Counter-urbanisation . The movement of people from large urban areas or into rural areas, thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It might mean daily commuting, but could also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT (home working or teleworking)
Process of migration of people from major urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas. Clear break between the areas of new growth and the urban area. Counter-urbanisation does not lead to suburban growth, but growth in rural areas beyond the city. Difference between rural and urban areas is diminished as a consequence of this movement.
Escape from air pollution, dirt and crime of the urban environment.
Aspire to what is seen as pleasant, quiet and clean environment of countryside, where land and house prices are cheaper.
Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute.
Sources of employment moving away from cities. 1981-96 1 million more jobs in rural areas.
Improvement in technology (internet) allows freedom of location.
Rising demand for second homes and earlier retirement. Link to affluence.
Rural areas need to attract income. Agriculture in decline. Farmers sell off land.
Counter-urbanisation affects the layout of rural settlements. Modern housing estates locate of the edge of small settlements. Industrial units are sited on main roads leading into the settlement. Former open areas are built on, old properties converted and agricultural building redeveloped as housing. As with gentrification in inner city areas there is tension between the newcomers and locals.