket of humid heat lay over the city. Storm warnings had gone out to the Gulf shipping companies. The barometer was falling. Those signs should have been of concern to the people of a town built on a sandbar only nine feet above the sea at its highest point, but nobody seemed to be worried. Scientists had said that the city was safe from storm and flood because the long, gentle slope of the sea bottom would protect it.• On Friday afternoon of that week swimming had to be stopped. The surf was becoming too dangerous. But still there was no wind. Other citizens began to study the sky towards the southeast, towards the Caribbean where hurricanes are born.
Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee For 2011 June Holiday Class.SHSSPOETRY
POETRY by Eleanor Farjeon• What is poetry? Who knows?• Not the rose, but the scent of the rose;• Not the sky, but the light of the sky;• Not the fly, but the gleam of the fly;• Not the sea, but the sound of the sea;• Not myself, but something that make me• See, hear and feel something that prose• Cannot. What is it? Who knows?
POEM or POETRY• The words, “poem” and “poetry” are derived from the Greek word “poiein” which means “to create or make” – the idea being that poetry is a created artifact, a structure that develops from the human imagination and that is expressed rhythmically in words.
A Recipe For Enjoying PoetryIngredients• Lots of interest• A keen eye• A good ear• A thoughtful, questioning mind• Memories of your life experience
When we read, we should rely on our human senses of: Touch Feel Sight Hearing Smell Taste
HOW then to respond to poetry?• Read the whole poem using the first four ingredients.• Re-read it, applying your questioning mind especially to the title of the poem. It is usually a sign to tell you what the poet thinks is important about the poem. Take note of the punctuation in the poem and any interesting or unusual words.• Now mix in your own memories and experiences. They do not have to be exactly the same experiences – they may be experiences of things you have read about or watched on T.V.• Inside your head, trying restating what the lines say. Use your own words. (It is not essential to be able to do this for all words.)• Test yourself. Are you ready to respond? Can you say what you think the poet’s main idea is? Can you say what you like or do not like about the poem? Can you tell someone else what it reminds you of?• If you cannot respond just yet, repeat steps 1 to 4 of the method.
Three Simple Elements of PoetrySubject Matter – what happens in the poem?Theme – what is the hidden message?Mood – how does it make you feel after reading it?
4 STEPS to appreciating POETRYSTEP Understanding what is said1STEP Understanding what it means2STEP Thinking of wider instances than the situation in the poem3STEP Understanding how the poet has worked with words to make a poem4
Butterfly by Michael HarrisonButterflyButterfliesButterflown.
Slippery by Carl SandburghThe six month childFresh from the tubWriggles in our handsThis is our fish childGive her a name: Slippery.
My Love is Like a Red Red Rose by Robert BurnsMy love is like a red red roseThat’s newly sprung in June; My love is like the melodieThat’s sweetly play’d in tune.
What is…the sun? by Wes Magee• The sun is an orange dinghy• Sailing across a calm sea.• It is a gold coin• Dropped down a drain in heaven.• It is a yellow beach ball• Kicked high into the summer sky.• It is a red thumb-print• On a sheet of pale blue paper.• It is the gold top from a milk bottle• Floating on a puddle.
Do Not Stand At My Grave And Weep by Steven Cummins• Do not stand at my grave and weep;• I am not there. I do not sleep.• I am a thousand winds that blow.• I am the diamond glints on snow.• I am the sunlight on ripened grain.• I am the gentle autumn rain. When you awaken in the morning’s hush• I am the swift uplifting rush• Of quiet birds in circled flight.• I am the soft stars that shine at night.• Do not stand at my grave and cry;• I am not there. I did not die.
Sisters by Justin RichardsonIf only I hadn’t had sistersHow much more romantic I’d beBut my sisters were such little blistersThat all women are sisters to me
Night Train to Lisbonby Pascal Mercier/Jorge Manrique Our lives are rivers, gliding free To that unfathomed, boundless sea, The silent grave!
FOG by Carl SandburgThe fog comesOn little cat feet.It sits lookingOver harbour and cityOn silent haunchesAnd then moves on.
EXHAUSTEDBy Michael HarrisonI’m exhausted,She said. My troubleis, I can’t rememberever being hausted.
Dreams by Langston Hughes Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow.
I am the Song by Charles CausleyI am the song that sings the bird.I am the leaf that grows the land.I am the tide that moves the moon.I am the stream that halts the sand.I am the cloud that drives the storm.I am the earth that lights the sun.I am the fire that strikes the stone.I am the clay that shapes the hand.I am the word that speaks the man.
