2. Counter-urbanisation . The movement of people from large urban areas or into rural areas, thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It might mean daily commuting, but could also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT (home working or teleworking)
3. Process of migration of people from major urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas. Clear break between the areas of new growth and the urban area. Counter-urbanisation does not lead to suburban growth, but growth in rural areas beyond the city. Difference between rural and urban areas is diminished as a consequence of this movement.
4. Factors for growth in counter-urbanisation <ul><li>Negative reaction to city life </li></ul><ul><li>Escape from air pollution, dirt and crime of the urban environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspire to what is seen as pleasant, quiet and clean environment of countryside, where land and house prices are cheaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of employment moving away from cities. 1981-96 1 million more jobs in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in technology (internet) allows freedom of location. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising demand for second homes and earlier retirement. Link to affluence. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas need to attract income. Agriculture in decline. Farmers sell off land. </li></ul>
5. Counter-urbanisation affects the layout of rural settlements. Modern housing estates locate of the edge of small settlements. Industrial units are sited on main roads leading into the settlement. Former open areas are built on, old properties converted and agricultural building redeveloped as housing. As with gentrification in inner city areas there is tension between the newcomers and locals.
6. Services <ul><li>Despite the influx of new people, local services often close down. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus services to rural communities have disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools have closed </li></ul><ul><li>Post Offices have closed. </li></ul><ul><li>Churches have closed and parishes amalgamated together. </li></ul><ul><li>This is all because newcomers have the wealth and mobility to continue to use the urban services some distance away. </li></ul>
7. Evidence <ul><li>Increase in the use of a commuter railway station in an area, including car parking for commuters. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased value of houses in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of more executive housing in an area, often newly designated building land, following the demolition of old properties. </li></ul><ul><li>More conversions of former farm buildings to exclusive residences. </li></ul>