Improving Your Cardiovascular Endurance - If Only More
People Knew About This!




             Cardiovascular endurance i...
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out by the heart each
minute. It is the product of your heart rate and stroke...
related, it is easier to track your exercise intensity by using a heart
rate monitor or by simply taking your pulse.


Wit...
So which one do you think produced the greatest improvements in
VO2 max?


Well, the researchers observed that the "2 minu...
become a faster and more endurant runner with just 2 workouts per
week.


Give them a shot!


YURI


References:
(1) O'Bri...
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Improving Your Cardiovascular Endurance If Only More People Knew About This!

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Improvements in VO2 max occur as a consequence of sufficient physiological disturbance to the factors that determine it, cardiac output (central component) and arterio-venous difference (peripheral component).

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Improving Your Cardiovascular Endurance If Only More People Knew About This!

  1. 1. Improving Your Cardiovascular Endurance - If Only More People Knew About This! Cardiovascular endurance is often measured by what's known as your VO2 max. This represents the maximum amount of oxygen that your body can intake, distribute, and utilize at the cellular level. So it goes without saying that your VO2 max and cardiovascular endurance will be greater with the proper aerobic endurance training. But what is the best method to elicit the greatest possible increase in aerobic endurance? A lot of people spend hours upon hours doing endless cardio with the hope of improving their endurance but fail to realize the basics of cardiovascular physiology. Cardiovascular Endurance Explained So bear with me for a moment as I explain the fundamentals of improving your cardiovascular endurance, and more specifically your VO2 max. Improvements in VO2 max occur as a consequence of sufficient physiological disturbance to the factors that determine it, cardiac output (central component) and arterio-venous difference (peripheral component).
  2. 2. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out by the heart each minute. It is the product of your heart rate and stroke volume (blood ejected per heart beat). As you become fitter, your heart muscle becomes stronger allowing the stroke volume to increase, pushing out more blood per contraction. At the same time, your heart rate (at a given intensity) usually decreases - both indicate an improved level of cardiovascular endurance. That's why very fit individuals have a much lower resting heart rate. For instance, many marathon runners and elite cyclists have resting heart rates hovering around 30 bpm while the average person's resting heart rate is between 72-90 bpm. In particular it appears that cardiac output is the major determinant of VO2 max and therefore its improvement should be a major focus of endurance training. It appears that in order to induce the maximum change in cardiac output, training needs to extend the stroke volume to its maximum capability, which coincides with the your VO2 max. Therefore in order to maximize the physiological determinants that affect your VO2 max, you should sustain exercise training near your VO2 max for as long as possible. What If You Don't Know Your VO2 max? Don't worry too much about the knowing your VO2 max unless you feel like going through a grueling incremental exercise test on the treadmill or bike. Instead, a simple rule of thumb is to simply ensure that you exercise at a high percentage of your maximum heart rate for as long as possible. Because your maximum heart rate and VO2 max are closely
  3. 3. related, it is easier to track your exercise intensity by using a heart rate monitor or by simply taking your pulse. Without getting complicated, just use the simple formula "220 - your age" to determine your maximum heart rate. So, if you're 40 years old, then your maximum heart rate would be 180 bpm. Therefore, in order to elicit the greatest possible VO2 max improvements you'd want to do more of your cardiovascular endurance training near 180 bpm. Obviously, most human beings cannot sustain their maximum heart rate for more than a couple of minutes so the key is to spend more of your time near that level through the use of interval training. Try This Interval Training Workout For Maximum VO2 Improvements A recent study looked at 3 different endurance training protocols: Treatment 1: 1 min intervals: 10 × 1 min efforts at the velocity corresponding to VO2 peak (slightly lower than VO2 max) interspersed with 10 × 1 min efforts at 0.5 VO2peak (50% intensity). *Treatment 2: 2 min intervals: 5 × 2 min efforts at Vpeak interspersed with 5 × 2 min efforts at 0.5 at VO2 peak. Treatment 3: Constant rate run: 20 min constant rate run on a treadmill at a velocity equivalent too, and determined by the mean velocity of treatment A and B (75% VO2 peak).
  4. 4. So which one do you think produced the greatest improvements in VO2 max? Well, the researchers observed that the "2 minute intervals" resulted in significantly more time above 90% of VO2 peak and a significantly greater percentage of participants to exceed 90% of VO2 peak than "1 min intervals". Consequently, the researchers suggest that longer intervals may be more effective than shorter intervals of the same average intensity to enhance VO2 max. Evidence for this contention has also been provided by recent research that revealed an 8 week training regime of 15 s of running at 90—95% of max heart rate with 15 s recovery, produced smaller percentage gains in VO2 max than 4 min of running at 90—95% of max heart rate with 3 min recovery (5.5 and 7.2%, respectively). Your Homework Try the "2 minute intervals" protocols described above and compare it to the "1 minute intervals" workout. You'll automatically feel a big difference as you continue to push your body at a higher intensity for a longer period of time. With just a few interval training workouts you'll notice some massive improvements in your overall cardiovascular endurance! Also, you will want to have a look at my Treadmill Trainer Volumes 4 and 5 interval running workouts. These running workouts were specifically designed to push you harder and longer so that you
  5. 5. become a faster and more endurant runner with just 2 workouts per week. Give them a shot! YURI References: (1) O'Brien, et al. (2007). The effects of interval-exercise duration and intensity on oxygen consumption during treadmill running. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11: 287-290. (2) Helgerud J, Hoydal K, Wang E, et al. (2007). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(4):665— 71.

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