GGA2 – Core Concepts in Human Geography <ul><li>3 units: </li></ul><ul><li>Population Dynamics (Mrs Carson) </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement Processes and Patterns (Mr Barlow) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Activity (Mr Barlow) </li></ul><ul><li>Examination in Summer 07. Same format as GGA1 (3 questions). </li></ul><ul><li>GGA3 (skills based paper) also in Summer 07. This years paper covers topics of: </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic Hazards and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Population Dynamics </li></ul>
<ul><li>Settlement Processes and Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation and suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Globally, rapid urbanisation ahs occurred in the past 50 years. Around 50% of the worlds population now live in towns and cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most urbanised continents: </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul><ul><li>Oceania </li></ul><ul><li>Least urbanised continents: </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul><ul><li>However, in terms of urban growth, the number of urban dwellers is by the far the largest in Asia, with 1.4 billion people living in towns and cities = 40%. </li></ul>
Urbanisation is increasing most rapidly in Africa and Asia. 2025 – half of the population of these continents will live in urban areas and 80% of urban dwellers will live in LEDC’s Europe, Oceania and N. America, urbanisation levels peaked in the 1970’s and have fallen steadily since then. Percentage of the world’s population living in urban settlements, 2000. Describe the pattern shown above
Plot the information above onto a bar graph 68 66 65 Oceania 77 67 60 Europe 80 70 68 N. America 78 70 55 S. America 52 30 19 Asia 50 30 20 Africa Continent 2025 2000 1975 Year % of the Population living in urban areas
0.05 0.05 0.05 Oceania 0.55 2.0 0.45 Europe 0.3 0.25 0.2 N. America 0.5 0.3 0.2 S. America 2.6 1.4 0.55 Asia 0.6 0.25 0.1 Africa Continent 2025 2000 1975 Year Population (billions) living in urban areas
Counter-urbanisation . The movement of people from large urban areas or into rural areas, thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It might mean daily commuting, but could also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT (home working or teleworking) Reurbanisation. The movement of people and economic activities back into the city centre. One characteristic of reurbanisation is the refurbishment, by more affluent people, of old housing stock in former run-down inner-city areas. This process is known as gentrification . <ul><li>Size of urban area. This varies according to the boundaries chosen. Each boundary is likely to give a different estimate of population. An urban are might comprise: </li></ul><ul><li>The administrative boundary </li></ul><ul><li>The contiguous built up area (including both the inner and outer suburbs) </li></ul><ul><li>The contiguous built up area and the physically separate suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>The contiguous built up area and the commuter hinterland </li></ul>Suburbanisation. The movement of people from the inner parts of a city to the outer parts. It has been facilitated by the development of transport networks and the increase in ownership of private cars. These have allowed people to commute to work. KEY TERMS
Urban Growth. An increase in the number of urban dwellers. Classifications of urban dwellers depend on the census definition of urban areas, which vary from country to country. They usually include one or more of the following criteria; population size; population density; average distance between buildings within a settlement; legal and/or administrative boundaries. Urbanisation. An increase in the proportion of a country’s population that lives in towns and cities. The two main causes of urbanisation are natural population growth and migration into urban areas from rural areas. Urban sprawl . The physical spread of the urban area. It has been caused by suburbanisation and the desire for lower density housing. KEY TERMS
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