HISTORY 18th and 19th centuries: “faculty psychology approach”. “ Mental discipline was essential for strengthening the powers of the mind”
First known as PRUSSIAN METHOD in U.S.A. Western world CLASSICAL METHOD. Used in the teaching of classical languages as Latin and Greek.
In the nineteenth century the CLASSICAL METHOD came to be known as the GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD. Western World Schools: Learning foreign language= learning of Latin or Greek. Main objective: Help students to read and appreciate foreign language literature gaining reading proficiency
GOAL OF TEACHER Learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. Good mental exercise.
LANGUAGE´S PERSPECTIVE Literary language is superior to spoken language
ROLE OF STUDENT´S NATIVE LANGUAGE Meaning of the target language is presented through the translation into student´s native language. Classes are taught in the mother tongue.
AREAS OF LANGUAGE EMPHASIZED Vocabulary and grammar are presented in an isolated way. Taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study and memorization. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation SKILLS: Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.
TEACHING/LEARNING PROCESS Students are taught to translate from one language to another - accuracy. They study grammar deductively .
TEACHER – STUDENT INTERACTION The teacher is the authority in the classroom.
ASSESMENT Evaluation is accomplished through written texts - translation. Questions are about the foreign culture or questions that ask students to apply grammar rules.
Disadvantages It makes few demands on teachers. It does virtually nothing to enhance a student`s communicative ability in the language. Students have little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations an exercises. It does not emphasize in the skills required for learning integrally a second language that is still alive.
Advantages Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another. Students will not have much difficulty in responding to questions on the mother tongue. Communication between the teacher and the learner does not cause linguistic problems.