Together We Are Building A Wall by Sara O’ ReillyTogether we are building a wallTo keep us apart;A high, translucent wallThrough which we see each otherClearly but without comprehension.I build with pride and alonenessAnd mine is a wall of desolation.I think you have not seen our wall yet.
A Poison Tree by William BlakeI was angry with my friend:I told my wrath, my wrath did end.I was angry with my foe:I told it not, my wrath did grow.And I watered it in fears,Night and morning with my tears;And I sunned it with smiles,And with soft deceitful wiles.And it grew both day and night,Till it bore an apple bright;And my foe beheld it shine,And he knew that it was mine,And into my garden stoleWhen the night had veiled the pole:In the morning glad I seeMy foe outstretched beneath the tree.
REMEMBER by Christina Georgina RossettiRemember me when I am gone away,Gone far away into the silent land;When you can no more hold me by the hand,Nor I half turn to go, yet turning stay.Remember me when no more day by dayYou tell me of our future that you plann’d:Only remember me; you understandIt will be late to counsel then or pray.Yet if you should forget me for a whileAnd afterwards remember, do not grieve:For if the darkness and corruption leaveA vestige of the thoughts that once I had,Better by far you should forget and smileThan that you should remember and be sad.
Snake Glides by Keith Bosley Snake glides through grass over pebbles forked tongue working never speaking but its body whispers listen
Obituary• In Loving Memory of Lalita Rajamal Neo• 10th Anniversary• You left us this day, ten years ago• Things happened, I like you to know• Elder daughter Trina, married in 96• As for Mindy, “A” level this year, she sits• How am I doing?• What do you think?• If you hadn’t left in such a hurry• I wouldn’t have to remarry• So, don’t put the blame on me• That’s it darling, the rest is history.• Still missed by Trina, Mindy and Neo Nam Tha Jimmy.
Kopitiam by Lau Peet Meng• Sit with a polystyrene cup of kopi-o and kaya toast. Watch the auntie sweat and smile as she struts between plastic chairs, tables -- coin clinking furiously. Her incredible memory -- threads that link faces, names in this clean neon makan place. Ah Peh says, Last time got more butter.
Hari Raya by Karael XFragrance of curryWhispers of feastsColours of green and goldA hungry tummy,With friends and family,Happy memories of old
The Wind Is Angry by Adrienne Brady• The wind is angry –• He’s been in a rage all night,• Stamping his feet, bellowing• And finally breaking out.• In morning light he gallops,• At full tilt, round the house• Charging at the walls,• Pulling at the thatch• And beating with clenched fists• Against the windows.• Even now, he’s thrusting• Icy fingers through the crevices• And under doors.• The house is tired• And slightly bored;• She watches with listless eyes,• Sighs – settles on her haunches• And entrenches herself still more.
She’s Leaving Home by John Lennon and Paul McCartneyWednesday morning at five o’ clock as the day begins,Silently closing her bedroom door,Leaving the note that she hoped would say more,She goes down stairs to the kitchen clutching her handkerchiefQuietly turning the back door key,Stepping outside… she is free.She (We gave her most of our lives) is leaving (Sacrificed most of our lives) home!(We gave her everything money could buy) She’s leaving home after living alone for so many years.
Apartment House by Gerald RafteryA filing cabinet of human livesWhere people swarm like bees in tunnelled hives,Each to his own cell in the towered comb,Identical and cramped – we call it home.
Dad by Denise HopkinsWhen my father died,I never cried.But when my geraniums looked wilted and sad,I thought,I’ll phone and ask my dad,And then I cried.
Leisure by W.H.Davies• What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare?—• No time to stand beneath the boughs, And stare as long as sheep and cows.• No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.• No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at night:• No time to turn at Beautys glance, And watch her feet, how they can dance.• No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began?• A poor life this if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare.
My Dishwater Days by Hilary ThamMy dishwater days I pour away,Carefully saving the ore I sometimes find;A little togetherness, bits of affection;A handclasp of friendship.Looking towards the hills of timeFrom which come a flow of endless days:I shall scoop and pour away finding nothing.And even the little precious storeI accumulated may be swept awayOr lose its lustre…From storage in the dim recesses of memory.
