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1127 oct nov 2006.how man's action harm the oceans Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1127 Oct-Nov 2006How Man’s Actions Harm The World’s Oceans O Level English Paper 2 For 3B.3C and 3D.2011
  • 3. Passage A Paragraph 1 Water covers the greatest part of the Earth’s surface andmost of this water is contained within four oceans – thePacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the icy Arctic Ocean.Despite the vast size of the oceans, little was known aboutthese interlinked areas of the world until comparativelyrecently. It was thought that the ocean floors werefeatureless plains but we now known that they contain justas many hills and valleys as exist on dry land. Healthyoceans are essential to life on earth as they are at theheart of the water cycle. The thousands of cubickilometres of water which evaporate from the oceans everyyear fall as rain and snow over land, ensuring our survivalby replenishing our reservoirs and supporting ouragriculture. However, these oceans also provide for life onearth in a more direct way, in the harvesting of fish andother sea creatures for food. This is an age-old custom,but only recently has it had any serious effect on theoceans and seas and the life dependent on them.
  • 4. From Passage A Paragraph 1:1. Write down the word which tells us that the oceans of the world run into each other. [1 mark] The word is “interlinked”.
  • 5. From Passage A Paragraph 1:2. What do the words “featureless plains” tell us about the picture we used to have of the ocean floors? [1 mark]
  • 6. From Passage A Paragraph 1:3. Apart from “replenishing our reservoirs”, in what other way, according to the passage, is water necessary for our survival? Answer in your own words. [2 marks]
  • 7. Passage A Paragraph 2The major impact made by human beings on livingmarine resources has occurred only in the lastone hundred years or so, when over-exploitationof marine creatures for food and other uses hascaused a considerable reduction in their numbers.The history of whaling in the twentieth century,which seriously reduced most of the large breedsof whale, is well known, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more mundane marine life likeherring and haddock. As soon as stocks becometoo low in one sector, the fishing fleets move on toother more profitable areas, leaving behindshattered communities of people on shore.
  • 8. Passage A Paragraph 24. Why do you think fishing fleets leave behind “shattered communities” when they move on? [1]
  • 9. Whaling
  • 10. Whaling
  • 11. Herring
  • 12. Haddock
  • 13. Passage A Paragraph 3While the depletion of fish stocks is bad enough, it is themethods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatestcause for concern. The most harmful type of fishingemploys massive drift nets, which accidentally kill a greatmany species, like turtles, which die from a lack of oxygen.Although the United Nations General Assembly recentlyadopted a resolution calling for the banning of theseocean-going drift nets, in practice what actually happenson the high seas remains all too often beyond the reach ofany legislation. Another example is the use of so-called“purse-seine” nest, which are drawn between two ships,and are often employed to catch schools of tuna. Forecological reasons not wholly understood, dolphinsfrequently accompany the tuna and, despite recentimprovements in technology, these beautiful and intelligentcreatures are still being killed in large numbers.
  • 14. Dolphins (海豚 ) 海豚
  • 15. Passage A Paragraph 4It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; theother man-made problem is the pervasiveness ofmarine litter from pole to pole. Although ships inthe open sea discharge oil with impunity, ingeneral these waters are free from the worsteffects of pollution. However, thousands of seabirds die each year from the effect of oil spillsclose to land and it is these coastal areas whichcause most concern. Just over half of the world’spopulation lives within two hundred kilometers of asea coast – Africa is the only continent wheremore people live inland than near the sea – and itis here that pollution is concentrated; it is alsoexactly where most marine life is to be found.Untreated waste from factories and sewage arejust two of the many further hazards faced bywildlife close to shore.
  • 16. From Passage A Paragraph 4:5. Explain fully what you understand by the expression “from pole to pole”. [2 marks]
  • 17. Marine Litter
  • 18. Passage A Paragraph 5There are two other main dangers from litter inthese coastal waters. Firstly, animals maybecome entangled in discarded objects. The mostdangerous of these are fishing nets and plasticbags as they reduce movement and can result inserious injury and death by starvation anddrowning. Studies show that approximately30,000 fur seals die annually throughentanglement. Secondly, there is the danger ofingestion: animals and fish which confuse plasticitems with food frequently suffer from poisoningand suffocation. Whole plastic bags and evengallon drums have been mistakenly identified asedible by some mammal, turtle and shark species.It is estimated that, globally, some 100,000 marineanimals die in these ways every year.
  • 19. Passage A Paragraph 6 While national governments and international agenciesstruggle to find solutions to the wider problems, there arecertain things that we can all do to reduce the amount ofdangerous litter that ends up in the sea. We shouldalways use fabric shopping bags instead of plastic carriersand avoid buying goods which have an unnecessaryamount of packaging. Plastic containers should be reusedand plastic bottles recycled wherever possible. If plastic isdiscarded it should first be made safe by cutting any plasticrings and strapping before disposal. In addition, rubbishshould never be thrown over the side of a boat and no litterof any kind should be left in rivers or on beaches. “Takeonly memories away with you; leave nothing but footprintsbehind.” By remembering these words, we will be making asmall but valuable contribution to the safety of life underthe seas.
