整合营销传播简介 英文版

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整合营销传播简介 英文版

  1. 1. Overview of Integrated Marketing Communications The process of planning, creation, integration, and implementation of diverse forms of marketing communications that are delivered over time to a brand’s targeting customers and prospects. 2
  2. 2. Overview of Integrated Marketing Communications 3
  3. 3. The Marketing Communications Process and Brand-Equity Enhancement
  4. 4. The Marketing Communications Process and Brand-Equity Enhancement A brand possesses equity to the extent that consumers are familiar with the brand and have stored in their memory warehouses favorable, strong and unique brand associations
  5. 5. The Marketing Communications Process and Brand-Equity Enhancement Brand Awareness An issue of whether a brand name comes to mind when consumers think about a particular product category and the ease with which the name is evoked Brand Image The types of associations that come to the consumer’s mind when contemplating a particular brand
  6. 6. The Marketing Communications Process and Brand-Equity Enhancement Non-Product-Related Brand (e.g., Price, Packaging, Recognition User and Usage Imagery) Brand Awareness Brand Attributes Recall Product-Related (e.g., color, size, design features) Brand Knowledge Types of Brand Associations Benefits Functional Brand Image Symbolic Favorability, Overall Strength, and Evaluation Experiential Uniqueness of (Attitude) Brand Association
  7. 7. The Marketing Communications Process and Brand-Equity Enhancement
  8. 8. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Non-Product-Related (e.g., Price, Packaging, User and Usage Imagery) Brand Awareness Attributes Product-Related (e.g., color, size, design features) Brand Knowledge Types of Brand Associations Benefits Functional Brand Image Symbolic Favorability, Overall Strength, and Evaluation Experiential Uniqueness of (Attitude) Brand Association
  9. 9. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts
  10. 10. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Products that attempt to fulfill the consumer’s consumption-related problems
  11. 11. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts An appeal to symbolic needs
  12. 12. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts An appeal to experiential needs
  13. 13. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Children and teenagers
  14. 14. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts
  15. 15. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Fulfillers
  16. 16. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Experiencers
  17. 17. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts Makers
  18. 18. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information
  19. 19. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information Drawing meaning from the culturally constituted world
  20. 20. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information Use of Metaphor
  21. 21. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information How consumers process and respond to marketing communications stimuli and make choices among brands Two models of consumer behavior › CPM and HEM Consumer behavior is too complex and diverse to be explained by two extreme models
  22. 22. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information Consumer Processing Model (CPM) Behavior is seen as rational, highly cognitive, systematic, and reasoned Hedonic, Experiential Model (HEM) Consumer behavior is driven by emotions in pursuit of “fun, fantasies, and feelings”
  23. 23. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information An advertisement exemplifying the CPM approach
  24. 24. The Communication Process, Meaning Creation, and the Fundamentals of Consumer’s Use of MarCom Information An advertisement exemplifying the HEM approach
  25. 25. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Cognitive Affective Conative A person’s Feelings and A person’s beliefs about evaluations behavioral an object or tendency issue toward an object 26
  26. 26. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Persuasion Important element of marketing Attempt to guide people toward the acceptance of some belief, attitude, or behavior by using reasoning and emotional appeals Sometimes viewed as unethical Many forms 27
  27. 27. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Using persuasion for reformulated brand of orange juice 28
  28. 28. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Opportunity Motivation Ability 29
  29. 29. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Attend to the message •Appeal to hedonic needs •Using novel stimuli Process brand info •Use intense cues •Increased relevance •Use motion of brand •Increased curiosity about brand 30
  30. 30. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Using novelty to attract attention 31
  31. 31. Persuasion in Marketing Communications The use of surprise to enhance processing motivation 32
  32. 32. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Encode information •Repeat brand information •Repeat key scenes •Repeat the ad Reduce processing time •Using picture and imagery 33
  33. 33. Persuasion in Marketing Communications The use of pictorials to create gestalt processing or reduce processing time 34
  34. 34. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Access knowledge structure •Provide a context Create Knowledge structure •Facilitate example- based learning 35
  35. 35. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Creating knowledge structures by facilitating exemplar-based learning 36
  36. 36. Persuasion in Marketing Communications 37
  37. 37. Persuasion in Marketing Communications Using authorities in a field to promote the product 38
  38. 38. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Coupons Product Distribution Satisfaction Free Awareness Trier Repeater Samples Class Class Class Advertising Price 39
  39. 39. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Free Awareness Class Samples Coupons Advertising Distribution Variables: free samples, coupons, advertising, and distribution Successful introduction of new products requires an effective advertising campaign, widespread product distribution, and extensive couponing and sampling 40
  40. 40. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Coupons Distribution Price Trier Class Variables: coupons, distribution, and price Once the consumers becomes aware of a new product, there is an increased probability that they will actually try the new offering 41
  41. 41. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Advertising Price Distribution Repeater Class Product Satisfaction Variables: advertising, price, distribution and product satisfaction Consumers repeat the purchase if advertising reminds them about the brand, if the price is reasonable, if the brand is accessible in retail outlets, and if product quality is satisfactory 42
