• Save
1127 eoy2011-nkl-nazi germany
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

1127 eoy2011-nkl-nazi germany

on

  • 732 views

EOY 2011 El Paper 2 at S

EOY 2011 El Paper 2 at S

Statistics

Views

Total Views
732
Views on SlideShare
613
Embed Views
119

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

4 Embeds 119

http://kuronekosan-eigo.blogspot.sg 73
http://kuronekosan-eigo.blogspot.com 43
http://kuronekosan-eigo.blogspot.com.br 2
http://kuronekosan-eigo.blogspot.jp 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

1127 eoy2011-nkl-nazi germany 1127 eoy2011-nkl-nazi germany Presentation Transcript

  • INCORPORATED NG KIEW LING’S MARKER’S REPORT EOY 2011 ENGLISH 1127 Paper 2 O NE PREP PROGRAMME SECONDARY THREE NA 3B/3C and 3D.2011 Lesson prepared and conducted by Yeo Yam Hwee11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 1 Hwee
  • End Of Year Examinations 2011 at St. Hilda’s Secondary School 1127 Paper 2 Secondary Three NA /NA[TT]/Express Setter: Ms. Ng Kiew Ling11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 2 Hwee
  • St Hilda’s Secondary School 2011 EL End-of-Year Exam Sec 3 Exp / 5NA PAPER 2: Comprehension MARKER’S REPORT & RECOMMENDATIONS11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 3 Hwee
  • WATCH and BEAT THE CLOCK 1127 Paper 2 – Comprehension 1 HOUR and Summary Writing Paper 40 MINUTES Reading the questions 7 – 10 Reading the insert passages Marking out the answer skeleton MINUTES Naturally you will need to refer to the questions and the insert passages time and again during the duration of the examination. Working on the Comprehension And Vocabulary Questions 40 MINUTES Working on the Summary Writing 40 MINUTES CHECKING THROUGH YOUR 10 MINUTES ANSWER SCRIPT11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 4 Hwee
  • STEPS TO READING COMPREHENSION1. ALWAYS READ THE QUESTIONS FIRST.2. MARK OUT THE SUMMARY QUESTION BOUNDARIES.3. MARK OUT ALL THE FIVE SINGLE-WORD VOCABULARY ITEMS4. GO THROUGH ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THE PAPER AND FORM YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT TO READ FROM THE PASSAGES.5. TACKLE THE PASSAGES NOW.6. REMEMBER: DO NOT DO “BLIND READING” WHEN ATTEMPTING READING COMPREHENSION 1127 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 5 PAPER 2 Hwee
  • Always perform the following steps:1. Read the questions first starting with marking out the boundary lines of the relevant area of the text which you are required to summarise. Which Passage? A or B Starting from which line? Ending at which line?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 6 Hwee
  • Always perform the following steps:2. Quickly look at the five words found in the SINGLE-WORD vocabulary question block and mark out each word in the respective sentences accordingly. Which Passage? From Passage B (d) Infallible (line 10) Which specific line? THE WORD IN QUESTION The Zyklon B pellets proved effective, efficient and infallible. 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 7 Hwee
  • Always perform the following steps: 3. Read through every question quickly first. When you are through with the questions concerning Passage A, you will get an idea of what Passage A is about and what are the things you should be looking out for. 4. Do the same for the questions in Passage B. You should be able to get an idea of what Passage B is about and what are the things you should be looking out for.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 8 Hwee
  • Always perform the following steps:5. As you proceed to read the passages, be systematic. Read Passage A first and then Passage B. There is a reason why Passage A comes first and then Passage B.6. As you read Passage A, bear in mind the questions concerning the passage. Mark out any RELEVANT AREAS which you can use to answer the questions.7. Do the same for Passage B later on.8. Do all the doodling and drafting of your answers on the insert and the question paper first.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 9 Hwee
  • WATCH and BEAT THE CLOCK 1127 Paper 2 – Comprehension 1 HOUR and Summary Writing Paper 40 MINUTES Reading the questions 7 – 10 Reading the insert passages Marking out the answer skeleton MINUTES Naturally you will need to refer to the questions and the insert passages time and again during the duration of the examination. Working on the Comprehension And Vocabulary Questions 40 MINUTES Working on the Summary Writing 40 MINUTES CHECKING THROUGH YOUR 10 MINUTES ANSWER SCRIPT11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 10 Hwee
  • The Answer Skeleton – Q1 (1m) For a ONE-mark 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave two lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer.INDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 11 Hwee
  • Why bother to leave 3 lines? Scratch away the 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX answer you no longer need neatly and clearly. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATE Rewrite your preferred answer to Question 1THE QUESTION here. However, do not make it a habit.NUMBERS CLEARLY 2 YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 12 Hwee
  • The Answer Skeleton – Q2 (2m) 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX For a TWO-mark question, leave FOUR lines for writing XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX down your answer. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXINDICATETHEQUESTION Leave 3 lines empty before youNUMBERS begin writing down your answerCLEARLY. to the next question. 3 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 13 Hwee
  • FOR THE 5 Vocabulary Questions – Q15 (5m) For each 1-mark 15(1) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX question, leave ONE line for writing down your answer. 15(2) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Leave 1 line empty before you begin writing down your answerto the next question.INDICATETHE XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXQUESTIONNUMBERSCLEARLY. “Tentatively” means “gingerly”. 15(5) “Offering” means “sacrifice”. 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 14 Hwee
  • ALWAYS REMEMBER: Do the summary question on a NEW answer sheet.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 15 Hwee
  • ALWAYS REMEMBER: Do not go beyond TWO drafts for your summary.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 16 Hwee
  • ALWAYS REMEMBER: Do not forget to indicate the total number of words in your summary.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 17 Hwee
