1. 1127 Oct-Nov 2006Man and The Oceans O Level English Paper 2 For 3B.3C and 3D.2011
2. OCT-NOV 2006SUMMARYWRITING
3. Paragraph 2The major impact made by human beings on livingmarine resources has occurred only in the lastone hundred years or so, when over-exploitationof marine creatures for food and other uses hascaused a considerable reduction in their numbers.The history of whaling in the twentieth century,which seriously reduced most of the large breedsof whale, is well known, but over-fishing is alsoseriously affecting more mundane marine life likeherring and haddock. As soon as stocks becometoo low in one sector, the fishing fleets move on toother more profitable areas, leaving behindshattered communities of people on shore.
8. Paragraph 3While the depletion of fish stocks is bad enough, it is themethods used by fishermen that give perhaps the greatestcause for concern. The most harmful type of fishingemploys massive drift nets, which accidentally kill a greatmany species, like turtles, which die from a lack of oxygen.Although the United Nations General Assembly recentlyadopted a resolution calling for the banning of theseocean-going drift nets, in practice what actually happenson the high seas remains all too often beyond the reach ofany legislation. Another example is the use of so-called“purse-seine” nest, which are drawn between two ships,and are often employed to catch schools of tuna. Forecological reasons not wholly understood, dolphinsfrequently accompany the tuna and, despite recentimprovements in technology, these beautiful and intelligentcreatures are still being killed in large numbers.
9. Dolphins (海豚 ) 海豚
10. Paragraph 4It is not just the way we fish which is harmful; theother man-made problem is the pervasiveness ofmarine litter from pole to pole. Although ships inthe open sea discharge oil with impunity, ingeneral these waters are free from the worsteffects of pollution. However, thousands of seabirds die each year from the effect of oil spillsclose to land and it is these coastal areas whichcause most concern. Just over half of the world’spopulation lives within two hundred kilometers of asea coast – Africa is the only continent wheremore people live inland than near the sea – and itis here that pollution is concentrated; it is alsoexactly where most marine life is to be found.Untreated waste from factories and sewage arejust two of the many further hazards faced bywildlife close to shore.
11. Marine Litter
12. Paragraph 5There are two other main dangers from litter inthese coastal waters. Firstly, animals maybecome entangled in discarded objects. The mostdangerous of these are fishing nets and plasticbags as they reduce movement and can result inserious injury and death by starvation anddrowning. Studies show that approximately30,000 fur seals die annually throughentanglement. Secondly, there is the danger ofingestion: animals and fish which confuse plasticitems with food frequently suffer from poisoningand suffocation. Whole plastic bags and evengallon drums have been mistakenly identified asedible by some mammal, turtle and shark species.It is estimated that, globally, some 100,000 marineanimals die in these ways every year.
13. SUMMARY QUESTION• Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the ways in which human beings have caused harm to marine life.• USE ONLY THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPHS 2, 3, 4 and 5.• Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).• Begin your summary as follows: Human beings have been responsible for damaging marine life by… [25 Marks]