  42. 42. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Relative Innovation Observability Advantage Related Characteristics Compatibility Trialability Complexity 43
  43. 43. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Another illustration of relative advantage 44
  44. 44. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Compatibility 45
  45. 45. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Offsetting perceived product complexity 46
  46. 46. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Trialability 47
  47. 47. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption High Visibility 48
  48. 48. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption Mean Time of Adoption Innovators (2.5%) Early Late Early Majority Majority Adopters (34%) (34%) Laggards (13.5%) (16%) 49
  49. 49. MarCom’s Role in Facilitating Product Adoption 100 90 80 Potential Adopters 70 “Desired” Pattern 60 50 Introduction “Typical” Pattern 40 30 20 10 0 Time of Adoption 50
  50. 50. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Affects the speed with which consumers become aware of the brand Influences the brand’s image Plays major role in brand-equity information 51
  51. 51. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Distinguish the brand from competitive offerings Describe the brand and its attributes Achieve compatibility with a brand’s desired image and with its product design or packaging Be memorable and easy to pronounce and spell 52
  52. 52. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials A new brand name 53
  53. 53. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Graphic design element that is related to the brand name Companies use logos with or without brand names Not all brand names possess a distinct logo but many do e.g., the Nike swoosh, Ralph Lauren’s Polo 54
  54. 54. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Recognized readily Convey essentially the same meaning to all target members Evoke positive feelings Best strategy is to choose a design that is moderately elaborated rather than too simple or too complex 55
  55. 55. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Sailor Jac, The famous Cracker Jack 56
  56. 56. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Contain and protect the product Draw attention to a brand Break through competitive clutter at the point of purchase Justify price/value to the consumer Signify brand features and benefits Motivate consumers’ brand choices 57
  57. 57. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Color Design and Shape Physical Materials Product Information on Package * VIEW Model (Visibility, Information, Emotional appeal, Workability) 58
  58. 58. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Color Design, Shape Size Physical Materials Information labeling 59
  59. 59. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Visibility Information Emotional Appeal Workability 60
  60. 60. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Visibility 61
  61. 61. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Illustration of packaging information for Gardenburger Veggie Patties 62
  62. 62. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Emotional appeals in the packaging of WOW! 63
  63. 63. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Point-of-purchase; store environment A final opportunity to affect consumer behavior Many product-and-brand choice decisions are made at this time It is the time and place at which all elements of the sale (consumer, money and product) come together 64
  64. 64. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials displays intended for six Permanent P-O-P months or more Temporary and Semipermanent P-O-P In-Store Media 65
  65. 65. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Permanent display for Sesame Street toys 66
  66. 66. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials displays intended for six Permanent P-O-P months or more Temporary and displays intended for Semipermanent P-O-P fewer than six months In-Store Media 67
  67. 67. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Semipermanent display 68
  68. 68. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Temporary display 69
  69. 69. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials displays intended for six Permanent P-O-P months or more Temporary and displays intended for Semipermanent P-O-P fewer than six months executed by a third party In-Store Media (P-O-P radio, shopping cart ads, shelf talkers, coupon dispensers, etc..) 70
  70. 70. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials ActMedia in-store advertising cart 71
  71. 71. Brand Names, Logos, Packages, and Point-of-Purchase Materials Computerized units that Interactive allow consumers Displays to obtain information about the product Video Audio and video Merchandising presentations that Centers perform informational and transactional functions 72
  72. 72. Overview of Advertising Management Informing Persuading Reminding Adding Value Assisting Other Company Efforts 73
  73. 73. Overview of Advertising Management Advertising Strategy • Setting Objectives •Formulating Budgets •Creating Ad messages •Selecting Ad Media and Vehicles Strategy Implementation Assessing Ad Effectiveness 74
  74. 74. Overview of Advertising Management The hierarchy of effects metaphor implies that for advertising to be successful it must move consumers from one goal to the next goal 75
  75. 75. Overview of Advertising Management The best(optimal) level of any investment is the level that maximizes profits(MR=MC) Advertisers should continue to increase their advertising investment as long as it is profitable to do so MC MR = (Change in total cost) = (Change in total Revenue) (Change in quantity) (Change in quantity) = TC/Q = TR/Q 76
  76. 76. Overview of Advertising Management Percent-of-Sales Budgeting Objective-and-Task Method Competitive Parity Method (match competitors method) Affordability Method 77
  77. 77. Creative Advertising Strategy Consumer’s Sound View Persuasive Strategy Effective Advertising Break Deliver on Doesn’t Clutter Promises Overwhelm 78
  78. 78. Creative Advertising Strategy The Role of Creativity 79
  79. 79. Creative Advertising Strategy Background Their current thoughts/feelings Strategy What do we want them to think/feel Task What do we want them to do Positioning Proposition Client’s Belief in proposition Objectives Target How we speak to them 80
  80. 80. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Superiority claims based on unique physical feature or benefit Conditions Most useful when point of difference cannot be readily matched by competitors Competitive May force competitors to imitate or choose more aggressive Implications strategy 81
  81. 81. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Claims based on psychological differentiation, usually symbolic association Conditions Best for homogeneous good where differences are difficult to develop; easily duplicated Competitive Most often involve prestige Implications claims; rarely challenge competition directly 82
