Sussex taiwan aus eng 201004

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  • “ Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy” Roland Sussex The University of Queensland Over the past 40 years Australian English has matured from a “colonial” English to a self-standing variety on the second tier (after the UK and USA) of inner-circle Englishes, in Kachru’s term. This increased self-confidence can be seen in a wide variety of roles which are filled by Australian English in everyday life, from the media to politics and education. Australian English is now the unquestioned prestige model in Australia, a role which it held with much less consistency and security forty years ago. This social-functional maturation has been paralleled by the publication of major dictionaries and style guides of Australian English, and by the enshrining of “Australian English” in the latest national curriculum draft proposals in March, 2010. While Australian English, like all other Englishes, has been borrowing widely from American English, especially in the area of the lexicon, it is also true that Australian English is continuing to sustain some of its characteristic properties, especially in phonology; and to enrich some very characteristic resources which set it aside from other Englishes. This paper reports in detail on one of these phenomena: the “diminutives” of the “Aussie” type. It outlines the key formation properties and social parameters of diminutives, of which Australian English has approximately 5,000, in the light of Australian English as a distinct, and at least partly autonomous, variety of English.
  • Sussex taiwan aus eng 201004

    1. 1. <ul><li>Roland Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>April 2010 </li></ul>AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH: CONSOLIDATION AND AUTONOMY
    2. 2. <ul><li>PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>1788 settlement: convicts </li></ul><ul><li>1901: Federation </li></ul><ul><li>2010: </li></ul><ul><li>21m </li></ul><ul><li>200+ languages </li></ul><ul><li>70 Aboriginal languages (250 in 1770) </li></ul><ul><li>English not in the Constitution </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    3. 3. <ul><li>PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>Long love-hate relationship with British English and RP </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity + solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>Chameleon overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Bowra story </li></ul><ul><li>Image of rough, vulgar, insular, provincial </li></ul><ul><li>(also early reports of “pure” language in Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick White and Nobel Prize </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    4. 4. <ul><li>PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>Came of age in 1970-1980 </li></ul><ul><li>3 large dictionaries (Macquarie, Australian Oxford, Collins) </li></ul><ul><li>2 style guides (Pam Peters) </li></ul><ul><li>Australian accent accepted overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Olivia Newton-John, Grease </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Hogan </li></ul><ul><li>sports (tennis, golf) </li></ul><ul><li>business </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted at home </li></ul><ul><li>news, current affairs </li></ul><ul><li>politicians (Menzies, Downer) </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    5. 5. <ul><li>PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple parallel norms </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence in using Australian English </li></ul><ul><li>But still chameleon overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Diglossia – active and passive </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by different varieties of English </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    6. 6. <ul><li>AMERICAN INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC CONCERN </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology: not rhotic, but ... </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar: gotten, spit = past, dove </li></ul><ul><li>Lexis: thousands: </li></ul><ul><li>OK, Coke </li></ul><ul><li>hi, hello, have a nice day </li></ul><ul><li>franks, fries, 6-pack, hamburger </li></ul><ul><li>freeway </li></ul><ul><li>GPA, student, math </li></ul><ul><li>cool, neat, great, filth, bad </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    7. 7. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical: /a/ ~ /æ/ dance, chance (S. Australia, educated) </li></ul><ul><li>Social: </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell & Delbridge 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Educated 11% </li></ul><ul><li>General 56% </li></ul><ul><li>Broad 33% </li></ul><ul><li>? Ethnic </li></ul><ul><li>2000: </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence towards the middle </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    8. 8. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Richard Fidler Male broadcaster Commercial male broadcaster Commercial female broadcaster Broadest rural male (4BC)