  • FOR THE SUMMARY Question – Q16 (5m) 16 SUMMARY - FINAL DRAFT Write these words clearly.INDICATE THE The factors contributing to the demise of the tiger are……………..SUMMARYQUESTIONNUMBER Leave a line after every written line.CLEARLY. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx YOU SHOULD USE OTHER SHEETS OF PAPER TO WORK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX OUT YOUR POINT ORGANISER AND YOUR FIRST DRAFT. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(148 words) THEN ALWAYS Indicate clearly the total number of words, not BEGIN YOUR counting the helping words. SUMMARY FINAL DRAFT ON A NEW PAGE. 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 18 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions2. Why is arsenic described as a ‘stealth killer’ (line 15)? (2m)3. Explain the role of poison in comics.(1m)6. In what way would talking to a Borgia be different from talking to a physician? (1m)9. How successful was the experiment? (2m) 12. Why did Polchlopek and the other prisoners flee the scene? (1m)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 19 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions & Answers2. Why is arsenic described as a ‘stealth killer’ (line 15)? (2m) Only a minute quantity is needed to get the desired effect (1m) and it escapes detection (1m).3. Explain the role of poison in comics.(1m) The presence / use of poison enlivens the story and adds interest to the characters / makes the story interesting6. In what way would talking to a Borgia be different from talking to a physician? (1m) Because the Borgia would typically use arsenic as a poison to murder theirYeo Yam 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by enemies while a 20 physician would use itHwee a drug to cure / heal. as
  • Literal / Direct Questions & Answers9. How successful was the experiment? (2m) Highly/ totally effective as all / everyone of the intended victims (1m) were killed very quickly / within 20 minutes (1m)12. Why did Polchlopek and the other prisoners flee the scene? (1m) They had witnessed what had happened at the gas chamber so If they stayed, they would be killed.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 21 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions• Strengths - Most could locate the answers located directly from the text. - Answers were to the point and accurate. - Students were sensitive to the mark weighting of the question i.e. knew that 2 marks = 2 parts to the answer.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 22 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions• For Improvement: - Even when the Question does not state ‘In your own words,……’ students need to show comprehension of the passage & questions as well as the intent of the questions. The least a student should do is clever/selective copying, The following types of answers were not credited marks: a) vague and non-specific eg Q6: Because the Borgia would typically use it as a poison while a physician would use it as a drug. must provide more specific response on exactly what each party is referring to (i.e. arsenic) & not leave it to markeranswerguess whatYam refers to 11/9/2011 to key prepared by Yeo ‘it’ 23 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions• For Improvement: b) excessive lifting & copying hence ‘Excess, Deny’ e.g. Q3: it’s the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine’ . must understand what the Qn demands c) Misspelling / contortion of word(s) found in passage till it is beyond recognition eg Q2: misspelling of ‘undetectable’ must not commit gross errors like these which are considered ‘unforgivable’ by Cambridge markers! 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 24 Hwee
  • Literal / Direct Questions• For Improvement: b) answers that failed to make the necessary link / connection e.g. Q12: ‘They would be killed’ / ‘Witnesses were killed.’ only’ . must make clear the necessary connection and not leave it to the marker to assume that he/she knows what you are trying to say or leave it to the marker to do the job of making the connection for himself/herself!! Just saying ‘They would be killed’’ doesn’t say why they would be killed. Or ‘Witnesses were killed’ does not explain who were witnesses / how come they were witnesses 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 25 Hwee
  • Quote Questions:1-word / phrase / consecutive words 4. Quote a phrase that describes the two opposing facets of substances.(1m) 7. Which word in this paragraph tells you that the victims were unwilling to be tested on? (1m)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 26 Hwee
  • Quote Questions & Answers: 1-word / phrase / consecutive words4. Quote a phrase that describes the two opposing facets of substances.(1m) The phrase is ‘Jekyll-Hyde duality’7. Which word in this paragraph tells you that the victims were unwilling to be tested on? (1m) The word is ‘forced’ 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 27 Hwee
  • Quote Questions: 1-word / phrase / consecutive words • Strength: - Most students could identify correctly the answer for Q7.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 28 Hwee
  • Quote Questions: 1-word / phrase / consecutive words• For Improvement: - Hyphenated word = 1 word - Do not over-quote. A phrase means no more than 3 to 4 words. Anything with a clause amounts to a sentence. - Spell & punctuate accuratelyEg Q7 : ‘forced’ became ‘force’11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 29 Hwee
  • In-Your-Own-Words Questions8. Explain in your own words why the Nazis gave up the use of shooting squads and exhaust fumes as mass killing methods. (2m)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 30 Hwee
  • In-Your-Own-Words Question & Answer Shooting squads took far The former method, 7-8 too long a time (shooting squads)8. Explain in however was too your own slow words why the attracted unwanted and and created too 8 Nazispublicity / show / much of a public gave attention from the rest of spectacle up the use of the world shooting squads while pumping exhaust the latter (pumping 8-9 and fumes into sealed vans exhaust fumes into exhaust not ensure the deaths sealed vans) was did fumes as massof all intended victims / unreliable killingcould not be depended methods. on (2m) or was troublesome / and required special 9 needed special equipment equipment 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 31 Hwee
  • In-Your-Own-Words Questions• Strengths - Good answers showed good understanding of the contextual meaning of the key ideas/terms that needed to be re-worded. - Good re-phrasing at sentence levels, not just word-for-word substitution. - Some classes were able to use the opposites to change words & still convey fully the meaning Eg ‘shooting squads …. were too slow’ became ‘shooting squads did not work fast enough’ 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 32 Hwee
  • In-Your-Own-Words Questions• For Improvement: - 1 m only when students do not specifically express which method they were referring to in their answer but just used the generic ‘it’ throughout for both methods - Rampant lifting of chunks of text without recognising key ideas that require the paraphrasing - Inability to convey accurately the meaning in the paraphrasing. - Inability to identify fully 2 drawbacks of each of the 11/9/2011 methods two answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 33 Hwee
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony / Language1. Explain fully the irony of Karen Wetterhahn’s death. (2m)5 (a) Suggest one word why wealthy young wives would want ‘to dispatch their husbands’ (lines 38 -39). (1m)5 (b) Why do you think Hieronyma Spara was able to start a school that taught wives how to rid themselves of their husbands? (1m)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 34 Hwee