  82. 82. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Attempts to evoke stored experiences of prospects to endow product with relevant meaning or significance Conditions Best for socially visible goods; requires considerable consumer understanding to design messages Competitive Few direct limitations on Implications competitor’s options; most likely competitive response is imitation 83
  83. 83. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Attempts to provoke involvement or emotion through ambiguity, humor without strong selling emphasis Conditions Best suited to discretionary items; effective use depends on competitor response Competitive Competitors may imitate to Implications undermine strategy of difference or pursue other alternatives 84
  84. 84. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Straight product or benefit claim with no assertion of superiority Conditions Monopoly or extreme dominance of product category Competitive Brand attempts to become Implications synonymous with product category 85
  85. 85. Creative Advertising Strategy Definition Generic claim with assertion of superiority Conditions Growing or awakening market where competitive advertising is generic or nonexistent Competitive May be successful in convincing Implications customer of superiority 86
  86. 86. Creative Advertising Strategy 1. Leverage Point The manner in which the advertising will tap into, reach, or activate the key value, or end-level that serves as the advertisement’s driving force 2. Brand Attributes The brand’s specific attributes or features that are communicated as a means of supporting the consequences of using the brand 3. Brand Consequence The major positive consequences, or benefits of using the brand 4. Value - Orientation The end-level (terminal or instrumental value) to be focused on in the advertising 87
  87. 87. Creative Advertising Strategy 10 Universal Values • Self-direction • Stimulation • Hedonism • Achievement • Power • Security • Conformity • Tradition • Benevolence • Universalism 88
  88. 88. Creative Advertising Strategy Attributes Consequences Values Self-respect Low fat Healthy Wisdom Healthy Many Variety Freedom Choice flavors of choices (of choice) Great Happiness, High Pleasure quality Tasting Lack of self-control 89
  89. 89. Creative Advertising Strategy Two Forms Image advertising Issue or advocacy advertising 90
  90. 90. Creative Advertising Strategy Jaguar 91
  91. 91. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Advertisers are willing to pay huge salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products 92
  92. 92. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Michael Jordan is a popular endorsement figure 93
  93. 93. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Show regular people using or endorsing products Avoid the backlash from using “beautiful people” who may be resented Real personal experience of the benefits of the particular brand possess a degree of credibility Effective using multiple people rather than a single individual 94
  94. 94. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Illustration of a typical-person endorsement 95
  95. 95. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Trustworthiness Refers to the honesty, integrity, and believability of a source Often an endorser is perceived as highly trustworthy but not an expert Expertise Refers to the knowledge, experience, or skills possessed by an endorser as they relate to the endorsed brand Attractiveness The trait of being regarded as pleasant to look at in terms of a particular group’s concept of attractiveness. 96
  96. 96. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Respect Represents the quality of being admired or even esteemed due to one’s personal qualities and accomplishments Similarity Represents the degree to which an endorser matches an audience in terms of characteristics pertinent to the endorsement relationship Age, gender, ethnicity, etc. “Birds of a feather flock together 97
  97. 97. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Attracts attention Enhances liking of ad and brand Does not hurt comprehension Does not harm persuasion Does not enhance source credibility Nature of product affects the appropriateness of using humor Effective only when consumers’ evaluations of the advertised brand are already positive Effect of humor can differ due to differences in audience characteristics Humorous message may be so distracting that receivers ignore the message content 98
  98. 98. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Eastpak backpacks 99
  99. 99. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Appeal to fear is effective as a means of enhancing motivation Appeal by identifying the negative consequences of: Not using the product Engaging in unsafe behavior (example drinking and driving) Stimulates audience involvement with a message Promotes acceptance of message arguments Takes the forms of either Social disapproval or Physical danger 100
  100. 100. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising An insurance company’s appeal to fear 101
  101. 101. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Degree of Persuasive Effectiveness Low Moderate High Level of Fear Intensity 102
  102. 102. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Guilt appeals motivate emotionally mature individuals to undertake responsible action leading to a reduction in the level of guilt Generally, they focus on one’s past or future transgressions or failure to care for others 103
  103. 103. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising An illustrative guilt appeal 104
  104. 104. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Initial attentional lure Enhance recall of message point Evoke emotional responses 105
  105. 105. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Attention lure 106
  106. 106. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Subliminal Refers to the presentation of stimuli at a rate or level that is below the conscious threshold of awareness 107
  107. 107. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Example of using embedding in advertising 108
  108. 108. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Attracts attention Promotes positive mood Increase receptivity of message Communicates meanings 109
  109. 109. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Better in enhancing brand awareness Promotes better recall However, perceived as somewhat less believable Effective especially when the brand is a new Generates more purchases 110
  110. 110. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Indirect Comparison 111
  111. 111. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising Direct Comparison 112
  112. 112. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Message Research Methods Recognition & Recall Physiological Arousal Persuasion Sales Response 113
  113. 113. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Recognition & Recall Starch readership service Physiological Arousal (magazines) Bruzzone tests (TV) Persuasion Burke day-after recall (TV) Sales Response 114
