The foundations of EA


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The foundations of EA

  1. 1. The Foundations of Enterprise Architecture Haydar ARSLANCA 04.12.2013
  2. 2. Agenda • Why Enterprise Architecture? • What is Enterprise Architecture (EA)? • Enterprise Architecture Frameworks • TOGAF Architecture Development Method
  3. 3. Why Enterprise Architecture?
  4. 4. Why Enterprise Architecture? Business Goals Technology Challenges Delivering Real Business Value Reduce Costs Increasing System Complexity Enterprise Architecture Business Integration Enterprise Mgmt Faster to Market Infrastructure Intelligence & Analysis Business - IT Alignment Innovate Applications & Services Security& Compliance Globalization Data & Content Application Development
  5. 5. Operating Models
  6. 6. Enterprise Architecture as Strategy
  7. 7. What is an Enterprise • A collection of organizations that share a common set of goals Government agency Part of a corporation Corporation •Large corporations may comprise multiple enterprises • May be an “extended enterprise” including partners, suppliers and customers
  8. 8. What is Architecture Architecture is: A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation The structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time
  9. 9. What is Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture is: The organizing logic for business processes and IT infrastructure reflecting the integration and standardization requirements of the firm’s operating model.[1] A method and an organizing principle that aligns functional business objectives and strategies with an IT strategy and execution plan. [2] [1] MIT Center for Information Systems Research and future objectives. [2] Oracle
  10. 10. Architecture Types
  11. 11. Enterprise Architect • Must be well-educated in technology • Familiar with the business processes in an enterprise • The role of an Enterprise Architect is multi-faceted “A fool with a tool is still a fool” “When I hire for Enterprise Architects, I look for individuals who have an exceptional ability to communicate, deal with political situations, and take on big bold organizational challenges. If all s/he brings to the table are strong architectural abilities, I pass on that individual and keep looking.” Kathy Watanabe, Microsoft Chief IT Architect
  12. 12. Enterprise Architect (Depth vs. Breadth)
  13. 13. History of Enterprise Architecture •J.A. Zachman published an article titled “A Framework for Information Systems Architecture” in the IBM Systems Journal Started in 1987 • In 1991, the first draft of the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM) was completed with the TAFIM Technical Reference Model (TAFIM TRM) •Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) was developed in 1998. •Later, this was turned over to The Open Group and known today as The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF)
  14. 14. History of Enterprise Architecture
  15. 15. What is an Architecture Framework An architecture framework is a toolkit which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures
  16. 16. Architecture Framework  Common vocabulary, models, and taxonomy  Processes, principles, strategies and tools  Reference architectures and models  Prescriptive guidance (EA processes, architecture content, implementation roadmap, governance)  Catalog of architecture deliverables and artifacts  Enterprise Architecture Content Metamodel  Recommended set of products and configurations (optional)
  17. 17. EA Frameworks Zachman Framework - IBM framework from 1980 TOGAF - The Open Group Architecture Framework FEA - OMB Federal Enterprise Architecture The Gartner Methodology - (formerly the Meta Framework) DoDAF - DoD Architecture Framework MoDAF - UK Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework AGATE - The France DGA Architecture Framework MDA - OMGs Model Driven Architecture SOMF - Service Oriented Modeling Framework (Methodologies Corporation) SABSA - Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture
  18. 18. Zachman Enterprise Framework  Originally authored by John Zachman in the 1980s at IBM and later was adopted by many other IT organizations.  A formal and structural model to define an enterprise in a two dimensional classification matrix architecture.  The matrix prospective described by types of stakeholders (rows) and aspects of the architecture (columns).
  19. 19. Zachman Enterprise Framework
  20. 20. Zachman Framework
  21. 21. Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework
  22. 22. Federal Enterprise Architecture
  23. 23. Federal Enterprise Architecture Attempt by US Federal government to unite myriads of its agencies under a single common and universal architecture. It is a new architecture but has a long tradition behind it. In Summary: FEA is the most comprehensive of all other architectures available as of today. It has a taxonomy like Zachman framework and comprehensive process similar to TOGAF It can be described as consisting of five reference models – business, service, component, technical and data.