  • 20. From Passage A Paragraph 6:6. How will rememberin the words “Take only memories away with you, leave nothing but footprints behind” help us to promote the safety of marine life? [1 mark]
  • 21. Passage B Paragraph 1With rhythmical sweeps of its tail, thehumpback whale chugged down theeastern seaboard of Australia. The thirty-ton creature was beginning its migration tothe rich feeding grounds of Antarctica,thousands of miles to the south and stillmany weeks away.
  • 22. From Passage B Paragraph 1:7. Without using the wording of the passage, explain why Antarctica is an ideal destination for whales. [1 mark]
  • 23. Passage B Paragraph 2Either it failed to pick out the shark net anchored off thecoast near Brisbane, or it didn’t know how to avoid it.Within seconds, six hundred feet of braided nylon meshand rope enveloped the whale. It was unable to reversebecause humpbacks can’t swim backwards, and going onwas impossible, because the net was welded to the oceanbed by a hundred kilos of chain and two very heavyanchors. In an effort to break free, the animal spun roundand threw itself out of the water. The net wrapped evermore tightly around its torso and, with its mouth, blowhole,left pectoral fin and tail bound tight, the creature struggledto surface for air. Finally, harnessing all its strength intoone last bid for freedom, it thrashed again and again untilone of the chains snapped and an anchor broke free. Stillbound by a massive weight of rope and chain, and oneanchor, but slave to an overwhelming impulse to headsouth, the whale resumed its migratory path.
  • 24. From Passage B Paragraph 2:8(a) What does the author mean by “the net was welded to the ocean bed”? [2 marks]
  • 25. From Passage B Paragraph 2:8(b) In your own words, describe the reason why the whale continued to swim south, even though it was still heavily entangled in the net. [2 marks]
  • 26. Passage B Paragraph 3Some time later, the marine centre in Queenslandreceived a call that an entangled humpback whale hadbeen spotted and a rescue team was hastily assembled,consisting of two helicopters and a small boat with threedivers. After several hours of fruitless searching, thecaptain of the boat received a message on his marineradio. One of the helicopter pilots had located the whalea little further out than expected. The pilot had somethingelse to report: the whale was not alone. Humpbacks singto each other across vast stretches of ocean and supportinjured companions, so the whale had been joined bythree others. Because there were now four whalespresent, the rescue mission had suddenly becomepotentially far more dangerous.
  • 27. From Passage B Paragraph 3:9. Why did the helicopter pilots have difficulty in finding the whale? [1 mark]
  • 28. From Passage B Paragraph 3:10. Why do you think the rescue mission “had suddenly become potentially far more dangerous”? [2 marks]
  • 29. Passage B Paragraph 4As they approached the trapped whale, thedivers lowered themselves into the water toassess the situation. Then, suddenly, thethree other giant mammals bore down onthem and they braced themselves for theimpact. Six feet from them, however, thewhales wheeled gracefully away, swimmingunderneath and around the men; theywere interested, inquisitive even, but didnot appear to be aggressive.
  • 30. Passage B Paragraph 5The divers swam to the humpback’s barnacle-encrustedhead and began slicing the net in which it was caught. Itwas exhausting work. The weight of its shackles kept thehead of the whale largely under water, so the men had todive, cut and then surface for air. Since the whale wasmoving forward, they then had to swim back to its head tostart again. The men felt like car mechanics doing repairsto a lorry while it was motoring down the road. Thehumpback was struggling to obtain enough air but itwatched the divers intently, one black and white eye thesize of a human fist following their every move. As themen worked, the mammal seemed to sense that theywanted only to help and it grew calmer. Then one of itscompanions swam underneath and nudged its head tothe surface, assisting the creature to breathe. As thewhale broke the surface and exhaled through itsblowhole, it threw up a fine, cool mist.
  • 31. From Passage B Paragraph 5:11(a) Give two reasons why the rescuers felt like “car mechanics doing repairs to a lorry while it was motoring down the road”. [2 marks]
  • 32. From Passage B Paragraph 5:11(b) Why did the whale not swim away as soon as it was freed? [1 mark]
  • 33. Passage B Paragraph 6The long hours spent enmeshed in a shroud ofrope and chains had weakened the whale and itmade no reaction as the divers lined up for thefinal cut. Eventually the rope parted and thesnare fell away. Minutes passed and still thewhale did not respond. At last, with a gentlesweep of its tail, it slowly swam away from theboat. Picking up speed, it headed towards itscompanions. When it reached them, all fourmammals began tail-slapping the water, as ifapplauding the achievement of the rescue team.Then, turning together, they swam south towardsAntarctica.
  • 34. From Passage B Paragraph 6:12. Why did the whale not swim away as soon as it was freed? [1 mark]
  • 35. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage A: 1. Harvesting
  • 36. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage A: 1. Harvesting
  • 37. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage A: 2. Pervasiveness
  • 38. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: 3. Harnessing
  • 39. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: 4. Bid
  • 40. From Passage A and Passage B:13. For each of the following words, give one word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. From Passage B: 5. Intently
  • 41. 14 SUMMARY QUESTION• Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the ways in which human beings have caused harm to marine life.• USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 2, 3, 4 and 5.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by… [25 Marks]