  114. 114. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Starch-rated advertisement for the Toyota Sienna 115
  115. 115. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Recognition & Recall • Psychogalvanometer Physiological Arousal • Pupilometer Persuasion Sales Response 116
  116. 116. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Illustration of potential role for physiological measurement 117
  117. 117. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Recognition & Recall • Ipsos-ASI Next*TV method Physiological Arousal • Rsc’s ARS Persuasion method Persuasion Sales Response 118
  118. 118. Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness Recognition & Recall • IRI’s BehaviorScan • Nielsen’s SCANTRACK Physiological Arousal Persuasion Sales Response 119
  119. 119. Traditional Advertising Media Media Vehicles The general Specific broadcast communication programs or print methods that carry choices in which advertising messages advertisements are e.g., television, magazines, placed newspapers, etc. e.g., Friends, NBC Evening News, Time, Cosmopolitan 120
  120. 120. Traditional Advertising Media Out-of-home advertising Newspaper Magazines Radio Television Advertisers attempts to select the media and vehicles whose characteristics are most compatible with the advertised brand in reaching its target audience and conveying its intended message 121
  121. 121. Traditional Advertising Media $5 Billion in 2000 Regarded as supplementary e.g., billboard(major), bus shelters, giant inflatables, shopping-mall displays, etc. 400,000 billboards in the US Designed with name recognition as the primary objective Two major forms: (1) Poster Panels and (2) Painted Bulletins 122
  122. 122. Traditional Advertising Media Example of a poster panel 123
  123. 123. Traditional Advertising Media 60 million households during week and nearly 62 million on Sundays Historically leading advertising medium but declining in recent years 124
  124. 124. Traditional Advertising Media Hundreds of special - interest magazines 125
  125. 125. Traditional Advertising Media Nearly 100% of home and cars have radios 126
  126. 126. Traditional Advertising Media Nearly 98% of all households have televisions Uniquely personal and demonstrative yet expensive 127
  127. 127. Traditional Advertising Media 8p.m.-11p.m. (7p.m.-10p.m.) Prime Time Early morning news - 4:30p.m. Daytime Preceding and following prime time Fringe Time 128
  128. 128. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Two Broad Groupings of Media Alternatives: Alternative Offline Mass Media Mass Online Ad Media 129
  129. 129. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Product Placements in Movies Videos for VCRs Virtual Signage at Sports Stadiums and Other Venues CD-Rom Advertising Yellow Page Advertising 130
  130. 130. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising 131
  131. 131. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising 132
  132. 132. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Internet not replacement but key element of IMC programs 60% of U.S. households have internet access By 2005, online spending will represent 8% of overall advertising and amount to $16.5 billion 133
  133. 133. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Individualization: Refers to the fact that the Internet user has control over the flow of information Interactivity: Allows for users to select the information they perceive relevant & for brand managers to build relationships with customers via two-way communication. 134
  134. 134. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Websites Users seek out web sites in a goal-oriented fashion Movie web sites play prominent role in predicting box- office performance “Form follows function” 135
  135. 135. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Banner Ads Equivalent of 30-second T.V. ads Who pays attention? Nielsen/NetRatings: Average click rate of 2001 was 0.49% Exposure not equivalent to attention 136
  136. 136. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Pop-ups Ads that appear in a separate window out of nowhere 137
  137. 137. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Interstitials/Superstitials Interstitials: Ads that appear between two content pages Superstitials: Short animated ads that play over web page 138
  138. 138. Alternative Offline Advertising Media and Mass Online Advertising Site Sponsorships Advertiser is a partial or exclusive sponsor of a Web site and benefits from the visitations to the site Ex. IBM paid $1 Million to be sole sponsor of National Football League’s http://www.superbowl.com 139
  139. 139. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Use of any of several media to transmit messages that encourage purchases of advertiser’s brands Postal mail and e-mail are the most important. Facilitated by practice of Database Marketing 140
  140. 140. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Involves collecting and electronically storing info about past, present, and prospective customer Info is used to profile customers 141
  141. 141. Offline and Online Direct Advertising B2b marketers have expanded usage of direct advertising 142
  142. 142. Offline and Online Direct Advertising P-mail advertising: Advertising matter sent via the postal service to the person whom the marketer wishes to influence Ex. Letters, postcards, programs, calendars, catalogs, videocassettes, blotters, order blanks, price lists, menus, etc. 143
  143. 143. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Test-drive kit mailing 144
  144. 144. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Marketer’s perspective: Catalog selling provides efficient and effective way to reach prime prospects 145
  145. 145. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Consumer’s perspective: 1. Saves time 2. Appeals to consumers fearful of shopping 3. Convenience of making purchase decisions at leisure 4. Modern conveniences make it easy to order from catalogs 5. Merchandise quality and prices are often comparable if not better than those of stores 6. Guarantees are attractive 146
  146. 146. Offline and Online Direct Advertising The use of the Internet for sending commercial e-mail messages Alternative to banner ads, pop-ups, or other forms of rich- media presentations 147
  147. 147. Offline and Online Direct Advertising Opt-in E-mailing: The practice of marketers’ asking for and receiving consumers’ permission to send them messages on a particular topic (s) 148
  148. 148. Offline and Online Direct Advertising SPAM Unsolicited and unwanted commercial e-mail messages Brand-awareness is offset by negative reaction 149
  149. 149. Offline and Online Direct Advertising 150
  150. 150. Media Planning and Analysis Advertisers are placing more emphasis than ever on media planning Choosing media & vehicles is the most complicated of all marketing communications decisions Aside from specific vehicles in media, the planner has to choose geographical locations and budget distribution over time 151
