Lecture
#
1
INTRODUCTION

TO
PLANT
ANATOMY

Introduction
Definition
•  Plant
anatomy
–the
study
of
the
internal
   structure
of
various
parts
of
the
plant
Application...
Introduction

Applications
of
plant
anatomy
•  Avoids
food
adulterants
and
contaminants
                                 M...
•  ORENSIC APPLICATIONS  F  Forensic botany refers to the use of plant materials to help solve crimes or resolve other leg...
LIVING ORGANISMS                                      The five-kingdom                                                    ...
LIVING ORGANISMS•  uring the last three Ddecades, systematistsapplying cladisticanalysis, including theconstruction ofclad...
WHAT IS A PLANT?
  A multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic   autrotroph.  With cell walls made mostly of cellulose ...
Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular                              VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts          With see...
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)  mall plants that lack true roots, Sstems and leaves  hey lack vascular ti...
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)  Sporophyte is permanently attached to   the gametophyte and dependent upon...
Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)   he first true land plants, a cuticle is  T present  nfluential in soil d...
Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular                              VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts          With see...
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  porophyte have scalelike leaves S(enations)  o roots N  ichotomously branched D  erm...
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  omosporous – with only one type of Hmeiospore  ater is necessary for transfer of Wsper...
Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular   and have an outer layer of sterile cells• ...
Division Lycophyta (club        mosses)
Division Lycophyta (club mosses)  •  Sporophytes may be homosporous or     heterosporous (two kinds of meiospores)  •  Hav...
Division Lycophyta (club mosses) •  Water is necessary for fertilization to    occur •  The sporophyte is dominant over   ...
Division Lycophyta (club mosses) •  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular    and have an outer layer of sterile cells...
Division Sphenophyta      (Horsetails)
Division Sphenophyta        (Horsetails)  Sporophytes have roots, stems, and   small leaves  The leaves and branches are...
Division Sphenophyta                (Horsetails) on stalked,  Groups of sporangia are borne umbrella-like structures, whi...
Division Sphenophyta             (Horsetails)  Elaters are present on meiospores  Water is necessary for sperm   transfe...
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)  The dominant sporophyte usually have   roots, stems and large leaves  Leaves are typically ...
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)   The gametophyte is nutritionally    independent, like the larger sporophyte   Water is nec...
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)  Sporangia are borne on the lower surface   of leaves or sporophyll  Genera: Polypodium, Pte...
Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular                              VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts          With see...
Phylum Ginkgophytaconsists of only a single extant species, Ginkgobiloba.                as fanlike leaves that turn gold...
Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)  superficially
resemble
palms.
  plants
are
heterosporous
  Genus:
Cycas,
Zamia

Phylum Gnetophyta  Traits are intermediate between   gymnosperms and angiosperms  With vessels in xylem  The ovules are...
Phylum Gnetophyta  Pollen-producing structures superficially   resemble stamens  Seeds naked; fruits absent  Consists o...
Phylum Gnetophyta•  Weltwitschia, from deserts in southwestern   Africa, have straplike leaves.
Phylum Gnetophyta•  Gnetum species are tropical trees or vines   (mainly climbing lianas), the leaves very   much like dic...
Phylum GnetophytaEphedra (Mormon tea), shrub of the American  deserts with whorls of small deciduous leaves)– .
Division Coniferophyta
Division Coniferophyta  Have roots, stems and large leaves  Leaves are usually evergreen needles or   scales  Heterospo...
Division Coniferophyta  Wind pollinated; pollen tubes are   formed  Genera: Pinus, Abies (Firs), Tsuga
Division Coniferophyta  Conifer sporophyte   All species of pines are trees   Conifer wood has no vessels   Typically ...
Division Coniferophyta
Division ConiferophytaOvulate (Seed) Cones  Develop at tips of young branches  Two ovules, each enclosing a single   meg...
Division Coniferophyta
  Fertilization
is
achieved
by
union
of
sperm
   with
an
egg;
normally
only
one
embryo
   survive
...
Division
Anthophyta
(Flowering
               plants)
  Dominant sporophytes have roots, stems   and leaves  Sporangia b...
Division
Anthophyta













(Flowering
               plants)
    The gametophytes are very reduced and     dependen...
  udicots- With 2 cotyledons, flower Eparts in multiples of 4s or 5s, leavesare net-veined, cambium is usuallypresent  o...
•  While
most
angiosperms
belong
to
either
   the
monocots
(65,000
species)
or
eudicots
   (165,000
species)
several
other...
THE
END

Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr.  Evangelista
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Lesson 1 bio101 (c)Dr. Evangelista

  1. 1. Lecture
#
1
INTRODUCTION

TO
PLANT
ANATOMY

  2. 2. Introduction
Definition
•  Plant
anatomy
–the
study
of
the
internal
 structure
of
various
parts
of
the
plant
Applications
of
plant
anatomy
•  Taxonomic
application
 –  e.g.
problem
plants
•  Proper
authentication
of
crude
drug
material
 –  For
safety
and
quality
to
be
maintained
 –  Morphology
and
anatomy
of
drug
source
is
published
 in
British
and
English
pharmacopoeias




  3. 3. Introduction

Applications
of
plant
anatomy
•  Avoids
food
adulterants
and
contaminants
 Mango (Mangifera indica L)Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L)
  4. 4. •  ORENSIC APPLICATIONS F Forensic botany refers to the use of plant materials to help solve crimes or resolve other legal problems. The first botanical testimony to be heard in a North American court concerned the analysis of the wood grain of the ladder used in the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh Jr., and led to the conviction of Bruno Hauptmann for the crime in 1935.Xylotomist Arthur Koehler of the United StatesForest Service undertook a meticulous examinationof the ladder and when the case finally came to trialfour years later, offered the first botanical testimonyever to be heard and accepted in American courts.
  5. 5. LIVING ORGANISMS The five-kingdom system prevailed in biology for over 20 years.Prokaryotes EukaryotesKingdomMonera Unicell/simple Multicellular multicellular organisms organisms Kingdom Protista Autotroph Heterotroph Kingdom Plantae Saprophytes Ingestion of Kingdom other Fungi organisms Kingdom Animalia
  6. 6. LIVING ORGANISMS•  uring the last three Ddecades, systematistsapplying cladisticanalysis, including theconstruction ofcladograms based onmolecular data, havebeen identifyingproblems with the five-kingdom system.
  7. 7. WHAT IS A PLANT?
  A multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autrotroph.  With cell walls made mostly of cellulose  Stored food in the form of starch  Chlorophyll a directly involved in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy  Chloroplasts contain chl b as accessory pigment
  8. 8. Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts With seeds Without seedsAnthocerophyta-Hornworts (Phanerogams) (Cryptogams) Psilotophyta Lycophyta Naked seeds Covered seeds Sphenophyta Coniferophyta Anthophyta Pteridophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Monocots Eudicots
  9. 9. Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)  mall plants that lack true roots, Sstems and leaves  hey lack vascular tissue T  ater is necessary for the transfer Wof sperm prior to fertilization  ametophyte is dominant and Gnutritionally independent
  10. 10. Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)  Sporophyte is permanently attached to the gametophyte and dependent upon it for water and minerals  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells  Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids are present in the plastids
  11. 11. Kingdom PlantaeBryophytes (Mosses and allies)   he first true land plants, a cuticle is T present  nfluential in soil development by their I participation in plant succession, assists in preventing soil erosion
  12. 12. Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts With seeds Without seedsAnthocerophyta-Hornworts (Phanerogams) (Cryptogams) Psilophyta Lycophyta Naked seeds Covered seeds Sphenophyta Coniferophyta Anthophyta Pterophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Monocots Eudicots
  13. 13. Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)
  14. 14. Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  porophyte have scalelike leaves S(enations)  o roots N  ichotomously branched D  erminal sporangia (synangium, plural Tsynangia)
  15. 15. Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  omosporous – with only one type of Hmeiospore  ater is necessary for transfer of Wsperm previous to fertilization  oth sporophyte and gametophyte are Bnutritionally independent
  16. 16. Division Psilophyta (whisk fern)  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells•  Genera: Psilotum, Tmesipteris
  17. 17. Division Lycophyta (club mosses)
  18. 18. Division Lycophyta (club mosses) •  Sporophytes may be homosporous or heterosporous (two kinds of meiospores) •  Have roots, stems and small leaves •  Single sporangia are borne on the upper surface of leaves (sporophylls) which are arranged in the form of a cone or strobilus
  19. 19. Division Lycophyta (club mosses) •  Water is necessary for fertilization to occur •  The sporophyte is dominant over gametophyte •  Both sporophyte and gametophyte are nutritionally independent
  20. 20. Division Lycophyta (club mosses) •  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells •  Genera: Lycopodium, Selaginella
  21. 21. Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails)
  22. 22. Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails)  Sporophytes have roots, stems, and small leaves  The leaves and branches are whorled  The stem is hollow, jointed and contains silica
  23. 23. Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails) on stalked,  Groups of sporangia are borne umbrella-like structures, which are grouped to form strobili  Sporophyte is the dominant phase  The gametophyte is small and both are nutritionally independent
  24. 24. Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails)  Elaters are present on meiospores  Water is necessary for sperm transfer  Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells  Genus : Equisetum
  25. 25. Division Pterophyta (Ferns)
  26. 26. Division Pterophyta (Ferns)  The dominant sporophyte usually have roots, stems and large leaves  Leaves are typically compound and uncoil as they develop (circinate vernation)  Roots are typically adventitious from a horizontal rhizome  Most are homosporous
  27. 27. Division Pterophyta (Ferns)   The gametophyte is nutritionally independent, like the larger sporophyte   Water is necessary for fertilization by swimming sperm   Sex organs and sporangia are multicellular and have an outer layer of sterile cells
  28. 28. Division Pterophyta (Ferns)  Sporangia are borne on the lower surface of leaves or sporophyll  Genera: Polypodium, Pteris, Adiantum
  29. 29. Kingdom PlantaeNon-Vascular VascularBryophyta- MossesHepatophyta-Liverworts With seeds Without seedsAnthocerophyta-Hornworts (Phanerogams) (Cryptogams) Psilotophyta Lycophyta Naked seeds Covered seeds Sphenophyta Coniferophyta Anthophyta Pteridophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Monocots Eudicots
  30. 30. Phylum Ginkgophytaconsists of only a single extant species, Ginkgobiloba.   as fanlike leaves that turn gold h before they fall off in the autumn.
  31. 31. Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)  superficially
resemble
palms.
  plants
are
heterosporous
  Genus:
Cycas,
Zamia

