THE PROTOPLAST
The Cell    the basic unit of life    came from the Latin word cella meaning     storeroom or chamber    term first use...
The Cell     Composed of:1.    Protoplast – the site of cellular      metabolism2.    Cell wall-outermost part of a plant...
THE PROTOPLAST    Made up of:    1. Nucleus    2. Cytoplasm         consists of a liquid, colloidal phase of the      ...
THE PROTOPLAST    2. Cytoplasm         with membrane-bound organelles            Bounded by double membranes          ...
PLASMA MEMBRANE(ectoplast/plasmalemma)    Controls passage of various substances into     and out of the protoplast     ...
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES     Composition1.    Phospholipids2.    Proteins3.    Carbohydrates
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane bilayer    Phospholipids•  re amphipathic Amolecules withhydrophobic nonpolarhydrocarbon tail...
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane Protein2 types:  Integral proteins- integrated into the bilayer     •    May have access to ...
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane ProteinFUNCTIONS:
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES  osette of enzymes mediate the synthesis of Rcellulose microfibrils
PROTOPLASTComposed of:  Nucleus Cytoplasm
NUCLEUS
NUCLEUS          •  nformation           I          center of the cell          •  ontains the           C          bulk o...
Cytoplasm Cytosol          Non-particulate portion; the liquid portion         Contains proteins and other solutes     ...
Cytoplasm system  Endomembrane         System includes the nuclear envelope,          endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi appar...
ribosome
RIBOSOMESSites of protein synthesis•  mall spherical bodies about 15-20 nm in diameter S•  onsist of protein and RNA C•  o...
ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
Nuclear envelope    with 2 membranes; with pores through     which molecules of RNA may leave the     nucleus and enter t...
•  ndoplasmic reticulum- continuous with nuclear Eenvelope•  types of ER 2-smooth- tubular; site of lipid      synthesis-r...
•  olgi bodies (also called dyctyosomes, golgi stacks, Ggolgi apparatus or simply golgi)-Consist of stacks of cisternae-po...
VACUOLE•  nveloped by tonoplast/vacuolar membrane E•  ontains a variety of inorganic ions,organic acids, sugars, Cenzymes ...
Plasma Membrane
Cellular organelles and     cytoskeleton
MITOCHONDRIA•  ites of respiration and S•  nveloped by 2 E•  nner membrane is I                                           ...
PLASTIDS•  riginate from proplastid pigments OTypes:Chloroplastids•  ontain photosynthetic C    pigments•  ite of photosyn...
PLASTIDSLeucoplastids  •  olorless plastids   C  •  ypes:   T   1. Amyloplastids             store starch   2. Elaioplasti...
PLASTID TYPES ARE INTERCONVERTIBLE
-etioplast is a plastid that develops in the absence of light; nochloroplast, no chlorophyll; characterized by prolamellar...
MICROBODIES•  ounded by a single membrane B•  eroxisomes- P      -major site of O2 consumption; uses O2 in      oxidation ...
Peroxisome
Glyoxysomes- contain enzymes for the conversion offats to carbohydrates during seed germinationCytoskeleton s a network o...
CYTOSKELETON  lays a major role in cell motility. p   -This involves limited movements of parts of the cell   (streaming ...
MICROTUBULES  pprox 25 nm diameter A  omposed of 13 spherical protein subunits (dimers of α Cand ß tubulin)  omprise th...
MICROTUBULES  unction as tracks that guide motor proteins carrying f       organelles to their destination.  esists comp...
CYTOSKELETON
MICROTUBULES  phragmoplast, a complex of microtubules   that guides the orderly alignment of the   vesicles in the midzone
MICROTUBULES  xert some control over orientation of microfibrils ebecause in regions of cell wall growth and cellulosemic...
ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS  bout 7 nm in diameter a  omposed of globular actin. C  n actin microfilament consists of a twiste...
ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS    Involved in cleavage furrow formation    On the cytoplasmic side of the cleavage furrow a     co...
ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS nvolved in cytoplasmic streaming i       -This speeds the distribution of materialswithin        the...
Intermediate filamentsintermediate in size at 8 - 12 nanometers are specialized for bearing tension.  re more permanent ...
ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES- products of cellmetabolism  torage products S     tarch in the form of starch grains    s     rot...
LIPID BODIES OR OLEOSOMES•  unction: storage and transport of lipids f
ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES- products of cellmetabolismWaste productsCrystals-calcium oxalate crystals       May be a form of sto...