  151. 151. Media Planning and Analysis Media planning Involves the process of designing a scheduling plan that shows how advertising time and space will contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives 152
  152. 152. Media Planning and Analysis Advertising Strategy Marketing Advertising Advertising Message Media Strategy Objectives Budget Strategy Strategy Media Strategy • Audience Selection • Objective Specification • Media and Vehicle • Media Buying 153
  153. 153. Media Planning and Analysis Percentage of target audience that is exposed to an advertisement, at least once, during a certain time frame (usually four weeks) 154
  154. 154. Media Planning and Analysis Average number of times an advertisement reaches the target audience in a four-week period 155
  155. 155. Media Planning and Analysis How much advertising volume is required to accomplish advertising objectives Three weight metrics: Gross ratings Target ratings Effective ratings 156
  156. 156. Media Planning and Analysis How advertising is allocated during the course of an advertising campaign : how should the media budget be distributed? 157
  157. 157. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships What Exactly is Sales Promotion? Any incentive used by manufacturers to induce the trade and/or consumers to buy a brand and encourage sales force to aggressively sell it The incentive is additional to the basic benefits provided by the brand and temporarily changes its perceived price or value 158
  158. 158. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships Promotion Targets All three groups – the sales force, retailers and consumers – are targets of sales promotional efforts 159
  159. 159. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships Brand-Level Advertising and Sales Promotion Mix Encourage Pull Push Sales Force Retailers Consumers 160
  160. 160. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships Push Strategy Using promotional efforts to push product through Pull Strategy the selling chain Using Consumer advertising to pull product through the channel of distribution 161
  161. 161. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships Advertising to Consumers Advertising to Sales Promotion to Retailers Retailers Sales Promotion to Personal Selling to Consumers Retailers Personal Selling to Sales Promotion to Sales Promotion to Retailers Consumers Retailers Advertising to Retailers Advertising to Consumers 162
  162. 162. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships All Consumers On- and Off-Deal On-Deal Only Consumers Consumers (S8) Loyalists Switchers Non-Deal-Prone Deal-Prone Non-Deal-Prone Deal-Prone Loyalists (S1) Loyalists Switchers (S5) Switchers Stockpiling Exceptionist Stockpiling-Exceptionist Loyalists (S2) Loyalists (S3) Loyalists (S4) S1- S8 = Segment1 - Segment 8 Nonstockpiling Stockpiling Switchers (S6) Switchers (S7) 163
  163. 163. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships 164
  164. 164. Sales Promotion Management, Marketing-Oriented Public Relations, and Sponsorships Unprofitable Promotion-insensitive Stockpiling loyalists Profitable On-Deal-Only consumers ‘May’ or Nonstockpiling or ‘May not’ Stockpiling promotion- sensitive consumers 165
  165. 165. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Introduce new or revised products Increase distribution of new packages or sizes Build retail inventories Maintain/Increase manufacturer’s shelf space Obtain displays outside shelf locations Reduce excess inventory Achieve product features in retailer’s ads Counter competitive activity Sell as much as possible to final consumers 166
  166. 166. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Trade allowances Cooperative advertising and vendor support programs Trade contests and incentives Trade shows 167
  167. 167. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Trade Allowances Used by manufacturers to reward wholesalers and retailers for performing activities in support of the manufacturer’s brand 168
  168. 168. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Slotting allowances Bill-back allowances Off-invoice allowances The fees manufacturers pay retailers for access to the slot, or location, Typically when a manufacturer to get its new brand accepted by retailers A form of bribery? or Legitimate cost of doing business? 169
  169. 169. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Slotting allowances Bill-back allowances Off-invoice allowances Retailers receive allowances for featuring the manufacturer’s brand in advertisements or for providing special displays 170
  170. 170. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Slotting allowances Bill-back allowances Off-invoice allowances Most frequently used form Deals offered periodically to trade that permit wholesalers and retailers to deduct a fixed amount from the invoice Retailers do not necessarily pass along to consumers the discounts 171
  171. 171. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Cooperative (co-op) advertising An arrangement between a manufacturer and reseller whereby the manufacturer pays for all or some of the advertising costs undertaken by the reseller 172
  172. 172. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Vendor support programs (VSPs) A retailers develops an advertising program in consultation with local advertising media and then invites its vendors to pay for a specific percentage of the media cost for the proposed campaign 173
  173. 173. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Trade contest generally based on managers meeting a sales goal Trade given to retail managers and incentives salespeople for performing certain tasks Push money provide financial incentives to retail salespeople to aggressively sell to consumers a selected item 174
  174. 174. Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Trade show A temporary forum for sellers of a product category to exhibit and demonstrate their wares to present and prospective buyers 175
  175. 175. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Three general categories of objectives (1) Generating trial purchases (2) Encouraging repeat purchases (3) Reinforcing brand images 176
  176. 176. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Consumer Rewards All promotion techniques provide consumers with rewards Typically in the form of cash savings or free gifts Consumers are more responsive to immediate than delayed rewards 177
  177. 177. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Consumer Generating Trial Encouraging Reinforcing Reward Purchases Repeat Purchases Brand Image Immediate  Sampling  Price-offs  Instant coupons  Bonus packs  Shelf-delivered  In-, on-, and near- coupons pack premiums  Games Delayed  Scanner-  In-and on-pack  Self- delivered coupons liquidating coupons  Rebates /Refunds premiums  Media- and mail-  Phone cards  Contests and delivered  Continuity sweepstakes coupons programs  Online coupons  Mail-in premiums  Free-with- purchase premiums 178