  32. 32. Phylum Gnetophyta  Traits are intermediate between gymnosperms and angiosperms  With vessels in xylem  The ovules are surrounded by 2 integuments
  33. 33. Phylum Gnetophyta  Pollen-producing structures superficially resemble stamens  Seeds naked; fruits absent  Consists of three very different genera.
  34. 34. Phylum Gnetophyta•  Weltwitschia, from deserts in southwestern Africa, have straplike leaves.
  35. 35. Phylum Gnetophyta•  Gnetum species are tropical trees or vines (mainly climbing lianas), the leaves very much like dicots
  36. 36. Phylum GnetophytaEphedra (Mormon tea), shrub of the American deserts with whorls of small deciduous leaves)– .
  37. 37. Division Coniferophyta
  38. 38. Division Coniferophyta  Have roots, stems and large leaves  Leaves are usually evergreen needles or scales  Heterosporous (produce 2 kinds of meiospores)  Gametophytes are nutritionally dependent on the sporophyte
  39. 39. Division Coniferophyta  Wind pollinated; pollen tubes are formed  Genera: Pinus, Abies (Firs), Tsuga
  40. 40. Division Coniferophyta  Conifer sporophyte  All species of pines are trees  Conifer wood has no vessels  Typically with resin ducts  With sieve cells and albuminous cells in the phloem
  41. 41. Division Coniferophyta
  42. 42. Division ConiferophytaOvulate (Seed) Cones  Develop at tips of young branches  Two ovules, each enclosing a single megasporangium, develops on the upper surface of an ovuliferous scales  An ovule consists of : outer integument, nucellar tissue and the female gametophyte; at one end are several archegonia
  43. 43. Division Coniferophyta
  Fertilization
is
achieved
by
union
of
sperm
 with
an
egg;
normally
only
one
embryo
 survive
  The
mature
embryo
consists
of
several
 cotyledons,
radicle,
epicotyl
and
hypocotyls

  44. 44. Division
Anthophyta
(Flowering
 plants)
  Dominant sporophytes have roots, stems and leaves  Sporangia borne on stamens and carpels  Seeds develop from ovules which are enclosed by carpels
  45. 45. Division
Anthophyta













(Flowering
 plants)
   The gametophytes are very reduced and dependent upon the sporophyte   Female gametophyte retained within the sporangium   Wind or insect pollinated   Double fertilization occurs
  46. 46.   udicots- With 2 cotyledons, flower Eparts in multiples of 4s or 5s, leavesare net-veined, cambium is usuallypresent  onocots- With one cotyledon, Mflower parts in multiples of 3s; theleaves are parallel-veined, a cambium is usually lacking
  47. 47. •  While
most
angiosperms
belong
to
either
 the
monocots
(65,000
species)
or
eudicots
 (165,000
species)
several
other
clades
 branched
off
before
these.

  48. 48. THE
END


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