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony / Language10. What does the phrase ‘a solid, stifling mass’’ (line 20) tell us about the conditions in the train? (2m)11 Suggest two reasons why the guards ordered the prisoners to strip before the latter entered the gas chambers. (2m)13 In paragraph 3, it states, ‘The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitlers plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B’ (lines 13- 15). In what way had Zyklon B proven to be the key? (1m)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 35
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony / Lang &1. ANSWERS Own words From the passage LineExplain Nosfully the She was not just brilliant … world-class 13irony of an expert on toxicologistKaren toxins, she was meticulous 13Wetterh also highly careful in her job (1m)ahn’sdeath. and yet she was When she spilled the 5-7 killed by the very poisonous droplet in her(2m) thing she was lab, she thought nothing studying and of it; she was wearing thought she latex gloves. What she 11/9/2011 understood. (1m)Hwee didntYam answer key prepared by Yeo know killed her 36
  • Inferential Questions:Cause-effect / Irony / Lang & ANSWERS 5 (a) Suggest one word why wealthy young wives would want ‘to dispatch their husbands’ (lines 38 -39). (1m) It could be greed / money / wealth 0 m – ‘heartless’ 5 (b) Why do you think Hieronyma Spara was able to start a school that taught wives how to rid themselves of their husbands? (1m) There is actually a demand for such a school / There were many greedy, unscrupulous young women wishing their husbands dead so that they could lay their key prepared on the husbands’ wealth37/ 11/9/2011 answer hands by Yeo Yam Hieronyma Spara is a skilful murderer herself Hwee
  • Inferential Questions:Cause-effect / Irony / Language & ANSWER 10. What does the phrase ‘a solid, stifling mass’’ (line 20) tell us about the conditions in the train? (2m) • (‘solid’) - Packed to extremes / overcrowded / many human bodies pressed tightly against each other (1m) • (‘stifling’) - and causing difficulty in breathing (1m) 11 Suggest two reasons why the guards ordered the prisoners to strip before the latter entered the gas chambers. (2m) • For ease of sorting • To remove their clothes and belongings which could be of value / • To remove their clothes and belongings which could be used answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 11/9/2011 & sold by the Nazis 38 • To make it easier to burn just the naked corpses Hwee
  • Inferential Questions:Cause-effect / Irony / Language & ANSWER 13 In paragraph 3, it states, ‘The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitlers plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B’ (lines 13- 15). In what way had Zyklon B proven to be the key? (1m) Zyklon B could kill truckloads of victims quickly 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 39 Hwee
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony• Strengths - Students showed good understanding that the inference needed was a language-based one i.e. Q5a: “dispatch their husbands” These students managed to express the full nuances of these words in the context of the question set.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 40 Hwee
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony • For Improvement: - Answers which missed the point of the language-based inference were either too vague or completely irrelevant. e.g. Q10: ‘solid’ = filled with people / very strong train11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 41 Hwee
  • Inferential Questions: Cause-effect / Irony / Lang• For Improvement: - Q 1 : Students need to do two things a) identify and explain the irony clearly b) identify the necessity to explain in own words - Rampant lifting of chunks of text without recognising key ideas that require the paraphrasing - Inability to convey accurately the meaning in the paraphrasing. Eg Q 1 ‘What she didn’t know killed her’ became ‘she was a world-class toxicologist yet she didn’t know what killed her’ or even worse ‘she was a world-class toxicologist and yet she still can die and then didn’t know what killed her’ 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 42 Hwee
  • Vocabulary QuestionFrom Passage A:a) treachery (line 16)b) considerably (line 18)c) inseparable (line 27)From Passage B:d) infallible (line 10)e) exterminate (line 14)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 43 Hwee
  • Vocabulary Questions & AnswersFrom Passage A:a) treachery (line 16) -• betrayal /disloyal act against somebody who trusts youb) considerably (line 18) –• much morec) inseparable (line 27) –• cannot be detached from each other / apart from each other11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 44 Hwee
  • Vocabulary Questions & AnswersFrom Passage A:d) infallible (line 10) -• totally failproof, not making any mistake at alle) exterminate (line 14) -• wipe out a race /wipe out completely / commit genocide/ kill all / get rid of all11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 45 Hwee
  • Vocabulary Question (Qn 15)• Strengths • For Improvement:- Some students able - A few students can’t to read passage remember to answer closely and answer in in 7 or fewer words context - Students should be taught that quite often the addition of an adverb or phrase should give a more complete or satisfying answer11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 46 Hwee
  • Vocabulary QuestionFor Improvement:- Some could not recognise the ‘degree’ or intensity of the vocabulary item being tested, thus answers lacked contextual accuracy e.g. (b) considerably : much more (NOT just more)- Many used the root word e.g. (c) inseparable : cannot be separated- Few students could score 4 to 5 out of 5 marks11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 47 Hwee
  • Summary Question15) Passage A describes how sometimes, poisons are used with sinister motives, and sometimes they are used for healing. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise how poisons can be used as a toxin or as a drug to cure and how our bodies help us fight poisons. USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM LINE 15 TO LINE 64. Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be more than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you to begin). Begin your summary as follows: Poisons can affect our bodies in different ways when …11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 48 Hwee
  • Summary Question & AnswerUsed as a toxin:1. used as a toxin to kill according to amount (dosage ) used2. arsenic is especially popular because of3. its special qualities of being tasteless, colourless, odourless which make it undetectable4 . just a small amount administered over a period of time gives the necessary effect5. hence centuries ago used by Borgias in Italy and young Roman women to get rid of selected people6. princes used it to ensure their succession to the throne7. even fairytales, comics, films and plays feature the use of poisons by superheroes by Yeo Yam 11/9/2011 answer key prepared and criminals 498. adding to the suspenseHwee excitement and
