Task-Based Teaching“Any approach to language pedagogy will“Any approach to language pedagogy willneed to concern itself with three essentialneed to concern itself with three essentialelements: language data, information, andelements: language data, information, andopportunities for practice”,opportunities for practice”, David Nunan, David Nunan,
TBLT - Definition“A Task is an activity where the “A Task is an activity where thetarget language is used by the target language is used by thelearner learner for for a a communicative communicativepurpose (goal) in order to achieve purpose (goal) in order to achievean outcome” an outcome” Jane Willis Jane Willis
WHAT IS TASK BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING?• TBLT is an approach to teaching a second/foreign language that seeks to engage learners in interactive authentic language use by having them perform a series of tasks.• It aims to both enable learners (1) to acquire new linguistic knowledge and (2) to proceduralize their existing knowledge.
Why Using Task-Based Approach?•• Students are free of language control. Students are free of language control.•• A natural context is developed from the students‘ experiences. with A natural context is developed from the students‘ experiences. withthe language that is personalised and relevant to them. the language that is personalised and relevant to them.••Students’ needs dictate what will be covered rather than a decision Students’ needs dictate what will be covered rather than a decisionmade by the teacher or the coursebook.made by the teacher or the coursebook.••Taskbased approach is a strong communicative approach where Task based approach is a strong communicative approach wherestudents spend a lot of time communicating. Activities are engaging, students spend a lot of time communicating. Activities are engaging,enjoyable and motivating. enjoyable and motivating.
THE RATIONALE OF TASK- BASED LEARNING 1. Theory of LanguageSeveral assumptions about the nature of language can be said to underlie currentapproaches to task-based learning. These are:o Language is primarily a means of making meaningo Multiple models of language inform task-based learning.o Lexical units are central in language use and language learningo “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition
2-Theory of Learning Task-based learning shares the general assumptions about the nature of language learning underlying Communicative Language Teaching.o Tasks provide both the input and the output processing necessary for language acquisition.o Task activity and achievement are motivational.o Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes.
TBLT DesignObjectives:Objectives:As with other communicative approaches,goals in TBLT are determined by thespecific needs of particular learners.The Syllabus:The Syllabus:Task –based syllabuses represent a particularrealization of Communicative Language Teaching(Nunan1989). The designer conducts a needsanalysis, which yields a list of the communicativetasks that the learners will need to carry out.
• Tasks are also used in CLT. However, they normally focus on a particular function or form of the language.• In a task-based lesson, the teacher uses a wide variety of linguistic forms, the meaning of which is made clear by the context.• The focus is on task completion instead of on the language used in the process.• The main difference between PPP and task based learning: the focus on language form comes at the end.
• TBLT relies heavily on learners actively experimenting with their store of knowledge and using skills of deduction and independent language analysis to exploit the situation fully.• Motivation for communication becomes the primary driving force. It places the emphasis on communicative fluency.• Exposure to the language should be in
Essential conditions for language learning• Exposure to the target language• Opportunities to use the target language for expressing meaning• Motivation to engage with exposure and use what they know
there is a basic distinction between target ( real world) tasks and pedagogical tasks .
Types of Tasks:Types of Tasks:1-A Task … is goal directed. involves a primary focus on meaning. has a clearly defined outcome.2-The participants choose the linguistic resources neededto complete the task.
Tasks and the four language skills:A common misunderstanding of task- A common misunderstanding of task-based instruction is that it necessarily based instruction is that it necessarilyinvolves oral interaction. involves oral interaction.But tasks can be designed to develop any But tasks can be designed to develop anyof the four language skills (listening, of the four language skills (listening,speaking, reading and writing). speaking, reading and writing).Many tasks are ‘integrative’ (i.e. involve Many tasks are ‘integrative’ (i.e. involvemore than one skill). more than one skill).
Teacher & Students in TBLTRole of the TeacherRole of the Teachero Cooperate, Listen and respond to St needs.o Decide what tasks to work on.o Decide when to try a new task.o Correct and keep feedback (analysis).o Help student monitor each other.