I Was by Ilona BarbukaI was in a cartoon on television. I was a broom standing in a corner.I swept floors with my feet. I didn’t like sweeping floors.I was bought from a store.I was able to talk.I was a movable broom.I was very mad because all I did was sweep.I was finally so mad I turned back into a tree.I threw my trees of oranges at the people I swept floors for.
The Star by Jane TaylorTwinkle, twinkle, little star,How I wonder what you areUp above the world so high,Like a diamond in the sky.Twinkle, twinkle, little star,How I wonder what you are.
The EagleHe clasps the crag with crooked hands;Close to the sun in lonely lands,Ring’d with the azure world, he stands.The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;He watches from his mountain walls,And like a thunderbolt he falls. Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1809 - 1892
“A crag” refers to “a• He clasps the crag steep, rugged rock; with crooked hands; rough, broken,• Close to the sun in projecting part of a lonely lands, rock”.• Ring’d with the azure world, he stands.• The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;• He watches from his mountain walls,• And like a thunderbolt he falls.
• He clasps the crag with crooked hands;• Close to the sun in lonely lands,• Ring’d with the azure world, he stands.• The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;• He watches from his mountain walls,• And like a thunderbolt he falls.
• He clasps the crag with crooked hands;• Close to the sun in lonely lands,• Ring’d with the azure world, he stands.• The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;• He watches from his mountain walls,• And like a thunderbolt he falls.
Behind the Wall by Tracy ChapmanStanza 1 Stanza 3Last night I heard the screaming Last night I heard the screamingLoud voices behind the wall Then a silence that chilled my soulAnother sleepless night for me I prayed that I was dreamingIt won’t do no good to call When I saw the ambulance in the roadThe policeAlways come lateIf they come at allStanza 2 Stanza 4And when they arrive And the policeman saidThey say they can’t interfere “I’m here to keep the peaceWith domestic affairs Will the crowd disperseBetween a man and his wife I think we all could use some sleep”And as they walk out the doorThe tears well up in her eyes
Christian Cemetry by Robert Yeo• These tombstones have been uprooted.• Chipped maddonas and broken crosses,• All weathered grey, are strewn on grass.• Never thought I would see them thus.• These stones that have been here so long• It seems the land was theirs for good –• But for the Urban Renewal Department• Which needed that plot for a park.• My granny, though Catholic, was cremated• According to her wish. She knew• Room in our affections was all• The space she needed. Or perhaps• She’d head all about urbanization,• How her stone, had she been buried• Would wear away or be dislodged.• And so when she had to give up• What space she occupied, she left us• Something that cannot be lost in stone• And therefore fears no renewal.
Personification• Personification is a special kind of metaphor in which human qualities are given to non-human things.• Legs of a table• Teeth of a comb• Eye of a needle• The spine of a book
The Moon by Emily Dickinson• The moon was but a chin of gold• A night or two ago.• And now she turns her perfect face• Upon the world below.
Waltz by Linda Smallman• The wind sings• With his froggy voice• And the trees• Waltz in rhythm.
STORM by Roger McGough• They’re at it again• The wind and the rain• It all started• When the wind• Took the window• By the collar• And shook it• With all its might• Then the rain• Butted in• What a din• They’ll be at it all night• Serves them right• If they go home in the morning• And the sky won’t them in
The Wind by James Stephens• The wind stood up and gave a shout;• He whistled on his fingers, and• Kicked the withered leaves about,• And thumped the branches with his hand,• And said he’d kill, and kill, and kill;• And so he will! And so he will.
Spray by D.H. Lawrence• It is a wonder foam is so beautiful.• A wave bursts in anger on a rock, broken up• In wild white sibilant spray• And falls back, drawing in its breath with rage,• With frustration how beautiful!
Winter by Steven Herrick• Yesterday• We built a big fat snowman• It was fun• But today• The snowman• Ran• Off• With• The• Sun.
The Frowning Cliff by Herbert Asquith• The sea has a laugh• And the cliff a frown;• For the laugh of the sea• Is wearing him down.• Lipping and lapping• Frown as he may;• The laughing sea• Will eat him away.• Knees and body,• And tawny head,• He’ll smile at last• On a golden bed.