  • Summary Question & Answer Used as a drug: 9. right dosage of arsenic administered can help heal the body 10. arsenic used (by Hippocrates) as early as 5th Century to cure ulcers 11. for one and half centuries was used to treat wide range of ailments (and diseases) 12. was the first effective treatment for syphilis 13. even today is used to treat sleeping sickness 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 50 14. and leukemia Hwee
  • Summary Question & Answer How our bodies help us fight poisons: 15. our skin, made of keratin is waterproof, tough and tightly woven to allow only the tiniest & certain molecules to penetrate 16. our senses alert us of toxic substances 17. vomiting is the next line of defence 18. together with the liver flushing out toxins from our bodies 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 51 Hwee
  • Summary Question: Identifying all Required Points• Comments- A very simple, straightforward summary question as the points are very easily located yet surprisingly, the students are not scoring as highly as they should.- Often wrong focus elsewhere on irrelevant details such as how Spiderman & Teenage Mutant Turtles got their powers, down to who Paracelsus was and repetition about repetition of the entire para about the duality of poison when there is only 1 Content point.,- When there are two parts in a point, students must be able to show both clearly but they often leave out part of it so that the one content mark is lost.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 52 Hwee
  • Summary Question: Identifying all Required Points• Strengths • For Improvement:- Many students were - ‘Poison’ & ‘arsenic’ are not able to identify the 3 interchangeable; crucial to parts of the Summary highlight that arsenic was Qn thus managed to the most potent with score more than 10 m relevant qualities, not just for Content any poison- Better students read & - Needless repetition of correctly interpreted same/one point especially Qn & the passage poisons being both a toxin11/9/2011 & drug answer key prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee 53
  • Summary Question: Style and Use Own Words• Strengths• For Improvement:- Lack of connectors or inappropriate transitional devices that do not show the link between the different parts of the Summary answer- Writing the summary in more than 1 paragraph11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 54 Hwee
  • Summary Question: Style and Use Own Words• Strengths • For Improvement:- Good students were - Very awkward/ inappropriate/wrong able to use own search – word- replace words effectively Egs: ‘Our senses warn us while still retaining became ‘Our senses essence of the point alarm us’; ‘African sleeping sickness’ became ‘insomnia’ or ‘Africa’s sleeping sickness’ or ‘sleeping sickness’!!11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 55 Hwee
  • Overall Language Use: Tenses / Expressions / Sentence Structures / Spelling / Punctuation • Strengths• For Improvement:- Punctuation Eg : Arsenic spelt with capital ‘A’ in mid-sentence- Unforgivable spelling of words found in the passage Egs: ‘ulcer’, ‘leukemia’, ‘poison’, ‘ minuscule’, ‘soluble’, ‘undetectable’ –- Noun agreement issues Egs: ‘our body’, ‘our liver’- Do not truncate words 11/9/2011 ‘don’t’ eg : answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 56 Hwee
  • General Comments: Length of Work/Handwriting/Etc• Strengths • For Improvement:- Most students knew that the - Very cramped, narrow, tiny summary should be written in handwriting just ONE paragraph - No Qn number- Better students wrote on - No word count for own guide or alternate lines, in neat, clear gauge handwriting that allowed the - A few dishonest word count for marker to detect the points overly long summaries. Note: easily. Professional counters in- Better students showed better Cambridge!! organisation as they obviously - Some overly short summaries that did a plan before they started incur double penalty in Content & writing that incorporated Language relevant points to fit the 3 parts of the Qn- Most summaries included word count after summary11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 57 Hwee
  • Recommendations• IMPROVING COMPREHENSION- Students should be able to identify & locate trigger words & key phrases- Students should be able to decipher how much info to be given (no. of marks usually a good clue)11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 58 Hwee
  • Recommendations• IMPROVING USE OF LANGUAGE- Students to master the correct transitional devices- Egs of students’ answers that cost them marks : - Qn 1 KW was a brilliant, meticulous world-class toxicologist and she ignored that the dimethymercury spilled onto her even though it was just a tiny speck and she was using latex gloves and she should have known that it was volatile enough to penetrate the glove - Qn 5b I think the reason is because most wealthy young wives marries a wealthy man just for their wealth and they will have to kill their husbands to get the wealth. Due to this, the young wives might get abused by their husbands as Yeo Yam is no love 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by there 59 between them at all… (sic!) Hwee
  • Overall Language Use: Tenses / Expressions / Sentence Structures / Spelling / Punctuation• Comments- Students should be consistent in their tenses. They should be taught that if they are unsure of the tenses to use, they should refer to 3 clues : the wording of the Summary question, the given opener and the passage (Strangely enough, a few students notably fr 3J, failed to copy the given opener in their Summaries)- Students must know that Cambridge markers frown particularly on mis-spelling of words found in the passage. Most common mis-spelt words : arsenic. syphilis, Hippocrates, molecules, prepared by Yeo Yam11/9/2011 answer key leukemia 60 Hwee
  • Recommendations• IMPROVING COMPREHENSION- Students to identify no. of parts of Qn- Students to practise locating 17-18 points in Summary-writing & rephrasing without losing the essence of the point11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 61 Hwee
  • Recommendations• IMPROVING COMPREHENSION- Close reference to Cambridge Markers Report especially for the last 3 years- Getting students to identify the type of passage before they do the summary so that they know the focus of the relevant points to be selected11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 62 Hwee
  • Recommendations• IMPROVING USE OF LANGUAGE- Learning how to summarise chunks/ phrases without losing the essence of the point- Reading newspaper / magazine headlines to familiarise themselves more with the way of capturing the gist of the info11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 63 Hwee