  178. 178. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Sampling The premier sales-promotion device for generating trial usage by delivering an actual- or trial-sized product to consumers 179
  179. 179. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special • Mailed directly to households distribution crews • Targeted by demographic characteristics or On- or in-pack sampling geodemographics High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 180
  180. 180. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct Mail Sampling 181
  181. 181. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special • The Sunday newspaper is an distribution crews increasingly attractive medium for broad-scale On- or in-pack sampling sampling High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 182
  182. 182. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Newspaper Sampling 183
  183. 183. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special • Allows considerable targeting distribution crews • Lower cost than in-store or On- or in-pack sampling direct-mail sampling • Short lead times High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 184
  184. 184. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Door-to-Door sampling 185
  185. 185. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special distribution crews • Uses the package of another product to serve as the On- or in-pack sampling sample carrier High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 186
  186. 186. Consumer-Oriented Promotions On- or In-pack Sampling 187
  187. 187. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special distribution crews • Shopping centers, movie theaters, airports, or special On- or in-pack sampling events High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 188
  188. 188. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines Door to door by special • Provide product samples in distribution crews grocery stores and other retail outlets for trial while On- or in-pack sampling consumers are shopping • The most frequent form High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 189
  189. 189. Consumer-Oriented Promotions In-store sampling 190
  190. 190. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Direct mail Newspapers and magazines • Brand managers are Door to door by special increasingly distributing distribution crews samples online • Specialized online sample On- or in-pack sampling delivery firms aid this process High-traffic locations In-store sampling Internet sampling 191
  191. 191. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Coupon A promotional device that provides cents-off to consumers upon its redemption 192
  192. 192. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Coupons for automotive maintenance service 193
  193. 193. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Instantly Redeemable Coupons Shelf- Delivered Coupons Scanner- Delivered Coupons Peelable from the package at the point of purchase Represent an immediate reward An alternative to price-off deals Redemption rate about 30% 194
  194. 194. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Instantly Redeemable Coupons Shelf- Delivered Coupons Scanner- Delivered Coupons Instant Coupon Machines, Smart SourceTM Machines are attached to the shelf alongside coupon-sponsoring brands Redemption rate about 11% 195
  195. 195. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Instant coupon machine (so called SmartSource) 196
  196. 196. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Instantly Redeemable Coupons Shelf- Delivered Coupons Scanner- Delivered Coupons Catalina Marketing Corp. offers two programs Reward is delayed Potentially very effective because they provide a way to carefully target coupon distribution 197
  197. 197. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Scanner- Delivered Coupons Checkout Coupon Checkout Direct Delivers coupons based on the particular brands a shopper has purchased Directed at competitive-brand users Redemption rate about 9% 198
  198. 198. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Checkout coupon for Lean Cuisine Hearty Portions 199
  199. 199. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Scanner- Delivered Coupons Checkout Coupon Checkout Direct A coupon for the sponsoring manufacturer’s brand is automatically dispensed for use on the shopper’s next purchase occasion Directed at users who satisfy a manufacturer’s prescribed demographic or product-usage requirements 200
  200. 200. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Mail-Delivered Coupons Highest household penetration • Relatively expensive Highest redemption rate of all • Inefficient and expensive for mass-delivered coupons brands enjoying a high Increase the amount of product market share purchases 201
  201. 201. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Media-Delivered Coupons 80% of all coupons distributed via • Redemption rate is very Sunday newspaper freestanding low inserts • Don’t generate much Broad exposure trade interest Relatively cheaper • Susceptible to Reminder function misredemption Advertising function 202
  202. 202. Consumer-Oriented Promotions FSI advertisement 203
  203. 203. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Included in- or on- product’s package Cannot be removed at the point of purchase;It’s for next purchase A coupon for one brand is promoted by another brand (crossruffing) Has bounce-back value No distribution costs Redemption rates are higher Delayed value to consumers Don’t reach nonusers of the carrying brand 204
  204. 204. Consumer-Oriented Promotions (F) Manufacturer Redemption Center (A) (E) (D (B) (C) ) Consumers Retailers Clearinghouse (M) * Organized criminals * Terrorists M: misredemption * Media employees * Crooked retailers 205
  205. 205. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Premiums Articles of merchandise or service offered by manufacturers to induce action on the part of the sales force, trade representatives, or consumers 206
  206. 206. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Mail-in Offers • Receive a premium item for In-, On-, and submitting a required number of proofs of purchase Near- Pack • Not only stimulate consumer trial, also reward brand loyalties and encourage repeat purchase Self-Liquidating behavior • 2 to 4% of consumers take advantage Phone Cards 207
  207. 207. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Mail-in offers 208
  208. 208. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Free-in-the-Mail • Offer a premium item inside or attached In-, On-, and • Immediate value Near- Pack • Near-pack premium provide the retail trade with premium item that retailers then give Self-Liquidating to consumers • Near-pack is less expensive due to no additional Phone Cards packaging 209
  209. 209. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Free-in-the-Mail In-, On-, and • Consumer mails in a proof of Near- Pack purchase along with sufficient money to receive the premium item Self-Liquidating • The premium should be appealing and represent a value Phone Cards 210
