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Phonetics Ppt


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  • 1. Lesson 17 Long and Short Vowels ♥ Luisa ♥
  • 2.
    • Problems of Spelling English
    • Vowel substitutions caused by the inconsistencies of English spelling.
    • The differences between the English and some other system of spelling.
    • More than twice as many vowel sounds in English as there are five vowel letters.
    • The symbols ω and y are used to represent both consonant and vowel sound.
    • English has borrowed words and elements of foreign spelling systems from other languages.
  • 3.
    • The system of Long and Short Vowels
    • The diacritical marks :
    • long vowels f ā t e ; short vowels f ă t
    • Each of the five English vowel letters -- a, e, i, o, u --
    • has two most common sounds in stressed syllables,
    • a long sound and a short sound.
  • 4.
    • Each of the long sounds is a diphthong that includes
    • one or both of the glides / y / or / w /. The short sounds
    • are transcribed without glides.
    • English alphabet are the same as their long sounds
    • and the short sounds as their nicknames.
    • EX : /ey/ is the name of “a” and /æ/ is its nickname
    • The long vowels are sometimes called tense , since
    • they are often pronounced with more muscular tension
    • than the short vowels, which are sometimes called lax .
  • 5.
    • Each vowel letter is pronounced with its long sound
      • If it is final in the syllable :
      • p ā -per, sh ē , f ī -nal, n ō , d ū -ty
      • If it is followed by an unpronounced e , or
      • a consonant plus an unpronounced e :
      • m ā ke, ē ve, d ī e, ū se,
    • Each vowel letter is pronounced with its short sound
      • If it is followed in the same syllable by a consonant :
      • m ă t-ter, w ĕ nt, r ĭ v-er, d ŏ c-tor, c ŭ t
    • These rules only apply to vowels in stressed syllables .
    • we already know that in unstressed syllables vowel
    • letters are normally pronounced as / ə /, / ı /, or / u /
  • 6.
    • Vowel Sounds and Syllable Boundaries
    • Q : It does not enable us to predict the pronunciation of
    • a large groups of words of more than one syllable.
    • EX : ́ ever and ́ even
    • The problem is to know where one syllable ends and
    • the next syllable begins.
    • If the stressed vowel in ́ ever is final in the syllable, pronounced as /iy/. And if the stressed vowel is followed in the same syllable by a consonant, pronounced as / ε /.
  • 7.
    • Actually, the situation varies depending on the letter that represents the stressed vowel sound.
    • The letter i usually has a short sound.
      • Short / ı / : add i tion, c i ty, f i nish, cons i der, g i ven
      • Long /ay/ : Ch i na, cl i mate, f i nal, Fr i day
    • The letter e usually has a short sound.
      • Short / ε / : b e nefit, cr e dit, l e vel, Am e rican
      • Long /iy/ : e qual, e vil, fr e quent, r e cent
    • The letter a has long and short sounds with almost equal frequency.
      • Short / æ / : a nimal, h a bit, f a mily, b a lance, s a lary
      • Long /ey/ : A sia, b a by, f a mous, f a vor, l a dy
  • 8.
    • The letter o has long and short sounds with almost equal frequency.
      • Short /a/ : b o dy, c o py, h o liday, m o del
      • Long /ow/ : br o ken, l o cal, m o tion, m o ment
    • The letter u almost has a long sound.
      • Short / ə/ : p u nish, st u dy
      • Long /yuw/ : f u ture, h u man, m u sic, u sual
    • Remember that long vowels usually end a syllable (except when followed by a consonant plus an unpronounced e ), but short vowels do not end a syllable.
  • 9.
    • Vowels before l or r
    • Because of the lowering and backing of the tongue that are involved in producing the two liquid, /l/ and /r/ tend by assimilation to make any vowel that precedes them have a more open or back sound than it would have.
    • EX : actor / ́ æ ktər/ v.s. alter / ́ כ ltər/
    • It is not always true long vowels take more time to pronounce than do short vowels. It is true a long vowel lasts longer than a short vowel when the two occur in the same linguistic environment.
    • EX : We’ll t a ke it up v.s. We’ll t a ck it up
    • bid /b ı d/ v.s. bite /bayt/
  • 10.           
  • 11.  
  • 12. Lesson 13
    • Consonant Substitutions
    • Part 1
  • 13.
    • Consonant Substitutions
    • 【 def 】 Consonant substitution refers to the speech error in which one consonant is incorrectly used in place of another. Lots of substitutions involve the replacement of a voiced consonant by its voiceless counterpart.
    • EX : those /dowz / instead of /owz/
  • 14.
    • / θ /,/t/, and /s/ ; / ð /, /d/,and /z/
    • Toward/ θ / and/ð /, most ESL students have trouble and often try to replace them by other, such as/t/ and /d/ instead of / θ / and / ð /,sometimes /s/ and /z/ heard also.
    • / θ / and / ð / make up a voiced-voiceless pair.
    • / ð / is usually a bit shorter sound than / θ /.
    • EX : thigh / θ ay/ v.s. thy / ð ay/
    • When /t/ is substituted for / θ /, it means that a stop has been substituted for a continuant. The same thing happens when /d/ replaces / ð /.
    • EX: thing as /tıŋ/ instead of / θ ıŋ/
    • the as /də/ instead of / ð ə/
  • 15.
    • Both substitutions can be avoided by making a longer but a less firm contact with the tongue, and by making this contact between the teeth rather than against the tooth ridge.
    • When /s/ is substituted for / θ /,or /z/ for / ð /, the primary problem is with the place of articulation
    • The substitution can be avoided by advancing the tip of the tongue and allowing the air to escape between it and the teeth.
    • Such substitutions can be corrected when the speaker makes effort to form them well, but this kind of error is persistent in the short, unstressed words of a sentence.
    • EX : of the // knew that
  • 16.
    • /d ž / and /y/
    • /y/ is a glide, a semi-vowel that occur after a vowel sound in diphthongs such as / כ y / and /ay/. /y/ also occurs at the beginning of a syllable and thus before a vowel sound, as in young / y əŋ /. This means /y/ can’t very well be pronounced alone or separated from the following vowel; / d ž / is an affricate and voiced sound.
    • The essential difference is this contact at the beginning of /d ž / between the tongue and the upper tooth ridge. For /y/, no part of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth; only light contacts are made between the tongue tip and lower teeth and between the sides of the tongue and the upper bicuspids.
  • 17.
    • / š / and /t š /
    • / š / and /t š / are the voiceless counterparts of / ž / and /d ž /. In the production of / š / and /t š / , there is more sound of the outrush of air to make up for the lack of voicing. When / š / is substituted for /t š /. It means that the brief contact between the tongue tip and upper tooth ridge, necessary for /t/, has been omitted.
    • EX : question /kw ε s š ən/ instead of /kw ε s t š ən/
    • sheep / š iyp/ v.s. Cheap / t š iyp/
  • 18.
    • ♥ Thank you for your attention ♥
    • ﹡ (σ ゚∀゚ *)σ