CRYSTALS
ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES    Tannins and tanniniferous substances are     phenolic by-products         primary function – pro...
The End
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
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Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr. Evangelista

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Lesson 4 bio101 (c)Dr. Evangelista

  1. 1. THE PROTOPLAST
  2. 2. The Cell  the basic unit of life  came from the Latin word cella meaning storeroom or chamber  term first used by Robert Hooke in 1665 while observing cork cells
  3. 3. The Cell  Composed of:1.  Protoplast – the site of cellular metabolism2.  Cell wall-outermost part of a plant cell
  4. 4. THE PROTOPLAST  Made up of:  1. Nucleus  2. Cytoplasm   consists of a liquid, colloidal phase of the protoplast (cytosol/hyaloplasm/cytoplasmic ground substance)   with membrane-bound organelles
  5. 5. THE PROTOPLAST  2. Cytoplasm   with membrane-bound organelles   Bounded by double membranes   Bounded by single membrane   ribosomes   endomembrane systems   cytoskeleton
  6. 6. PLASMA MEMBRANE(ectoplast/plasmalemma)  Controls passage of various substances into and out of the protoplast   In transfer cells, are highly invaginated, which facilitates transfer of materials  It coordinates the synthesis and assembly of cell wall microfibrils (cellulose)
  7. 7. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES  Composition1.  Phospholipids2.  Proteins3.  Carbohydrates
  8. 8. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane bilayer Phospholipids•  re amphipathic Amolecules withhydrophobic nonpolarhydrocarbon tails andhydrophilic heads
  9. 9. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane Protein2 types:  Integral proteins- integrated into the bilayer •  May have access to only one side of the membrane •  Span the entire bilayer and have access to both sides of the membrane (transmembrane protein)  Peripheral proteins- bound to the hydrophilic surface of transmembrane protein
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembrane ProteinFUNCTIONS:
  11. 11. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES  osette of enzymes mediate the synthesis of Rcellulose microfibrils
  12. 12. PROTOPLASTComposed of: Nucleus Cytoplasm
  13. 13. NUCLEUS
  14. 14. NUCLEUS •  nformation I center of the cell •  ontains the C bulk of the cell’s DNA •  ucleolus- site N of rRNA synthesis
  15. 15. Cytoplasm Cytosol    Non-particulate portion; the liquid portion   Contains proteins and other solutes   Often assumes the physical properties of a gel  Endomembrane system   These membranes are either in direct contact or connected via transfer of vesicles, sacs of membrane.
  16. 16. Cytoplasm system  Endomembrane   System includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.  Cellular organelles   Membrane-limited compartments   Serve to compartmentalize the cells  Cytoskeleton
  17. 17. ribosome
  18. 18. RIBOSOMESSites of protein synthesis•  mall spherical bodies about 15-20 nm in diameter S•  onsist of protein and RNA C•  ound along ER, cytoplasm, within mitochondria and plastids F
  19. 19. ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
  20. 20. Nuclear envelope  with 2 membranes; with pores through which molecules of RNA may leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm
  21. 21. •  ndoplasmic reticulum- continuous with nuclear Eenvelope•  types of ER 2-smooth- tubular; site of lipid synthesis-rough - lamellar; site of synthesis of membrane proteins and proteins to be secreted outside the cell and into the vacuole
  22. 22. •  olgi bodies (also called dyctyosomes, golgi stacks, Ggolgi apparatus or simply golgi)-Consist of stacks of cisternae-polarized structure-receiving end from ER is cis face-shipping side is the trans face -finishes, sorts and ships cell products
  23. 23. VACUOLE•  nveloped by tonoplast/vacuolar membrane E•  ontains a variety of inorganic ions,organic acids, sugars, Cenzymes and secondary metabolic products includingpigments•  lays a role in maintaining water balance of cells; active p cytosolabsorption of ions result in increase in turgorpressure in the cell and its expansionand growth•  omparable to lysosomes C of animal cells Cell wall chloroplast
  24. 24. Plasma Membrane
  25. 25. Cellular organelles and cytoskeleton
  26. 26. MITOCHONDRIA•  ites of respiration and S•  nveloped by 2 E•  nner membrane is I invaginated (cr•  nzymes for ATP production E  itochondrial matrix,a mfluid- filled space with DNA,
  27. 27. PLASTIDS•  riginate from proplastid pigments OTypes:Chloroplastids•  ontain photosynthetic C pigments•  ite of photosynthesis SChromoplastids•  ontain carotenoid pigments C•  ften so concentrated that they form crystalline deposits O
  28. 28. PLASTIDSLeucoplastids •  olorless plastids C •  ypes: T 1. Amyloplastids store starch 2. Elaioplastids store fats 3.  roteinoplasts- store p proteins
  29. 29. PLASTID TYPES ARE INTERCONVERTIBLE
  30. 30. -etioplast is a plastid that develops in the absence of light; nochloroplast, no chlorophyll; characterized by prolamellar bodiescomposed of tubular membranes which comprise aparacrystalline lattice
  31. 31. MICROBODIES•  ounded by a single membrane B•  eroxisomes- P -major site of O2 consumption; uses O2 in oxidation reactions that convert harmful metabolic by-products into nontoxic substances such as water -break down fats -participate in photorespiration; enzymes in peroxisomes help minimize the lossorganic products due to photorespiration.