    9. 9. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Richard Fidler Male broadcaster Commercial male broadcaster Commercial female broadcaster Broadest rural male (4BC)
    10. 10. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Richard Fidler Male broadcaster Commercial male broadcaster Commercial female broadcaster Broadest rural male (4BC)
    11. 11. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Richard Fidler Male broadcaster Commercial male broadcaster Commercial female broadcaster Broadest rural male (4BC)
    12. 12. <ul><li>Yeah, good mate, how yer goin’? </li></ul><ul><li>  (not bad, cob) </li></ul><ul><li>  Well, mate, I’m actually flyin’ around in it right now </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah, that is me, yeah, and what, they put ‘im in jail, didn’t they? </li></ul><ul><li>(fair dinkum) </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah, well, I’ve checked around half of our property this morning, mate, and I can’t find it. </li></ul><ul><li>Oh, I was in a vehicle, and then on a 4-wheeler (rising tone) </li></ul><ul><li>... (they’re up a dry gully) </li></ul><ul><li>Well, I’ve been on the western side of us, like just doing jobs, and that, and I haven’t seen it, could be over the eastern side of us, but ah ...see it from ten mile away. </li></ul><ul><li>Well, I was doing to get it and pump it up and head to Canberra, and get Uncle Kevin and put him in it and send him into space. </li></ul><ul><li>(hand in the sky rocket ... = pocket) </li></ul><ul><li>binos .... binoculars </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    13. 13. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants </li></ul><ul><li>basically the same as most Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>Note R and L: </li></ul><ul><li>Not rhotic, </li></ul><ul><li>does have </li></ul><ul><li>linking R ( far away) </li></ul><ul><li>intrusive R ( India and China ) </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable-final /l/ is dark, sometimes [w]: football </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    14. 14. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>VOWELS (especially broad AusE) </li></ul><ul><li>nasality </li></ul><ul><li>bad > bed: salary </li></ul><ul><li>bard (fronted) </li></ul><ul><li>final [-i:] Mary, marry </li></ul><ul><li>diphthongs </li></ul><ul><li>be </li></ul><ul><li>bay > buy </li></ul><ul><li>boot (fronted) </li></ul><ul><li>bout </li></ul><ul><li>pair (no diphthong) </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    15. 15. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>American influence: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) new initial stress </li></ul><ul><li>Proper names: Fiji, Mindanao, Azerbaijan, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixed words from Romance: </li></ul><ul><li>translation, persecution, predestination </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    16. 16. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>American influence: </li></ul><ul><li>(b) new non-initial stress </li></ul><ul><li>French words, prestige: </li></ul><ul><li>perfume, baton, beret, debut, cachet </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    17. 17. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>American influence: </li></ul><ul><li>(c) secondary stress > vowel realization </li></ul><ul><li>ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>/’sεrəməni:/ </li></ul><ul><li>> /’sεrəˌmoʊni:/ </li></ul><ul><li>> /ˌsεrə’moʊni:/ </li></ul><ul><li>Similar:ˌ </li></ul><ul><li>mandatory, secretary </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    18. 18. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul><ul><li>1970s, teenage female </li></ul><ul><li>= continuation and reassurance marker </li></ul><ul><li>like back-channelling </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    19. 19. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Female, broad, final vowel long Older female, inconsistent Younger female Younger female Older male
    20. 20. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Female, broad, final vowel long Older female, inconsistent Younger female Younger female Older male
    21. 21. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Female, broad, final vowel long Older female, inconsistent Younger female Younger female Older male
    22. 22. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Female, broad, final vowel long Older female, inconsistent Younger female Younger female Older male
    23. 23. <ul><li>PHONOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Rising Tone </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010 Female, broad, final vowel long Older female, inconsistent Younger female Younger female Older male
