Introduction Definition • Plant anatomy –the study of the internal structure of various parts of the plant Applications of plant anatomy • Taxonomic application – e.g. problem plants • Proper authentication of crude drug material – For safety and quality to be maintained – Morphology and anatomy of drug source is published in British and English pharmacopoeias
Introduction Applications of plant anatomy • Avoids food adulterants and contaminants Mango (Mangifera indica L)Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L)
• ORENSIC APPLICATIONS F Forensic botany refers to the use of plant materials to help solve crimes or resolve other legal problems. The first botanical testimony to be heard in a North American court concerned the analysis of the wood grain of the ladder used in the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh Jr., and led to the conviction of Bruno Hauptmann for the crime in 1935.Xylotomist Arthur Koehler of the United StatesForest Service undertook a meticulous examinationof the ladder and when the case finally came to trialfour years later, offered the first botanical testimonyever to be heard and accepted in American courts.
LIVING ORGANISMS The five-kingdom system prevailed in biology for over 20 years.Prokaryotes EukaryotesKingdomMonera Unicell/simple Multicellular multicellular organisms organisms Kingdom Protista Autotroph Heterotroph Kingdom Plantae Saprophytes Ingestion of Kingdom other Fungi organisms Kingdom Animalia
LIVING ORGANISMS• uring the last three Ddecades, systematistsapplying cladisticanalysis, including theconstruction ofcladograms based onmolecular data, havebeen identifyingproblems with the five-kingdom system.
WHAT IS A PLANT? A multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autrotroph. With cell walls made mostly of cellulose Stored food in the form of starch Chlorophyll a directly involved in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy Chloroplasts contain chl b as accessory pigment
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies) mall plants that lack true roots, Sstems and leaves hey lack vascular tissue T ater is necessary for the transfer Wof sperm prior to fertilization ametophyte is dominant and Gnutritionally independent
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies) Sporophyte is permanently attached to the gametophyte and dependent upon it for water and minerals Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids are present in the plastids
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies) he first true land plants, a cuticle is T present nfluential in soil development by their I participation in plant succession, assists in preventing soil erosion
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern) porophyte have scalelike leaves S(enations) o roots N ichotomously branched D erminal sporangia (synangium, plural Tsynangia)
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern) omosporous – with only one type of Hmeiospore ater is necessary for transfer of Wsperm previous to fertilization oth sporophyte and gametophyte are Bnutritionally independent
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern) Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells• Genera: Psilotum, Tmesipteris
Division Lycophyta (club mosses)
Division Lycophyta (club mosses) • Sporophytes may be homosporous or heterosporous (two kinds of meiospores) • Have roots, stems and small leaves • Single sporangia are borne on the upper surface of leaves (sporophylls) which are arranged in the form of a cone or strobilus
Division Lycophyta (club mosses) • Water is necessary for fertilization to occur • The sporophyte is dominant over gametophyte • Both sporophyte and gametophyte are nutritionally independent
Division Lycophyta (club mosses) • Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells • Genera: Lycopodium, Selaginella
Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails)
Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails) Sporophytes have roots, stems, and small leaves The leaves and branches are whorled The stem is hollow, jointed and contains silica
Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails) on stalked, Groups of sporangia are borne umbrella-like structures, which are grouped to form strobili Sporophyte is the dominant phase The gametophyte is small and both are nutritionally independent
Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails) Elaters are present on meiospores Water is necessary for sperm transfer Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells Genus : Equisetum
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)
Division Pterophyta (Ferns) The dominant sporophyte usually have roots, stems and large leaves Leaves are typically compound and uncoil as they develop (circinate vernation) Roots are typically adventitious from a horizontal rhizome Most are homosporous
Division Pterophyta (Ferns) The gametophyte is nutritionally independent, like the larger sporophyte Water is necessary for fertilization by swimming sperm Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells
Division Pterophyta (Ferns) Sporangia are borne on the lower surface of leaves or sporophyll Genera: Polypodium, Pteris, Adiantum
Phylum Gnetophyta Traits are intermediate between gymnosperms and angiosperms With vessels in xylem The ovules are surrounded by 2 integuments
Phylum Gnetophyta Pollen-producing structures superficially resemble stamens Seeds naked; fruits absent Consists of three very different genera.
Phylum Gnetophyta• Weltwitschia, from deserts in southwestern Africa, have straplike leaves.
Phylum Gnetophyta• Gnetum species are tropical trees or vines (mainly climbing lianas), the leaves very much like dicots
Phylum GnetophytaEphedra (Mormon tea), shrub of the American deserts with whorls of small deciduous leaves)– .
Division Coniferophyta Have roots, stems and large leaves Leaves are usually evergreen needles or scales Heterosporous (produce 2 kinds of meiospores) Gametophytes are nutritionally dependent on the sporophyte
Division Coniferophyta Conifer sporophyte All species of pines are trees Conifer wood has no vessels Typically with resin ducts With sieve cells and albuminous cells in the phloem
Division ConiferophytaOvulate (Seed) Cones Develop at tips of young branches Two ovules, each enclosing a single megasporangium, develops on the upper surface of an ovuliferous scales An ovule consists of : outer integument, nucellar tissue and the female gametophyte; at one end are several archegonia
Division Coniferophyta Fertilization is achieved by union of sperm with an egg; normally only one embryo survive The mature embryo consists of several cotyledons, radicle, epicotyl and hypocotyls
Division Anthophyta (Flowering plants) Dominant sporophytes have roots, stems and leaves Sporangia borne on stamens and carpels Seeds develop from ovules which are enclosed by carpels
Division Anthophyta (Flowering plants) The gametophytes are very reduced and dependent upon the sporophyte Female gametophyte retained within the sporangium Wind or insect pollinated Double fertilization occurs
udicots- With 2 cotyledons, flower Eparts in multiples of 4s or 5s, leavesare net-veined, cambium is usuallypresent onocots- With one cotyledon, Mflower parts in multiples of 3s; theleaves are parallel-veined, a cambium is usually lacking
• While most angiosperms belong to either the monocots (65,000 species) or eudicots (165,000 species) several other clades branched off before these.