  • Karen Wetterhahn was an internationally respected Professor of Chemistry, an expert researcher in the field of the effects of heavy metals upon living systems, especially in their role in causing cancer. By an exquisite irony, she became a victim of a heavy11/9/2011 metal poison. answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 64 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 1• Bad things come in small packages. On 14 August 1996, Karen Wetterhahn, a toxicologist and professor of chemistry at Dartmouth College, spilled a drop, a tiny speck, of dimethylmercury on her left hand. Wetterhahn was an expert on how toxic metals cause cancer once they penetrate cell membranes. When she spilled the poisonous droplet in her laboratory, she thought nothing of it; she was, after all, wearing latex gloves. What she didn’t know killed her.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 65 Hwee
  • A Toxicologist at Work11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 66 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 2 The dimethylmercury was volatile enough to penetrate the glove. Five months later, Wetterhahn began stumbling into doors and slurring her words. After three weeks in a hospital, she slipped into a coma. She died five months later, aged 48. The mercury had devoured her brain cells “like termites eating away for months,” one of her doctors said. How could such a brilliant, meticulous, world-class toxicologist come to such an end?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 67 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Areas of Text in Paragraph 1 to answer Q1• Bad things come in small packages. On 14 August 1996, Karen Wetterhahn, a toxicologist and professor of chemistry at Dartmouth College, spilled a drop, a tiny speck, of dimethylmercury on her left hand. Wetterhahn was an expert on how toxic metals cause cancer once they penetrate cell membranes. When she spilled the poisonous droplet in her laboratory, she thought nothing of it; she was, after all, wearing latex gloves. What she didn’t know killed her.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 68 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Areas of Text in Paragraph 2 to answer Q2 The dimethylmercury was volatile enough to penetrate the glove. Five months later, Wetterhahn began stumbling into doors and slurring her words. After three weeks in a hospital, she slipped into a coma. She died five months later, aged 48. The mercury had devoured her brain cells “like termites eating away for months,” one of her doctors said. How could such a brilliant, meticulous, world- class toxicologist come to such an end?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 69 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraphs 1-2 Q1 Explain fully the irony of Karen Wetterhahn’s death. [2] Karen Wetterhahn who was supposed to be an expert on how poisonous metals caused cancer once they entered cell membranes was careless enough to ignore a single droplet of dimethylmercury which fell onto her latext glove for about five months, not knowing that the droplet had penetrated her body through the glove and had been attacking and destroying her brain cells since then, causing her eventual death.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 70 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 3 Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minuscule amounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine. Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller. Spiderman exists by the grace of a radioactive spider bite. The rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles can be traced to their fall (as pet turtles) into a sewer along with a container of toxic materials.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 71 Hwee
  • Arsenic is historically the poison of choice for many murders, in reality and in fiction. Although it has been used as a poison, arsenic has ARSENIC many chemical uses and is quite an POISONING important element.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 72 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Area of Text to answer Paragraph 3 Q2 Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minuscule amounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine. Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller. Spiderman exists by the grace of a radioactive spider bite. The rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles can be traced to their fall (as pet turtles) into a sewer along with a container of toxic materials.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 73 Hwee
  • Paragraph 3 Q2Why is arsenic described as a “stealth killer”(line 15)? [2]Original sentences:Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minusculeamounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in thearsenic-tainted glass of wine.It is described as so because it iseffective in very tiny amounts whichoften cannot be detected easily.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 74 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Area of Paragraph 3 to answer Q3 Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minuscule amounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine. Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller. Spiderman exists by the grace of a radioactive spider bite. The rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles can be traced to their fall (as pet turtles) into a sewer along with a container of toxic materials.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 75 Hwee
  • Paragraph 3 Q3Explain the role of poison in comics. [1]Original sentence:Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller.Poison in comics makes the superheroes and villains very much more interesting and exciting.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 76 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 4 You might say that a toxicologist studies substances that lead to death but toxicology is also about life. What can kill, can cure. Said Paracelsus, a 16th century German-Swiss physician and alchemist: “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” Poison is in the dose. Toxicology and pharmacology are intertwined, inseparable, a Jekyll-Hyde duality.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 77 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Area of Paragraph 4 to answer Q4: You might say that a toxicologist studies substances that lead to death but toxicology is also about life. What can kill, can cure. Said Paracelsus, a 16th century German-Swiss physician and alchemist: “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” Poison is in the dose. Toxicology and pharmacology are intertwined, inseparable, a Jekyll-Hyde duality.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 78 Hwee