Gypsies by John ClareThe snow falls deep; the forest lies alone;The boy goes hasty for his load of brakesThen thinks upon the fire and hurries back.The gypsy knocks his hands and tucks them up,And seeks his squalid camp, half hid in snow,Beneath the oak which breaks away the wind,And bushes close in snow like hovel warm.There tainted mutton wastes upon the coals,And the half-wasted dog squats close and rubs.Then feels the heat too strong and goes aloof;He watches well, but none a bit can spare,And vainly waits the morsel thrown away.‘Tis thus they live – a picture to the place –A quiet, pilfering, unprotected race.
My Parents Kept Me From Children Who Were Rough by Stephen SpenderMy parents kept me from children who were roughAnd who threw words like stones and who wore torn clothes.Their thighs showed through rags. They rang in the street.And climbed cliffs and stripped by the country streams.I feared more than tigers their muscles like ironAnd their jerking hands and their knees tight on my arms.I feared the salt coarse pointing of those boysWho copied my lisp behind me on the road.They were lithe, they sprang out behind hedgesLike dogs to bark at my world. They threw mudAnd I looked another way, pretending to smile.I longed to forgive them, but they never smiled.
Missing by John PudneyLess said the better.The bill unpaid, the dead letter,No roses at the endOf Smith, my friend.Last words don’t matter,And there are none to flatterWords will not fill the postOf Smith, the ghost.For Smith, our brother,Only son of loving mother,The ocean lifted, stirred,Leaving no word.
The Sick Rose by William BlakeO Rose, thou art sick!The invisible wormThat flies in the night,In the howling storm,Has found out thy bedOf crimson joy,And his dark secret loveDoes thy life destroy.
Be Strong By Maltbie Davenport Babcock(Born August 3, 1858; died May 18, 1901)
Be Strong• Be strong! We are not here to play, to dream, to drift; We have hard work to do, and loads to lift; Shun not the struggle--face it; tis Gods gift.
Be StrongBe strong!Say not, "The days are evil. Whos to blame?"And fold the hands and acquiesce--oh shame!Stand up, speak out, and bravely, in Gods name.
Be Strong• Be strong! It matters not how deep intrenched the wrong, How hard the battle goes, the day how long; Faint not--fight on! To-morrow comes the song.
A Past Year Unseen Poetry Question (SHSS)Coffee Shop, ClementiThe pot-bellied expert twirlsWith a dancer’s stamina. BeatingCounter with right palm, he traps airIn each fold, then flops roti prataOn black griddle, and dribbles oil.Hands fly dough, againTo drum aluminium.
A Past Year Unseen Poetry Question (SHSS)• Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styled• “Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing more• Than a corner coffee shop, two sides,• Long and short, exposed. Kitchens open• To all, nine stalls mark the cooking of food• From its eating. We breathe oil, steam,• Sweat; the fire and smoke of orders,• Before ours are cooked. Its floor could• Do with a good scrub. At lunch, dinner,• In-betweens, the shop swells, a hot-air• Balloon. On dry days and nights, those• Who like the open air with which to guzzle• Down a good time, spill out. Plastic furniture
A Past Year Unseen Poetry Question (SHSS)• Pushes the shop’s sides into the redbrick• Walk where pedestrians pass; beyond• Pong-Pong and Yellow Flame, motorists• Drive on. Where chilly-hot nasi goreng• Sends iced-coffee racing up straws;• Fish porridge and beefball noodles scald• Tongues out for quick thrills; where chicken rice• Bubbles, as pure kueh tutu steams,• It’s not only fast food on the cheap• I come for. Plundering appetites, voices• Riding high, eyes which eat, while waiting.• An ambience without the fuss of trying;• Timely crowds; the business of hunger, thirst• Or rest, handled with matters of fact.• Leong Liew Geok
A Past Year Unseen Poetry Question (SHSS)• (i) What impressions of the coffee shop does the poem create for you?• (ii) How does the tone of the poem further sharpen your feelings towards the coffee shop?• (iii) What do you find striking about the way the poet uses words and images to describe the activities and the atmosphere in the coffee shop?• Remember to refer closely to the poem in your answer.
Reminder 01 Poems are meant to be SPOKEN andHEARD as well as READ. A poemreaches the reader or listener through itsVOICE. A poem’s VOICE is the voice wehear from its SPEAKER/NARRATOR orthe VOICE we hear from the page.
NOTE WELL We should be mindful of three pivotal considerations when reading a poem:• What is the subject matter?• What is the message?• What is the tone?
Reminder 02WHY IS UNDERSTANDING THE TONE OF THE NARRATOR (CREATED BY THE POET) IMPORTANT?TONE SHOWSFEELINGS andMOOD.
