Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
2/08 Presentation on Biodiesel and Yokayo Biofuels
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

2/08 Presentation on Biodiesel and Yokayo Biofuels

2,620
views

Published on

An introduction to biodiesel, the typical manufacturing process, the process used by Yokayo Biofuels, and the state of the movement and industry.

An introduction to biodiesel, the typical manufacturing process, the process used by Yokayo Biofuels, and the state of the movement and industry.

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,620
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
268
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Biodiesel: The Fuel, the Industry, and the State of the Movement Kumar Plocher 2/08
  • 2. What’s in the Jar?
    • “ Biodiesel” is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
  • 3. What’s in the Jar?
    • “ Biodiesel” is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
    • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned through transesterification .
  • 4. What’s in the Jar?
    • “ Biodiesel” is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
    • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned through transesterification .
    • A particular biodiesel’s source oil is known as its “feedstock”
  • 5. What’s in the Jar?
    • “ Biodiesel” is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
    • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned through transesterification .
    • A particular biodiesel’s source oil is known as its “feedstock”
    • Biodiesel can be dark or light, and comprises many different colors and many different smells
  • 6. Transesterification
    • The basic ingredients for 1 L of biodiesel production, using the simplest possible method:
        • 1 liter of virgin, uncooked vegetable oil
        • 200 milliliters of methyl alcohol (methanol)
        • 5 grams of Sodium Hydroxide (lye)
        • Yields approximately 1 L biodiesel,
        • 200 milliliters glycerol byproduct
  • 7. Transesterification
    • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
  • 8. Transesterification
    • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
    • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.
  • 9. Transesterification
    • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
    • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.
    • The mixture is agitated for approximately 15 minutes.
  • 10. Transesterification
    • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
    • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.
    • The mixture is agitated for approximately 15 minutes.
    • The mixture is given time to settle into biodiesel and glycerol byproduct.
  • 11. What’s Happening?
    • The triglyceride molecule is “cracked” into a glycerol molecule and three esters
    • The esters re-attach to methanol molecules, forming methyl esters
    • A crude glycerol byproduct is created
  • 12. In the Real World… Not all feedstocks are created equal, and often times the cheapest and easiest to acquire are, in many ways, the hardest to work with. Feedstocks that are higher in Free Fatty Acids (i.e. used fryer oil), known as FFAs, require a titration that determines how much extra lye is needed to compensate for the oil’s acidity. Feedstocks that are really high in FFAs may require alternatives to lye, alternative amounts of alcohol, and different production processes entirely.
  • 13. Yokayo Transesterification
    • A typical batch of Yokayo Biofuels biodiesel:
        • 1100 gallons of screened, heated, dewatered, filtered used fryer oil
        • ~275 gallons of methanol (varies, based on titration), split into 2 stages (i.e. 230/45)
        • ~140 lbs. of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH; varies, based on titration), split into 2 stages (i.e. 120/20)
        • We mix for 2 hours, settle for 1 1/2 hours, drain the glycerol, and then do the second stage, which is another 2 hours of mixing followed by overnight settling. The reaction is done around 130 deg F, at atmospheric pressure, in a stainless steel reaction vessel. A simple test for conversion completion is performed before the batch is deemed finished. Sometimes, 3 or more stages are necessary.
        • Yields approximately 1000 gallons biodiesel,
        • ~300 gallons crude glycerol byproduct
  • 14. What’s Next…
    • The crude methyl esters (not yet “biodiesel”) go into a wash process.
    • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation
  • 15. What’s Next…
    • The crude methyl esters (not yet “biodiesel”) go into a wash process.
    • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation
    • The crude glycerol goes into settling tanks to recover biodiesel.
    • - Then on to purification or low value uses
  • 16. What’s Next…
    • The crude methyl esters (not yet “biodiesel”) go into a wash process.
    • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation
    • The crude glycerol goes into settling tanks to recover biodiesel.
    • - Then on to purification or low value uses
    • The fuel is still not considered “biodiesel” until it has been dehydrated and filtered and meets the ASTM spec…
  • 17. The ASTM Standard, D 6751
    • Property Method Limits Units
    • Water & Sediment D2709 0.050 MAX % vol.
