• For nearly 17 years
between July 1981and
March 1998 the LDDC
worked to secure the
regeneration of the
London Docklands, an
area of eight-and-a-half
square miles stretching
across parts of the East
End Boroughs of
Hamlets and Newham.
What is the LDDC?
• It is an urban development corporation, the
second to be established by the Government
under the Local Government, Planning and Land
• Its object was to secure the regeneration of the
London Docklands Urban Development Area
(UDA) which would comprise of 8½ square miles
of East London in the Boroughs of Tower
Hamlets, Newham and Southwark.
Why was regeneration needed?
• London's Docklands were at one time the largest and
most successful. The housing in the Docklands area was
mostly council-owned terraced housing and flats,
presenting a unique challenge for Government - how to
completely replace an industry on a vast scale and make
the contaminated, depressed docklands an attractive
place to live and work. The housing in the Docklands
area was mostly council-owned terraced housing and
flats, presenting a unique challenge for Government -
how to completely replace an industry on a vast scale
and make the contaminated, depressed docklands an
attractive place to live and work.
What was successful about the
• The LDDC has successfully tackled the widespread multiple market failure
which prevailed in the London Docklands in 1981. Failures in land, housing
and commercial property markets have been addressed and labour market
failures have been alleviated by a combination of training projects,
improvements in accessibility in and out of Docklands and the creation of
new local jobs.
• When all projects are completed the total public sector cost of regenerating
Docklands will be of the order of £3,900 million, 48% incurred by the LDDC,
25% by London Transport and 27% by the Isle of Dogs Enterprise Zone.
Almost half the public sector cost of regenerating Docklands was devoted to
• Private sector investment in Docklands, at £8,700 million by March 1998,
has been substantial and will continue to increase well into the next century
• The LDDC has generated a wide range of economic, environmental and
social benefits. Prominent amongst these are over 24,000 housing units and
over 80,000 gross jobs within the Urban Development Area (UDA). Housing
tenure is substantially more varied, employment is three times higher, the
number of firms has increased fivefold and the new stock of housing will
accommodate an additional 45,000 population.
What were the problems with the
• House prices are too high
for people with low
• New jobs are made but
local people do not have
the qualifications to do
• No new manufacturing
industry has been
• Many concerns about the
noise and pollution while
it is being built
Aims and Powers
Their influence in the area was quite strong but
their powers are limited:
• Had powers to acquire land by agreement or
• It took over from the London Boroughs their
planning (but their planning) powers.
• It had powers, and the resources to provide new
or to refurbish infrastructure.
Apart from planning all other public services such
as health and education remained in the hands
of the boroughs.
• "to secure the
regeneration of its area,
by bringing land and
buildings into effective
use, encouraging the
development of existing
and new industry and
commerce, creating an
and ensuring that housing
and social facilities are
available to encourage
people to live and work in
What is in the future?
• The Boroughs and other local
agencies were left to carry on
the work. In the Royal Docks,
however, the Corporation's
there was a good deal of
outstanding work. This was
taken over by another agency
of the central government,
English Partnerships, working
in collaboration with the
London Borough of Newham
to whom the LDDC's planning
powers were restored. The
joint team established for this
purpose operated from offices
on the north side of the Royal
Albert Dock just opposite the
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