Why is TONE important?The tone of a narrator’svoice shows the narrator’sfeelings. In a poem, youmust listen for its tone.Some poems use more thanone tone, indicating achange of feelings.
WHY IS TONE IMPORTANT?TONE CARRIES THE MOOD OFTHE POET. HOW THE POETFEELS MAY ALSO AFFECTHOW YOU ARE GOING TOFEEL AFTER YOU HAVE READHIS OR HER POEM.
BEAR IN MIND THEQUESTIONS WHICH AREBEING THROWN AT YOUDURING THE MID YEAREXAMINATIONS.
QUESTIONS• (i) What impressions of the coffee shop does the poem create for you?• (ii) How does the tone of the poem further sharpen your feelings towards the coffee shop?• (iii) What do you find striking about the way the poet uses words and images to describe the activities and the atmosphere in the coffee shop?• Remember to refer closely to the poem in your answer.
• (i) What impressions of the coffee shop does the poem create for you?WHAT DO I “SEE”?WHAT DO I “SMELL”?WHAT DO I “TASTE”? IMPRESSIONSWHAT DO I “TOUCH”?WHAT DO I “HEAR”?WHAT DO I “FEEL”?
TONE SHOWS FEELINGS and MOOD(ii) How does the tone of the poem further sharpen your feelings towards the coffee shop?WHAT IS THE POET’S ATTITUDE WITH REGARD TO THE COFFEE SHOP?POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE?APPROVAL VERSUS DISAPPROVAL?
TONE SHOWS FEELINGSWHERE DO WE LOOK IN THE POEM WHEN WE WANT TO DISCUSS “TONE”?THE CHOICE OF WORDSWHERE THEY ARE PLACEDTHE MENTAL PICTURES CREATEDBY THEM IN YOUR HEAD
TONE SHOWS MOODThe tone of the narrator’s voiceindicates the speaker’s mood. Thespeaker’s mood may affect your mood.This is the power of sharing ortransmitting that mood across to youwhen you read. Poets have agendas –there is no denying this.
Always refer back to the question• (iii) What do you find striking about the way the poet uses words and images to describe the activities and the atmosphere in the coffee shop?
Read the TitleCoffee Shop, Clementi A HousingA kind of local business DevelopmentWhich focuses on Board estate locatedservicing the on thecommunity where the Western side of Locals call itshop itself is located. Singapore “kopitiam” – inThe main offer is In the suburban ChineseSingaporean style areas. dialect ofcoffee and local food Hokkien.from the different ethnic A typical housinggroups here. Coffee projectshops has been around In the Singaporefor a long time. heartlands.
POEM – Section by section• The pot-bellied expert twirls• With a dancer’s stamina. Beating• Counter with right palm, he traps air• In each fold, then flops roti prata• On black griddle, and dribbles oil.• Hands fly dough, again• To drum aluminium.
Look closelyThe pot-bellied expert twirlsWith a dancer’s stamina. Under normal circumstances, it would have been quite ridiculous to talk about a “pot-bellied expert” but here the “expert” is a middle-aged or probably stocky or chubby Indian man who is skilful in making roti prata. The juxtaposition of the adjective “pot-belllied” and the noun “expert” makes me want to take a closer look at the Indian roti prata man whom I normally take for granted. His hands never seem to go wrong with the dough he holds and manipulates with his hand movements. He exudes liveliness, energy and beauty when he “twirls’ his fingers to work on the dough. He is an expert in his own area of speciality and whatever he does, he does it with skill and style, much to the admiration of the narrator.
Look closelyThe pot-bellied expert twirlsWith a dancer’s stamina. The action of “twirling” requires great skills - Imagine the spinning action performed by the Indian roti prata man as he spins the dough with his hands to make it expand in size by flattening and thinning it before sending it to the griddle.
Look closelyThe pot-bellied expert twirlsWith a dancer’s stamina. How does the spinning action of the roti prata man create an impression on the narrator? The narrator thinks the roti prata man spins in a lively manner, full of energy and because the narrator compares his spinning with that of the dancer’s, I think he also implies that the roti prata man does his roti prata with grace and beauty. It is on the whole, a great sight to embrace.
Reading between the lines“The pot-bellied expert” makes “roti prata” – a kind of Indian bread product. It is quickly and artistically made with a set of repetitive actions which shows off the skills of the stallholder in “twirling, beating, trapping, flopping, dribbling, flying and drumming” in order to present the food to his customers.