    • Kinematic Viscosity, D445 1.9-6.0 mm2/Sec.
    • Sulfated Ash D874 0.020 MAX % mass
    • Sulfur
    • S 15 Grade D5453 0.0015 MAX % mass
    • S 500 Grade D5453 0.05 MAX % mass
    • Copper Strip corrosion D130 No. 3 MAX
    • Alcohol Content (one of the following must be met)
    • Methanol Content EN14110 0.20 MAX % vol.
    • Flashpoint, closed cup D93 130 MIN ° C
    • Cetane Number D613 47 MIN
    • Cloudpoint D2500 Report to Customer° C
    • Carbon Residue D4530 0.050 MAX % mass
    • Acid Number D664 0.50 MAX mg KOH/g
    • Free Glycerine D6584 0.020 MAX % mass
    • Total Glycerine D6584 0.24 MAX % mass
    • Phosphorus D4951 10 MAX ppm
    • Vacuum Distillation End Point D1160 360 MAX ° C
    • Oxidative Stability EN14112 3 MIN hours
    • Calcium and Magnesium (combined) EN14538 5 MAX ppm
    • Sodium and Potassium (combined) EN14538 5 MAX ppm
  • 18. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • 19. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • 20. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • 21. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • 22. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
    • • Higher lubricity
  • 23. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
    • • Higher lubricity
    • • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
  • 24. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
    • • Higher lubricity
    • • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
    • • Is only “alternative” fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
    • Health Effects Testing
  • 25. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
    • • Higher lubricity
    • • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
    • • Is only “alternative” fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
    • Health Effects Testing
    • • Is “plug and play” w/existing petroleum infrastructure
  • 26. Biodiesel Benefits
    • • Is CO 2 -neutral
    • • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
    • • “ No sulfur” fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
    • • Domestically sourced and manufactured
    • • Higher lubricity
    • • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
    • • Is only “alternative” fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
    • Health Effects Testing
    • • Is “plug and play” w/existing petroleum infrastructure
    • • Can be made from a wide variety of feedstocks, including
    • recycled “waste”, organic crops, and über crops such as
    • algae
  • 27. Biodiesel “3 Things to Know”
    • Properly made biodiesel does have some
    • characteristics that are good to know about:
  • 28. Biodiesel “3 Things to Know”
    • Properly made biodiesel does have some
    • characteristics that are good to know about:
    • Solvent nature is not compatible with rubber fuel
    • lines
  • 29. Biodiesel “3 Things to Know”
    • Properly made biodiesel does have some
    • characteristics that are good to know about:
    • Solvent nature is not compatible with rubber fuel
    • lines
    • Solvent nature cleans out fuel tanks
  • 30. Biodiesel “3 Things to Know”
    • Properly made biodiesel does have some
    • characteristics that are good to know about:
    • Solvent nature is not compatible with rubber fuel
    • lines
    • Solvent nature cleans out fuel tanks
    • Cold weather characteristics are worse than
    • those of petroleum diesel
  • 31. A Tale of Two Industries
    • On the one hand are big soy corporations
    • and big petrochemical firms, often
    • working in partnership
  • 32. A Tale of Two Industries
    • On the one hand are big soy corporations
    • and big petrochemical firms, often
    • working in partnership
    • Alternatively, there is a growing number of
    • smaller independent companies and
    • cooperatives dedicated to producing
    • and distributing sustainable biodiesel
  • 33. A Tale of Two Industries
    • Centralization
    • vs.
    • Decentralization
  • 34. Yokayo Biofuels
    • Founded in 2001
    • Focused on the growth of a living, local economy
    • Pioneering a sustainable, vertically-integrated business
    • model
  • 35. Biodiesel Books
    • From the Fryer to the Fuel Tank , by Josh Tickell
    • Biodiesel Homebrew Guide , by Maria “Girl Mark”
    • Alovert
    • The Biodiesel Handbook , by Gerhard Knothe,
    • Jon Van Gerpen, and Jürgen Krahl
    • Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines , by K.
    • Shaine Tyson (NREL)
    • Biodiesel , by Greg Pahl
    • Biodiesel Power , by Lyle Estill
  • 36. And, for the kids…
  • 37. Biodiesel Web Resources
    • http://www.fuelresponsibly.org
    • - the Sustainable Biodiesel Alliance
    • http://www.biodiesel.infopop.cc
    • - clearinghouse for biodiesel homebrewers
    • http://biodieselblogs.truffula.net
    • - a blog aggregator, and a good place to read biodiesel news and related tidbits
    • http://www.biodiesel.org
    • - the website of the National Biodiesel Board
    • http://www.ybiofuels.org
    • - Yokayo Biofuels website
    • http://www.unh.edu/p2/biodiesel/article_alge.html
    • - Inspiring article about algae biodiesel
  • 38. Contact Info
    • Kumar Plocher
    • President, Yokayo Biofuels, Inc.
    • kumar @ybiofuels.org
    • 1-877-806-0900
  • 39. (BIO)DIESEL HYBRIDS
  • 40. (Bio)Diesel Motorcycle!!!