Role of the Students: Role of the Students:o Work individually or with the groups equally .o Gather and organize information (report).o Present results to others students and/or Instructor.o Risk-taker and innovator.
Procedure Willis (1996:56-57) recommends the following sequence of activities: Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with Pre-task the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors from a distance. Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orallyTask Cycle or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording.Language Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and Focus patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis (Willis 1996: 38).
Pre-task• This serves as an introduction to the topic and task. It may involve brainstorming, a pre-task, introduction of useful words and phrases, preparation time or listening to native speakers doing the task. New structures are not pre-taught.
The Task Cyclea. Task• Learners begin by carrying out a communication task, using whatever language they already have, in pairs or groups.• A task is a goal-oriented activity in which learners achieve a real outcome.
In the literature on TBLT , several attempts have been made to group tasks into categories, as a basis for task design and description.Willis (1996) proposes six task types: LISTING: Processes: Brainstorming, fact-finding. ORDERING AND Processes: Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, SORTING: classifying. COMPARING: Processes: Matching, finding similarities, finding differences. PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes: Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making. SHARING PERSONAL Processes: Narrating, describing, exploring and EXPERIENCES: explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes: Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving and many others.
• Six main types of task: listing, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving, sharing personal experiences and creative tasks.• Learners are free to choose whatever language forms they like to achieve the goal of the task. The emphasis is on meaning rather than form.• The teacher monitors but doesn’t correct errors.
b. Planning• Having completed the task, students prepare to report on the outcome. Now the emphasis is on organisation and accuracy.• The teacher advises students on language and helps them correct any errors they make during this phase.
c. Report• Some or all of the groups report briefly to the whole class.• The others listen in order compare findings or conduct a survey. The teacher may rephrase but not correct the language.
d. Optional Post Task Listening• This phase allows students to listen to native speakers to do the same task and to compare the language.
Language Focus• Analysis : Learners focus on form and ask questions about language features.• Practice: Teacher conducts activities based on the analysis work or examples from the text to transcript.
Pedagogic problemsProblem Solution1. Teachers often believe that TBLT is Teachers need to understand that TBLTnot possible with beginners. involves input-based as well as out-put based tasks and that it is possible to build up proficiency initially through a series of simple input-based tasks.2. Students may be unwilling to risk • Allow planning timecommunicating ‘freely’. • Learner-training.3. Students will resort to This is arguably not a problem; ascommunicating in their L1. proficiency develops learners automatically begin to use more of the L2.4. Teachers may not fully understand More effective teacher training.the principles or TBLT or have theproficiency to teach ‘communicatively’.
ConclusionsTask-Based Language Teaching addresses some of the ways studentsare changingAny curriculum content can be taught through tasks . the key point isthat the teacher usually will have to create their own worksheets orstrategies!The teacher must stay very active during a task- based lessonassisting students individually or as a group!It emphasizes meaning over form but can also cater for learning form.It is compatible with a learner-centred educational philosophy but alsoallows for teacher input and direction.
It caters to the development of communicative fluency while notneglecting accuracy.It can be used alongside a more traditional approach.
Let’s Talk: What’s your Favourite drink? In this lesson you will talk about your favourite drink and why you like it. You will interview your friends about t Part 1: What’s your favourite drink? Interview your friends. There are many popular drinks around the world. In your notebook, think of five ~ seven questions to ask about drinks. (Hint, What is your favourite drink, why do you like it?) Write your answers and then ask four friends. Write their answers in your notebook.Part 2: VocabularyFind these words in the dictionary. Write the meaning in your notebook.Beans , loose, popular beverages. Part 1: How do you like your drink??? Scenario Work with five students . You are a waitress in a restaurant . Ask them what they want to drink and how do they prefer it ……. A table. A menu. A piece of paper and a pen . Part 2: Analysis: Write the questions and the answers in your note book to share it with your class.