  210. 210. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Self-liquidating premium 211
  211. 211. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Phone debit card Free-in-the-Mail Performing customer-holding objective Delayed reward In its infancy In-, On-, and Commonly, a preset amount of long- Near- Pack distance calling time Self-Liquidating Phone Cards 212
  212. 212. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Effective for certain objectives Reward present users Get consumers to purchase larger quantities than normal Establish repeat purchase Ensure promotion dollars reach consumers Obtain off-shelf display space Provide the sales force with incentive 213
  213. 213. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Extra quantities of a product that are offered for the same price Alternative to price-off deals Many bonus-packs will be purchased by regular customers who would have purchased the brand anyway 214
  214. 214. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Bonus Packs 215
  215. 215. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Rebates/Refunds Manufacturers give cash discounts or reimbursements to consumers who Submit (mail) proofs of purchase 216
  216. 216. Consumer-Oriented Promotions A refund offer 217
  217. 217. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Primarily to enhance a brand’s image Sweepstakes are preferred because it’s relatively inexpensive and simple to execute Sweepstakes Contest purely on the basis of Solve the specific chance, no need for contest problem and proofs of purchase may need proofs of purchase 218
  218. 218. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Sweepstakes offer 219
  219. 219. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Contests 220
  220. 220. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Provide an instant reward Create excitement, stimulate brand interest, and reinforce brand loyalty 221
  221. 221. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Games 222
  222. 222. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Reward consumers’ repeat purchasing “Loyalty programs”, “point programs” Serve to cement a relation with the consumer 223
  223. 223. Consumer-Oriented Promotions The Spam stuff points program 224
  224. 224. Consumer-Oriented Promotions The Internet is becoming a major medium for consumer-oriented promotions Online couponing is a cheaper and more targeted, but susceptible to fraud 225
  225. 225. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Overlay Tie-in Program Promotion Or combination program Combines two or more promotion techniques Increases the likelihood that consumers will attend a promotional message 226
  226. 226. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Overlay Tie-in Program Promotion Or joint promotion Simultaneous promotion of multiple brands Cost-effective, but lead time is lengthened The partners’ images should reinforce each other other 227
  227. 227. Consumer-Oriented Promotions An intercompany tie-in 228
  228. 228. Consumer-Oriented Promotions To increase store traffic › Couponing › Frequent-shopper card program › Sampling 229
  229. 229. Consumer-Oriented Promotions A store coupon 230
  230. 230. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Marketing Public Relations (MPR) Marketing-oriented aspect of public relations that is an organizational activity involved with fostering goodwill between a company and its various publics 231
  231. 231. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Proactive MPR Reactive MPR Dictated by a company’s marketing objectives Offensively oriented and opportunity seeking • The conduct of public relations in response to outside influences • Attempt to repair company’s reputation, prevent market erosion, and regain lost sales 232
  232. 232. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Proactive MPR Widely used forms of publicity in MPR Product introductions or product revisions Product releases Credibility accounts for the effectiveness Publicity is the major tool Executive-statement Feature articles 233
  233. 233. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Announce new products Provide relevant information, Product releases features and benefit Audiovisual product releases (video news releases, or VNRs) gained wide usage Executive- statement Feature articles 234
  234. 234. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing News releases quoting CEOs and other corporate executives Product releases May address a wide variety of issues Published in the news section Carry a significant degree of Executive- credibility statement Feature articles 235
  235. 235. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Detailed descriptions of products or other newsworthy programs Product releases Written by a PR firm for immediate publications or airing Inexpensive to prepare Executive- statement Feature articles 236
  236. 236. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Often product defects and failures Negative publicity are the factors cases Quick and positive responses are imperative • Product tampering cases -Tylenol and Sudafed • The Perrier case • The Pepsi Hoax • Coke in Europe 237
  237. 237. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Old and New Proctor and Gamble’s Logos 238
  238. 238. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Involve investments in events or causes for the purpose of achieving various corporate objective Event Cause-oriented sponsorships sponsorships 239
  239. 239. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Event Sponsorship A form of brand promotion that ties a brand to a meaningful athletic, entertainment, cultural , social, or other type of high- interest public activity 240
  240. 240. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing The Oscar Mayer Wienermobile 241
  241. 241. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Cause-Related Marketing Based on the idea that a company will contribute to a cause every time the customer undertakes some action 242
  242. 242. Marketing Public Relations and Sponsorship Marketing Cause-related marketing illustration 243
  243. 243. Personal Selling A form of person-to-person communication in which a salesperson works with prospective buyers and attempts to influence their purchase needs in the direction of his or her company’s products or service
  244. 244. Personal Selling Enhancing brand equity Educating customers Providing product usage and marketing assistance Providing after-sale service and support to buyers
  245. 245. Personal Selling 1. High level of 4. Communicate customer attention more technical and complex information 2. Customize the 5. Demonstrate a message product’s functioning and characteristics 3. Yields immediate 6. Develop long-term feedback relationship
  246. 246. Personal Selling Job freedom Variety and challenge Opportunities for advancement Attractive compensation and non-financial rewards