  • Paragraph 4 Q4 Quote a phrase that describes the two opposing facets of substances. [1]Original sentence: Toxicology and pharmacology are intertwined, inseparable, a Jekyll-Hyde duality.The phrase is “a Jekyll-Hyde duality”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 79 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 5 Consider arsenic, the poison of kings and king of poisons. Arsenic exploits certain pathways in our cells, binds to proteins and creates molecular havoc. Small amounts taken over a long stretch produce weakness, confusion and paralysis. Take less than a tenth of an ounce (2.83 grammes) at once, and the classic signs of acute arsenic poisoning ensue: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, then death.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 80 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 6 As it is colourless, tasteless and odourless, arsenic was the poison of choice for the Borgias, the Italian Renaissance family skilled at artful murder, as well as for Hieronyma Spara, a 17th century Roman entrepreneur who ran a school that taught wealthy young wives how to dispatch their husbands and become wealthy young widows. Arsenic, the powder of succession, helped ambitious princes secure thrones. Fed in small amounts to a wet nurse, the poison could be expressed in breast milk and kill infant rivals.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 81 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 7 From death to life: in the fifth century B.C., Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used arsenic to treat ulcers. It became an ingredient in Fowler’s solution, created in 1786 and used for more than 150 years to treat everything from asthma to cancer. In 1910 an arsenic compound became the first effective remedy for syphilis (later to be replaced by penicillin). Arsenic derivatives are still used to treat African sleeping sickness. In 1890, William Osier, founder of modern medical education, pronounced arsenic the best drug for leukemia, and today it remains an effective chemotherapy agent for acute forms of the disease.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 82 Hwee
  • Paragraph 6 Q5(a) Suggest one word why wealthy young wives would want to “dispatch their husbands” (lines 38-39). [1] The word is “greed”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 83 Hwee
  • Paragraph 6 Q5(b) Why do you think Hieronyma Spara was able to start a school that taught wives how to rid themselves of their husbands? [1] There were many wives who had the similar ideas then to rid themselves of their husbands and they needed to be taught how to do so.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 84 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 8So is arsenic a poison or a drug?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 85 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 9 “It’s both,” says Joshua Hamilton, professor of toxicology and pharmacology at Dartmouth. “It depends: Are you talking to a Borgia, or are you talking to a physician?”11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 86 Hwee
  • Paragraphs 8-9 Q6 In what way would talking to a Borgia be different from talking to a physician? [1] To a Borgia, he would use arsenic as a poison while a physician would use it as an ingredient to provide a medical cure.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 87 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 10 Given the treachery of the world, why don’t more of us die of poisoning? This is because our bodies are designed to protect us from both natural and manmade toxins. The first line of defense, skin, is made of keratin – so waterproof, tough and tightly woven that only the smallest and most fat-soluble molecules can get through. Our senses warn us of noxious substances; if they fail, there is vomiting as backup. Finally, there is the liver, which turns fat-soluble poisons into water soluble wastes that can be flushed out through our kidneys. The balance tilts over to toxicity only when we step over the threshold of dosage.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 88 Hwee
  • Auschwitz II Birkenau housesthe infamous 4 large gaschambers and crematoriawhere 2,000 inmates weregassed to death in a 15-20minute period. Here also is thepond filled in with humanashes, and the memorialmonument erected in 2005.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 89 Hwee
  • Auschwitz, known all over the world as a symbol of terror, genocide, andthe Holocaust was established by the Nazis in the suburbs of the city ofOswiecim which, like other parts of Poland, was occupied by theGermans during the Second World War. The camp was a desertedformer Polish army base. Auschwitz and Birkenau, the two deathcamps, were liberated in January 1945. The remains of the camps, thesurvivors and liberators testimonies, and the documentary evidenceleave no doubt as to the enormity of the crimes against humanity whichwere committed there. answer key prepared by Yeo Yam11/9/2011 90 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 91 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 92 Hwee
  • The cynical sign “Arbeit macht frei” (“Work makes you free”) was put on the main gate leading to the camp and is a reflection of the Nazi policy, full of racism, hatred and intolerance.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 93 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 94 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 95 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 96 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 1 On 3 September 1941, at Auschwitz, a concentration camp in Poland, Nazi security guards forced six hundred Soviet prisoners of war and 250 ill inmates into a locked room. They poured pellet s of Zyklon B, a crystallized form of hydrogen cyanide normally used as an insectide, through a vent and watched.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 97 Hwee
  • From Passage B Paragraph 1 Q7 Which word in this paragraph tells you that the victims were unwilling to be tested on? [1]The word is “forced”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 98 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 2 Previous mass killings had been carried out by shooting squads or by pumping exhaust fumes into sealed vans. The former method, however, was too slow and created too much of a public spectacle; the latter was unreliable and required special equipment.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 99 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Area of Paragraph 2 to answer Q8: Previous mass killings had been carried out by shooting squads or by pumping exhaust fumes into sealed vans. The former method, however, was too slow and created too much of a public spectacle; the latter was unreliable and required special equipment.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 100 Hwee
  • Paragraph 1 Q8 Explain in your own words why the Nazis gave up the use of shooting squads and exhaust fumes as mass killing methods. [2] Shooting squad killing was not executed fast enough and generated excessive negative publicity while exhaust fumes did not always work and needed custom made accessories and instruments to get the job done.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 101 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 3 The Zyklon B pellets proved effective, efficient and infallible. Exposed to air, they turned to gas, which killed all occupants of the room in twenty minutes. After the experiment, the Nazis built four larger, permanent gas chambers and crematories in Birkenau, a sub-camp of Auschwitz. The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitler’s plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 102 Hwee