  32. 32. Peroxisome
  33. 33. Glyoxysomes- contain enzymes for the conversion offats to carbohydrates during seed germinationCytoskeleton s a network of fibers i extending throughout the cy  t provides mechanical I support and maintains  t provides anchorage for I many organellesand cytosolic enzymes.
  34. 34. CYTOSKELETON  lays a major role in cell motility. p -This involves limited movements of parts of the cell (streaming cytoplasm, vesicle and organelle movement). -The cytoskeleton interacts with motor proteins. -Three main types of fibers in the cytoskeleton: •  icrotubules m •  icrofilaments m • intermediate filaments.
  35. 35. MICROTUBULES  pprox 25 nm diameter A  omposed of 13 spherical protein subunits (dimers of α Cand ß tubulin)  omprise the spindle fibers in dividing cells that move Cchromosomes during cell division.
  36. 36. MICROTUBULES  unction as tracks that guide motor proteins carrying f organelles to their destination.  esists compression to the cell. r
  37. 37. CYTOSKELETON
  38. 38. MICROTUBULES  phragmoplast, a complex of microtubules that guides the orderly alignment of the vesicles in the midzone
  39. 39. MICROTUBULES  xert some control over orientation of microfibrils ebecause in regions of cell wall growth and cellulosemicrofibril synthesis , microtubules below theplasmalemma are routinely observed in an orientationparallel to that of the newly synthesized microfibrils
  40. 40. ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS  bout 7 nm in diameter a  omposed of globular actin. C  n actin microfilament consists of a twisted double A chain of actin subunits.  elp maintain cell shape. h
  41. 41. ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS  Involved in cleavage furrow formation  On the cytoplasmic side of the cleavage furrow a contractile ring of actin microfilaments and the motor protein myosin form.  Contraction of the ring pinches the cell in two
  42. 42. ACTIN MICROFILAMENTS nvolved in cytoplasmic streaming i -This speeds the distribution of materialswithin the cell.
  43. 43. Intermediate filamentsintermediate in size at 8 - 12 nanometers are specialized for bearing tension.  re more permanent fixtures of the cytoskeleton than are athe other two classes. hey reinforce cell shape t  uclear side of the envelope is lined by the nuclear nlamina, a network of intermediate filaments that maintainthe shape of the nucleus.
  44. 44. ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES- products of cellmetabolism  torage products S   tarch in the form of starch grains s   roteins which form aleurone grains p   ils in elaioplasts or spherosomes (enveloped by o single membrane or may be lacking)   axes- long-chain lipid compounds, that occur as w part of the protective coating (cuticle) on the epidermis
  45. 45. LIPID BODIES OR OLEOSOMES•  unction: storage and transport of lipids f
  46. 46. ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES- products of cellmetabolismWaste productsCrystals-calcium oxalate crystals May be a form of stored calcium-calcium carbonate crystalsSilica –common constituent of epidermal cell wall of grasses -silica bodies – masses of silica which fill some epidermal cells -provides protection from herbivory and mechanical strength
  47. 47. CRYSTALS
  48. 48. ERGASTIC SUBSTRANCES  Tannins and tanniniferous substances are phenolic by-products   primary function – protective,their astringency serving as a repellent to predators   an impediment to the invasion of parasitic organisms
  49. 49. The End
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