Look at the lines carefully Use of dynamic action• The pot-bellied expert twirls words• With a dancer’s stamina. Beating Every action• Counter with right palm, he traps air contributes to a bigger purpose.• In each fold, then flops roti prata• On black griddle, and dribbles oil. A cycle consists of several steps.• Hands fly dough, again• To drum aluminium. The steps are precise. As precise as every one of the different action HOW DOES THE INDIAN ROTI PRATA words being used to MAN BECOME AN EXPERT? describe them. HE DOES HIS ACTIONS REPEATEDLY It is a cycle which AND BECOMING BETTER AND BETTER repeats itself again and AS TIME GOES BY. again.
Why does the narrator begin with the Indian Roti Prata Man?In the local coffee shop, the Indian roti prata man openly setsup his griddle for all to see in front of his stall – he has tobecause he needs the ventilation for the oil, the steam and thesmoke to clear away as he cooks and prepares the customers’orders. Because of the arrangement, the waiting customers getto see his cooking from start to finish. It is a dramatic set ofactions. Imagine the movie camera doing a close up shootbefore it pulls away for the viewer to gradually size up wherethat Indian roti prata man is positioned in the wider scheme ofthings which we know is the coffee shop itself. It is an action-packed close-up of an individual before the narrator brings ourfocus to cover the rest of the coffee shop. The roti prata man islike a performer here and his actions enliven the atmosphere ofthe coffee shop and of the poem itself. It is a good way to makethe reader pay attention to what there is to come afterwards. Itheightens the reader’s or viewer’s expectations greatly in thissense.
POEM – Section by Section• Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styled• “Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing more• Than a corner coffee shop, two sides,• Long and short, exposed. Kitchens open• To all, nine stalls mark the cooking of food• From its eating.
What does the narrator tell us about the physical attributes of the coffee shop?• Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styled• “Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing more• Than a corner coffee shop, two sides,• Long and short, exposed. Kitchens open• To all, nine stalls mark the cooking of food• From its eating. After introducing the star performer, the narrator unexpectedly draws you, without any warning, back to the stark reality of what the coffee shop really is. It is an unassuming setting, almost spartan. The fixtures and fittings are old-fashioned with “ceiling fans” whirring, suggesting a certain standing still of time and perhaps old world charm, depending on how one sees it. What else do you read into this description?
POEM – Section by section• We breathe oil, steam,• Sweat; the fire and smoke of orders,• Before ours are cooked. Its floor could• Do with a good scrub.What does these lines tell us about the environment of the coffee shop?We have to put up with a certain amount of discomfort although ourmain intention is to fill our stomachs. We put up with “oil, stem, sweat;the fire and smoke of orders” as we wait for our orders to be prepared.The floor is also often dirty because the narrator thinks it “could do with agood scrub”.
From the prolific to the mundane and the low-down• We breathe oil, steam,• Sweat; the fire and smoke of orders,• Before ours are cooked. Its floor could• Do with a good scrub. We need to watch out for the narrator’s choice of words. What does the word “breath” suggest to us about his or her attitude (tone) towards “oil, steam, sweat, Fire and smoke”? Is it DISAPPROVAL or TOLERANCE or ACCEPTANCE? Compare: We breathe “air’ and we breathe “oil”?
From the prolific to the mundane and the low-down• We breathe oil, steam,• Sweat; the fire and smoke of orders,• Before ours are cooked. Its floor could• Do with a good scrub. We need to watch out for the narrator’s choice of words. Does the narrator say explicitly that the floor is dirty? And in so doing, pointing out to us the negative side of the coffee shop? Or does the narrator offer a hint or a suggestion or a reminder?
Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styled “Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing more Than a corner coffee shop, two sides, Long and short, exposed. Kitchens open To all, nine stalls mark the cooking of food From its eating.Is there anything interesting here?What is the mental image you are getting here?
Original, unique, One-of-its-kindCompareand Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styledcontrast “Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing morethe business Than a corner coffee shop, two sides,title of Long and short, exposed. Kitchens open“restaurant To all, nine stalls mark the cooking of foodand bar” From its eating.with theactual store Restaurant – what is your understanding of it like? what mental images come to your mind? Bar – what is your image of a bar like? A place where beer and liquor are sold.