  • Selection of Relevant Area of Paragraph 3 to answer Q9: The Zyklon B pellets proved effective, efficient and infallible. Exposed to air, they turned to gas, which killed all occupants of the room in twenty minutes. After the experiment, the Nazis built four larger, permanent gas chambers and crematories in Birkenau, a sub-camp of Auschwitz. The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitler’s plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 103 Hwee
  • Paragraph 3 Q9How successful was the experiment? [2] The experiment was very successful since the Zyklon B pellets proved effective, efficient and infallible. Exposed to air, they turned to gas, which killed all occupants of the room in twenty minutes.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 104 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 4• Stefan Polchlopek, who grew up and still lives in Krynica, Poland, was arrested by the Gestapo on 28 December 1942. He was 26 years old, a law school graduate, and an active member of the resistance. Polchlopek was taken to a collection point, then put on another train for Birkenau. The car was a solid, stifling mass of prisoners. When the train stopped, he recalls, “the door opened; we heard shots, howling of dogs, and screams. Searchlights glared in our faces. They told us to jump off and we fell to an indescribable hell.”11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 105 Hwee
  • Paragraph 4 Q10 What does the phrase, “a solid, stifling mass” (line 20) tell us about the conditions in the train? [2] The train was crammed with human bodies packed tightly together. It was also very hot and uncomfortable and the people found it very difficult to breathe.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 106 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 5 In the summer of 1943, Polchlopek worked in a labour crew assigned to extend the railway line from a depot outside the camp right up to the gas chambers. Transports from throughout Europe were arriving two or three a day. Jews, Gypsies, political dissidents like Polchlopek, homosexuals – anyone considered undesirable by the Nazis – were unloaded from railcars and either taken to the gas chambers or consigned to slave labour.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 107 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 6 One day, a Gestapo officer approached Polchlopek and three other prisoners working on the line and ordered them into the undressing room, the chamber in front of the room where the gassings took place. He made them collect the clothes and belongings of those who had been killed.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 108 Hwee
  • A Gestapo Officer The Schutzstaffel (German pronunciation: , translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps), abbreviated SS— or with stylized "Armanen" Sig runes—was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 109 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 7 “I saw the undressing room and the gas chamber,” Polchlopek, now 89, says, “I remember the showerheads. I remember the clothes, shoes, the personal possessions left in pockets. We had to gather up the clothes and load them into trucks. The belongings would go to warehouses where they would be sorted. The smell of burned corpses was in the air; dark smoke poured out of the chimneys. We realised we should flee. Witnesses were killed. We could be next. So they fled. They ran back to the barracks.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 110 Hwee
  • Paragraph 7 Q11 Suggest two reasons why the guards ordered the prisoners to strip before the latter entered the gas chambers. [2] The prisoners were going to be put to death by gassing and clothes were no longer needed on them. It was also easier to gather their belongings for sorting in the warehouse when they were still alive, rather than to expend further time and effort removing such items from the dead bodies afterwards.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 111 Hwee
  • Paragraph 7 Q12 Why did Polchlopek and the other prisoners flee the scene? [1] They realised from the smoke of burned corpses and the dark clouds of smoke that they were about to be ushered into the gas chamber to be gassed to death.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 112 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 8 “Everyone knew about the chambers. Once I saw two trucks crowded with women. They knew where they were going. One woman was praying. One was cursing. All were screaming. They were followed by two trucks filled with firewood. The women were killed with Zyklon B. The naked corpses were taken out, thrown into pits, and burned.”11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 113 Hwee
  • 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 114 Hwee
  • Gas Chamber at Auschwitz Auschwitz Openings on roof of Auschwitz Gas Chamber11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 115 Hwee
  • Passage B Paragraph 9 At the height of operations, nearly 8000 people were gassed each day at Auschwitz, Birkenau. By November 1944, more than one million men, women and children had died. “Those of us who survived Birkenau are assured a place in heaven,” Polchlopek says. “We have already experienced hell.”11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 116 Hwee
  • Paragraph 8 Q13 In paragraph 3, it is stated,”The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitler’s plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B” (line 13-15). In what way had Zyklon B proven to be the key? [1]11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 117 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 For each of the following words, give ONE word or short phrase (of not more than seven words) which has the same meaning that the word has in the passage. [5]11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 118 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 From Passage A(a) Treachery (line 16) Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minuscule amounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine.“Treachery” means “betrayal”.“Treachery” means “duplicity”.“Treachery” means “dishonesty”.“Treachery” means “corruption”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 119 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 From Passage A(b) Considerably (line 18) Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller.“Considerably” means “much”.“Considerably” means “a lot more”.“Considerably” means “significantly”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 120 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 From Passage A(c) Inseparable (line 27) Toxicology and pharmacology are intertwined, inseparable, a Jekyll- Hyde duality. “Inseparable” means “cannot be taken apart”. “Inseparable” means “cannot be considered individually”. “Inseparable” means “fused together”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 121 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 From Passage B(d) Infallible (line 10) The Zyklon B pellets proved effective, efficient and infallible.“Infallible” means “reliable”.“Infallible” means “dependable”.“Infallible” means “flawless”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 122 Hwee
