WATER TREATMENT ENGINEERING
INTRODUCTION
SKAA 2912
1
Learning Outcomes
Students should be able to name the
different treatment stages in a water
treatment system.
2
History of Water Treatment
4000 B.C. 1500 B.C. 1700s 1800s 1900s 1960s
Ancient Greek and Indians
treated drinking water
(c...
A Typical Wastewater Treatment Plant
Water Intake
(Lakes, rivers)
Aeration/Air Stripping
(optional)
•To remove volatile or...
A Typical Wastewater Treatment Plant
Aeration
Water intake
Coagulation/Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
5
The 21st Century Challenges
(Is the conventional treatment sufficient?)
• Disinfection by-products (e.g. trihalomethanes, ...
Coursework Grading Distribution
No Assessment Quantity Marks Total
1 Assignments 2 5 10
2 Tests 2 20 40
3 Final exam 1 50 ...
REFERENCES
• American Water Works Association (1990). Water Treatment
Plant Design 4th Edition, Edward E. Baruth (Ed.), Mc...
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Introduction to Water Treatment Engineering

  1. 1. WATER TREATMENT ENGINEERING INTRODUCTION SKAA 2912 1
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes Students should be able to name the different treatment stages in a water treatment system. 2
  3. 3. History of Water Treatment 4000 B.C. 1500 B.C. 1700s 1800s 1900s 1960s Ancient Greek and Indians treated drinking water (charcoal filtration, sunlight exposure, boiling, straining) to improve taste & odor Ancient Egyptians used chemical alum to caused suspended particles to settle in water Filtration widely used to remove particles (turbidity) but the degree of clarity was not measured •Sources and effects of drinking water contaminants were identified •Identification of waterborne disease (chlorela) Discovered both turbidity and pathogens in drinking water in US - Filtration & disinfection Advancement in industrial and agricultural sector – man-made chemicals found in water sources (pesticides, volatile organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc) OBJECTIVE: To supply clean and safe water for public demand Clean – colourless, odourless, tasteless and no suspended solids Safe – no pathogen, no dangerous organic/inorganic and less mineral substances 3
  4. 4. A Typical Wastewater Treatment Plant Water Intake (Lakes, rivers) Aeration/Air Stripping (optional) •To remove volatile organic chemicals, taste & odor •To add O2 for oxidation of iron, manganese & organic matter Coagulation/Flocculation •To remove dirt and particles in water •Alum/chemicals are added in water to form sticky particles that can attached to other particles – known as “floc” Sedimentation •The floc settles to the bottom and the settable solids are removed. •Also known as clarification process Filtration •To remove suspended solids •Made of layers of sand, gravel, and charcoal Disinfection •To remove waterborne pathogens (bacteria, viruses, etc) •Types of disinfection: Chlorine, chloramine, monochloramine, UV, ozone Water Distribution System 4
  5. 5. A Typical Wastewater Treatment Plant Aeration Water intake Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation Filtration 5
  6. 6. The 21st Century Challenges (Is the conventional treatment sufficient?) • Disinfection by-products (e.g. trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids – due to reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter) • Emerging and resurging pathogens (e.g. antibiotic resistance microorganisms) • Emerging trace contaminants (e.g. pharmaceutical and personal care products, pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds, persistent organic pollutants) • Waterborne disease (e.g. Giardia, Cryptosporidium - chlorination is not enough!) • Surface water issues (e.g. cyanobacteria toxin – due to algae blooms/eutrophication) • Toxic inorganic substances (e.g. lead, arsenic) • Chemical residuals (e.g. Union Carbide (pesticide company) gas leak in Bhopal, India, in 1984 contaminate groundwater) 6
  7. 7. Coursework Grading Distribution No Assessment Quantity Marks Total 1 Assignments 2 5 10 2 Tests 2 20 40 3 Final exam 1 50 50 100 7
  8. 8. REFERENCES • American Water Works Association (1990). Water Treatment Plant Design 4th Edition, Edward E. Baruth (Ed.), McGraw-Hill: USA • Bursill, D. (2001). Drinking water treatment – understanding the processes and meeting the challenges, Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, 1(1), 1-7. • Levin, R.B., Epstein, P.R., Ford, T.E., Harrington, W., Olson, E., Reichard, E.G. (2002). U.S. Drinking Water Challenges in the Twenty-First Century, Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(1), 43-52 • USEPA (2000). The History of Drinking Water Treatment, EPA-816-F-00-006 8
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