Ceiling fans whirr in this self-styled“Restaurant and Bar” – really nothing moreThan a corner coffee shop, two sides,Long and short, exposed. Kitchens openTo all, nine stalls mark the cooking of foodFrom its eating. “long and short” the strengths and the weaknesses everything there is about the coffee shop no secrets “exposed” laying bare for all to see a sense of vulnerability a sense of defiance a sense of showiness self-identity, confidence, “a take-it-or-leave-it” attitude
Kitchens open to all, / nine stalls mark the cooking of food / From its eating. Nine stalls – which is quite a big The kitchen is gathering of stalls in such a small space a public = crammed condition. domain here. Not a private or personal one. There is a clear dividing line between the customers and the stallholders. The border is real here and the orderliness is clearly discernible.
POEM – Section by Section• At lunch, dinner,• In-betweens, the shop swells, a hot-air• Balloon.• On dry days and nights, those• Who like the open air with which to guzzle• Down a good time, spill out. Plastic furniture• Pushes the shop’s sides into the redbrick• Walk where pedestrians pass; beyond• Pong-Pong and Yellow Flame, motorists• Drive on.
How do we know that the narrator is telling us that the coffee shopis a dynamic place, one which is full of life?• At lunch, dinner,• In-betweens, the shop swells, a hot-air• Balloon.• On dry days and nights, those• Who like the open air with which to guzzle• Down a good time, spill out. Plastic furniture• Pushes the shop’s sides into the redbrick• Walk where pedestrians pass; beyond• Pong-Pong and Yellow Flame, motorists• Drive on.• * To guzzle is to drink, or sometimes eat, greedily, frequently, or plentifully
• At lunch, dinner,• In-betweens, the shop swells, a hot-air• Balloon.• On dry days and nights, those• Who like the open air with which to guzzle• Down a good time, spill out. Plastic furniture• Pushes the shop’s sides into the redbrick• Walk where pedestrians pass; beyond• Pong-Pong and Yellow Flame, motorists• Drive on. MOVING BEYOND VERBS… Have eyes must see: Look for things which are in your realm of personal experience and make linkages with the words that appear line after line. For example, what do you make of meal times like, “lunch, dinner, in-betweens”? They are practical and necessary activities which we carry out daily to sustain our lives. In the Asian context, do we do these alone or with other people? THINK. The shop swells the shop becomes alive. What do you think of the mental picture of “a hot-air balloon”? What happens when something swells?
• At lunch, dinner,• In-betweens, the shop swells, a hot-air• Balloon.• On dry days and nights, those• Who like the open air with which to guzzle• Down a good time, spill out. Plastic furniture• Pushes the shop’s sides into the redbrick• Walk where pedestrians pass; beyond• Pong-Pong and Yellow Flame, motorists• Drive on. The shop swells a hot-air balloon metaphor. What else is changing about the shop? - why do the stallholders slog it out in the coffee shop? how do you think their business all about?
POEM – Section by Section• Where chilly-hot nasi goreng• Sends iced-coffee racing up straws;• Fish porridge and beefball noodles scald• Tongues out for quick thrills; where chicken rice• Bubbles, as pure kueh tutu steams,• It’s not only fast food on the cheap• I come for.
VARIETY OF FOODAn array of colours, smells, taste.Reflection of cultural variety and diversity.Difference in terms of cooking methods orpreparation processes.Complicated, complex yet exists side-by-sidein harmony packed and crammed into a nine-stall corner coffee-shop.
POEM – Section by section• Plundering appetites, voices• Riding high, eyes which eat, while waiting.• An ambience without the fuss of trying;• Timely crowds; the business of hunger, thirst• Or rest, handled with matters of fact.
POEM – Section by section• Plundering appetites, voices• Riding high, eyes which eat, while waiting.• An ambience without the fuss of trying;• Timely crowds; the business of hunger, thirst• Or rest, handled with matters of fact.
OTHERSWHAT DOES “VOICES RIDING HIGH”SUGGEST?About the ambience of the “restaurant andbar”?HOW DO OTHER PIECES OF EVIDENCECONTRIBUTE TO BUILDING AN AMBIENCEWITHOUT FUSS OF TRYING?
READ AND ASK QUESTIONS even in Singlish!What kind of appetites aaah?PLUNDERING appetites Robbing, stealing, taking things away from the rightful owners no apologies needed.How are these appetites revealed to us? Many customers are behaving unashamedly when they are slurping down their food. They seem to be in a hurry. They seem to be gobbling and tucking in without thinking what onlookers might think of them.