  • From Passages A and B Q14 From Passage B(e) Exterminate (line 14) The key to the final solution, Adolf Hitler’s plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe, was Zyklon B.“Exterminate” means “eradicate”.“Exterminate” means “kill completely”.“Exterminate” means “completely get rid of”.“Exterminate” means “annihilate”.“Exterminate” means “wipe out totally”.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 123 Hwee
  • Passage A Q15 Passage A describes how sometimes, poisons are used with sinister motives, and sometimes they are used for healing. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise how poisons can be used as a toxin or as a drug to cure and how our bodies help us fight poisons.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 124 Hwee
  • REMEMBER THE GOLDEN RULES: READ AND UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION REQUIREMENT. CONTENT PONT GATHERING IS MOST CRUCIAL. LOOK FOR 15 – 18 POINTS. MAKE SURE YOUR LANGUAGE IS CLEAN. DO NOT USE COMPLICATED SENTENCES – SUCH AS PASSIVE SENTENCES. BE CONSISTENT IN YOUR USE OF TENSE. USE YOUR OWN WORDS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE BUT DO NOT FORCE IT. DO NOT SACRIFICE ANY CONTENT POINT BY BLINDLY USING YOUR OWN WORDS.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 125 Hwee
  • WHERE IS THE TEXT FORSUMMARY WRITING? Wicked What is the QUESTION REQUIREMENT? What is it we are going to summarise for Q15?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 126 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons How poisons How our bodiescan be used as can be used as help us fighta toxin a drug to cure poisons11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 127 Hwee
  • Passage A Q15 USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM LINE 15 (Paragraph 3) TO LINE 64 (Paragraph 10). Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be more than 150 words (not counting the words given to help you to begin).11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 128 Hwee
  • Passage A Q15 Begin your summary as follows: Poisons can affect our bodies in different ways when… [25]11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 129 Hwee
  • SUMMARY WRITING: Passage A Paragraph 3 Poison is a stealth killer, effective in minuscule amounts, often undetectable. It is the treachery in the arsenic-tainted glass of wine. Without poison, comic book superheroes and villains in plays and movies would be considerably duller. Spiderman exists by the grace of a radioactive spider bite. The rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles can be traced to their fall (as pet turtles) into a sewer along with a container of toxic materials.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 130 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 131 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 4 You might say that a toxicologist studies substances that lead to death but toxicology is also about life. What can kill, can cure. Said Paracelsus, a 16th century German-Swiss physician and alchemist: “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” Poison is in the dose. Toxicology and pharmacology are intertwined, inseparable, a Jekyll-Hyde duality.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 132 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 133 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 5 Consider arsenic, the poison of kings and king of poisons. Arsenic exploits certain pathways in our cells, binds to proteins and creates molecular havoc. Small amounts taken over a long stretch produce weakness, confusion and paralysis. Take less than a tenth of an ounce (2.83 grammes) at once, and the classic signs of acute arsenic poisoning ensue: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, then death.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 134 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 135 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 6 As it is colourless, tasteless and odourless, arsenic was the poison of choice for the Borgias, the Italian Renaissance family skilled at artful murder, as well as for Hieronyma Spara, a 17th century Roman entrepreneur who ran a school that taught wealthy young wives how to dispatch their husbands and become wealthy young widows. Arsenic, the powder of succession, helped ambitious princes secure thrones. Fed in small amounts to a wet nurse, the poison could be expressed in breast milk and kill infant rivals.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 136 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 137 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 7 From death to life: in the fifth century B.C., Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used arsenic to treat ulcers. It became an ingredient in Fowler’s solution, created in 1786 and used for more than 150 years to treat everything from asthma to cancer. In 1910 an arsenic compound became the first effective remedy for syphilis (later to be replaced by penicillin). Arsenic derivatives are still used to treat African sleeping sickness. In 1890, William Osier, founder of modern medical education, pronounced arsenic the best drug for leukemia, and today it remains an effective chemotherapy agent for acute forms of the disease.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 138 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 139 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 8So is arsenic a poison or a drug?11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 140 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 141 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 9 “It’s both,” says Joshua Hamilton, professor of toxicology and pharmacology at Dartmouth. “It depends: Are you talking to a Borgia, or are you talking to a physician?”11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 142 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 143 Hwee
  • Passage A Paragraph 10 Given the treachery of the world, why don’t more of us die of poisoning? This is because our bodies are designed to protect us from both natural and manmade toxins. The first line of defense, skin, is made of keratin – so waterproof, tough and tightly woven that only the smallest and most fat-soluble molecules can get through. Our senses warn us of noxious substances; if they fail, there is vomiting as backup. Finally, there is the liver, which turns fat-soluble poisons into water soluble wastes that can be flushed out through our kidneys. The balance tilts over to toxicity only when we step over the threshold of dosage.11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 144 Hwee
  • A B CHow poisons can be used as a How poisons can be used as a How our bodies help us fighttoxin drug to cure poisons 11/9/2011 answer key prepared by Yeo Yam 145 Hwee