  24. 24. Components of FEA
  25. 25. The Open Group Architecture Framework  An architecture framework that enables practitioners to design, evaluate, and build the right architecture for a particular business  TOGAF was developed by members of the Open Group working within the Architecture Forum  The first version was made available in 1995 by the US Department of Defense from their Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM).  Since then, successive versions of TOGAF have been available to the public from the Open Group website.  TOGAF documentations can be downloaded from the site (
  26. 26. TOGAF Components
  27. 27. Architecture Development Method (ADM)
  28. 28. Preliminary Phase This phase prepares the organisation for undertaking successful enterprise architecture projects  Understand business environment  High level management commitment  Agreement on scope  Establish principles  Establish governance structure  Agree method to be adopted
  29. 29. Phase A - Architecture Vision Initiates one iteration of the architecture process  Sets scope, constraints, expectations  Required at the start of every architecture cycle  Create the Architecture Vision  Validates business context  Creates Statement of Architecture Work
  30. 30. Phase B - Business Architecture The fundamental organization of a business, embodied in  its business processes and people,  their relationships  to each other and the environment,  and the principles governing its design and evolution Shows how the organization meets its business goals
  31. 31. Business Architecture - Content  Organization structure  Business goals and objectives  Business functions  Business services  Business processes  Business roles  Correlation of organization and functions
  32. 32. Business Architecture - Steps 1. Select reference models,viewpoints and tools 2. Define Baseline Architecture Description 3. Define Target Architecture Description 4. Perform gap analysis 5. Define roadmap components 6. Conduct formal stakeholder review 7. Finalize the Architecture 8. Create Architecture Definition Document
  33. 33. Phase C - Information Systems Architectures The fundamental organization of an IT system, embodied in  The major types of information and application systems that process them  Relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution Shows how the IT systems meets the business goals of the enterprise
  34. 34. Phase D – Technology Architecture The fundamental organization of an IT system, embodied in  its hardware, software and communications technology  their relationships to each other and the environment,  and the principles governing its design and evolution
  35. 35. Phase E – Opportunities & Solutions Perform initial implementation planning  Identify the major implementation projects  Group projects into Transition Architectures  Decide on approach  Make v Buy v Re-Use Outsource COTS Open Source Assess priorities  Identify dependencies
  36. 36. Phase F – Migration Planning  For projects identified in Phase E perform  Cost/benefit analysis  Risk assessment  Develop a detailed Implementation and Migration Plan
  37. 37. Phase G – Implementation Governance Provide architectural oversight for the implementation. Defines architecture constraints on implementation projects Architecture contract Monitors implementation work for conformance Produce a Business Value Realization.
  38. 38. Phase H – Change Management  Provide continual monitoring and a change management process  Ensures that changes to the architecture are managed in a cohesive and architected way  Establishes and supports the Enterprise Architecture to provide flexibility to evolve rapidly in response to changes in the technology or business environment  Monitors the business and capacity management
  39. 39. Requirements Management
  40. 40. Delta Airlines
  41. 41. MIT Systems on a Page
  42. 42. Solution Concept Diagram
  43. 43. Functional Decomposition Diagram Primary Support Human Admin Finance Resources Business Planning Marketing & Sales Manage Public Develop & Track Plan Human Formulate Develop New Relations Financial Plan Resources Strategy Business Provide Legal Appropriate Services Funds Acquire Human Resources Develop and Maintain Business Plan Establish Customer Requirements Perform Audit & Controls Develop & Manage Product Cost Manage Manage Transportation Payables Maintain Manage Facilities Receivables Provide Administrative Services Manage Assets Develop Obtain Sales Employees Commitments Provide Employee Services Manage Union Activities Terminate Active Employment Provide Customer Support Engineering Research and Develop Technology Engineer and Design Products Engineer and Design Processes Inventory Plan Material Requirements Procure Equipment Material & Tools Manage Suppliers Manufacturing Plan Manufacturing Requirements Engineer Packages Perform Quality Ship Engineering Products Convert Resources to Product Design Tools Manage Control and Equipment Inventory Production Manage Engineering Changes Distribution Maintain Plant Equipment & Tools Manage Warranty Activities
  44. 44. Business Services and Information Diagram
  45. 45. Application and User Location Diagram
  46. 46. Application Communication Diagram
  47. 47. System Use Case Diagram
  48. 48. Data Dissemination Diagram
  49. 49. Class Diagram
  50. 50. Platform Decomposition Diagram
  51. 51. Benefits Diagram
  52. 52. Questions