  247. 247. Personal Selling Based on trust and mutual agreement Customer-driven atmosphere Act as if on customer’s payroll After-sales service is key No one solution is appropriate for all customers Professionalism and integrity are essential
  248. 248. Personal Selling
  249. 249. Personal Selling Trade Selling Typically employees of manufacturers Missionary Selling Sell through their direct customers Technical Selling Requires limited prospecting and places greater emphasis on New-business Selling servicing accounts Retail Selling Telemarketing
  250. 250. Personal Selling Trade Selling Employees of manufacturers Missionary Selling Typically pharmaceutical industry Technical Selling Sells for its direct customers (wholesalers) New-business Selling Retail Selling Telemarketing
  251. 251. Personal Selling Trade Selling Typically trained in technical fields such as chemistry, Missionary Selling engineering, computer science, and accounting Technical Selling Must be able to communicate complicated features to prospective customers New-business Selling Retail Selling Telemarketing
  252. 252. Personal Selling Trade Selling Must continuously call on new accounts Missionary Selling Bird-dogging, cold calling Continually work to open Technical Selling new accounts e.g., Office copiers, personal computers, business forms, New-business Selling and personal insurance Retail Selling Telemarketing
  253. 253. Personal Selling Trade Selling Customer comes to the salesperson Missionary Selling Have considerable product knowledge, Technical Selling strong interpersonal skills, and ability to work with a diversity of customers New-business Selling Retail Selling Telemarketing
  254. 254. Personal Selling Trade Selling Is used to support or even replace the sales forces Missionary Selling Versatility applies to both consumer-oriented Technical Selling products and business-to- business marketing Not appropriate for all New-business Selling sales organizations Retail Selling Telemarketing
  255. 255. Personal Selling How essential is face-to-face contact? Customers geographically concentrated or dispersed? How large are typical order sizes? What decision criteria are important? How many decision makers? What is the nature of purchase? What is the status of the decision maker? What specific selling tasks have to be performed?
  256. 256. Personal Selling To best represent the customer’s interests by capitalizing on the strengths and expertise of various personnel Also prevalent in business-to-business selling situation Include experts drawn from throughout the organization
  257. 257. Personal Selling Aptitude Includes interests, intelligence, and personality characteristics Skill level Some people better suit to one type of sales job than another Motivational level All must be customer oriented and empathetic Role perceptions Personal characteristics Adaptability
  258. 258. Personal Selling Aptitude Includes selling, interpersonal, and technical skills Skill level Companies instill the skills needed for success Motivational level One of the most important skills—”Close a sale” Getting along with immediate Role perceptions superior Personal characteristics Adaptability
  259. 259. Personal Selling Aptitude The amount of time and energy a person is willing to Skill level expend performing tasks Reciprocally related to performance Motivational level People are driven in different ways Role perceptions Personal characteristics Adaptability
  260. 260. Personal Selling Competitors Ego-driven Desire to win and to Desire to be the best, beat rivals to win awards, and to be organized Achievers Service-oriented Routinely set higher goals and like Good at building accomplishment relationships with customers
  261. 261. Personal Selling Aptitude Accurate role perception is crucial Skill level Often they face role conflicts that diminish their sales performance Motivational level Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) Role perceptions Personal characteristics Adaptability
  262. 262. Personal Selling Aptitude Age, physical size, appearance, race, gender, etc. Skill level It doesn’t ensure sales success or failure Motivational level Successful salespeople are androgyny (possess both male and female traits) Role perceptions Personal characteristics Adaptability
  263. 263. Personal Selling Aptitude Ability to adapt to situational circumstances Skill level Due in part to personal aptitude but also includes learned skills Motivational level Absolutely essential for success Role perceptions Personal characteristics Adaptability
  264. 264. Personal Selling First Impression Self-esteem Depth of knowledge Extended focus Breadth of knowledge Sense of humor Adaptability Creativity Sensitivity Taking risks Enthusiasm Honesty & ethics
  265. 265. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Federal State Regulation Regulation Marketing Communications 266
  266. 266. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Regulation of deceptive advertising Regulation of unfair practices Information regulation Regulation of product labeling Regulation of prescription drug advertising 267
  267. 267. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Ethics in our context involves matters of right and wrong, or moral, conduct pertaining to any aspect of marketing communications 268
  268. 268. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Example of Controversial Advertising - Camel’s “Joe camel” 269
  269. 269. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications The Golden Act in a way that you would want Rule The Take only actions that would be Professional viewed as proper by an objective Ethics panel of your professional colleagues “Would l feel comfortable The TV test explaining this action on television to the general public?” 270
  270. 270. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Green advertising Packaging response Seal-of-Approval programs Cause-Oriented Programs Point-of-Purchase 271
  271. 271. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Green Advertising Promoting an Image of Environmental Responsibility 272
  272. 272. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Green advertising Packaging response Seal-of-Approval programs Cause-Oriented Programs Point-of-Purchase 273
  273. 273. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Recyclable bottles Polystyrene to paperboard Plastic to cardboard Smaller packages 274
  274. 274. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Green advertising Packaging response Seal-of-Approval programs Cause-Oriented Programs Point-of-Purchase 275
  275. 275. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Designed to assist consumers in identifying environmentally friendly products and brands Green Seal of Approval “Chasing arrows logo” 276
  276. 276. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Green advertising Packaging response Seal-of-Approval programs Cause-Oriented Programs Point-of-Purchase 277
  277. 277. Regulatory, Ethical, and “Green” Issues in Marketing Communications Cause-Oriented programs 278

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