    24. 24. <ul><li>GRAMMAR </li></ul><ul><li>Rather less to report ... </li></ul><ul><li>shall is dying </li></ul><ul><li>have > got </li></ul><ul><li>agreement – the government is/are </li></ul><ul><li>she’ll be right </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    25. 25. <ul><li>LEXIS </li></ul><ul><li>Major Aboriginal influence: </li></ul><ul><li>yakka, koala, kangaroo, bogie, dingo, billabong </li></ul><ul><li>And some native Australian words: </li></ul><ul><li>rort, hooroo, ace, grouse, bonzer, boshter </li></ul><ul><li>barrack, bludger, paddock </li></ul><ul><li>chunder, shoot through, beaut </li></ul><ul><li>and British dialect words preserved in Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>dunny (<dunnekin), rum ‘un, cobber </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    26. 26. <ul><li>PLAYFULNESS </li></ul><ul><li>(sign of maturity, self-confidence) </li></ul><ul><li>worm-burner </li></ul><ul><li>10 stubby drive </li></ul><ul><li>hospital pass </li></ul><ul><li>car’s so weak it couldn’t pull the skin off a custard </li></ul><ul><li>red-haired person = Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyming slang </li></ul><ul><li>give us a Captain (Cook) = give us a look </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    27. 27. <ul><li>DIMINUTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>5,000+ </li></ul><ul><li>present in all Englishes (Scottish, New Zealand) </li></ul><ul><li>Types and tokens (i.e. use very often) </li></ul><ul><li>Macquarie Dictionary = 112,000 headwords </li></ul><ul><li>used in more formal contexts than in other Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>Aussie </li></ul><ul><li>Pom, Pommie </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    28. 28. <ul><li>DIMINUTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ll go to Bundy in my Beemer, and buy some rockies in Rocky if I get there. Mum would like some cab-sav, and then we might come back to Brizzy for the footy and see Vossie play at the Gabba. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ll go to Bundaberg in my BMW , and buy some r ock melons in Rockhampton if I get there. Mother would like some cabernet-sauvignon (wine), and then we might come back to Brisbane for the football and see Voss play at the Wooloongabba ground . </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    29. 29. <ul><li>DIMINUTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Types of formation (24 in all): </li></ul><ul><li>-ie, -y: (50%) mandy < mandarin, Gossie < Goss </li></ul><ul><li>towie < tow-truck operator </li></ul><ul><li>-o: commo, dero, wino, Salvo, ambo </li></ul><ul><li>The: The Isa < Mt Isa, The Alice < Alice Springs </li></ul><ul><li>-za: Tezza < Terry, Shazza < Sharon </li></ul><ul><li>-schwa: barra < barramundi, Jezza < Jezaulenko, acker < acne </li></ul><ul><li>first syllable: Pom < Pomegranate, cams < camouflage uniform </li></ul><ul><li>last syllable: roo < kangaroo, roids < steroids </li></ul><ul><li>-ers: Honkers < Hong Kong, preggers < pregnant </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    30. 30. <ul><li>DIMINUTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Status: </li></ul><ul><li>Default among friends </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>Informality </li></ul><ul><li>(not using them, especially names, is distancing, formal) </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    31. 31. <ul><li>“ RELENTLESS INFORMALITY” (Baker 1945) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid titles </li></ul><ul><li>Favour first names – early </li></ul><ul><li>Use colloquial language </li></ul><ul><li>Use vulgarities ( bastard ) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit formal language to structured formal occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust carefully crafted speech, elaborate language. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit ritual. </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    32. 32. <ul><li>STYLISTIC CREATIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor and simile </li></ul><ul><li>(tendency to the expressive / outrageous / vulgar) </li></ul><ul><li>flat out like a lizard drinking </li></ul><ul><li>off like a bucket of prawns in the sun </li></ul><ul><li>thin as 6 feet of pump water </li></ul><ul><li>bouncing around like a pea in a referee’s whistle </li></ul><ul><li>happy as a bastard on Father’s Day </li></ul><ul><li>dry as a Pommy’s towel </li></ul><ul><li>useless as a one-armed bricklayer in Beirut </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    33. 33. <ul><li>WHITHER? </li></ul><ul><li>WILL AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH SOUND AUSTRALIAN IN FUTURE? </li></ul><ul><li>Birchfield / Quirk: will English converge or diverge? </li></ul><ul><li>AusE </li></ul><ul><li>confident at home </li></ul><ul><li>assertive overseas </li></ul><ul><li>continued parallel norms </li></ul><ul><li>diglossia especially overseas </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010
    34. 34. <ul><li>Professor Roland Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>School of Languages and Comparative Cultural Studies </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>Brisbane 4072 </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>phone: (+61) 411 486 372 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast: http:// www.abc.net.au/local/podcasts/inyourear.xml </li></ul>Australian English: Consolidation and autonomy 2010

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