Introduction to image processing-Class Notes
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Introduction to image processing-Class Notes Introduction to image processing-Class Notes Document Transcript

  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Introduction to Image Processing - Class Notes Introduction: Digital image processing is always an interesting field as it gives an improved pictorial information for human interpretation and processing of image data for storage, transmission, and representation for machine perception. This field of image processing drastically improved in recent times and extended to various fields of science and technology .In recent times this branch is known with a new name called computer vision and more and more people are showing interest in this field . The image processing mainly deals with image acquisition Image enhancement, image compression, image segmentation, image restoration etc. Basic concepts: The basic definition of image processing refers to processing of digital image ,i.e removing the noise and any kind of irregularities present in an image using the digital computer. The noise or irregularity may creep into the image either during its formation or during transformation etc.For mathematical analysis, an image may be defined as a two-dimensional function f(x,y) where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y, and the intensity values of f are all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. It is very important that a digital image is composed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value.These elements are called picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels. Pixel is the most widely used term to denote the elements of a digital image. One of the first applications of digital images was in the newspaper industry, when pictures were first sent by submarine cable between London and New York in the year 1920.As the images transferred were not of good quality ,the need of image processing realised to get the tonal quality and resolution of images. But the actual growth in digital image processing gained momentum with the advent of digital computers into the market. With the decreasing price and increasing performance of computers and the expansion of networking and communication band width via the World Wide Web and the Internet have created unprecedented opportunities for continued growth of digital image processing. 1
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Fields that Use Digital Image Processing : Now a days the impact of Digital image processing is found in almost all the branches of science and technology.For example (i) News paper printing (ii) Remote sensing (iii)Transportation (iv) Gamma ray imaging (v) X-ray imaging (vi) Ultra violet imaging (vii)Imaging in visible and IR band ,(viii).Imaging in the microwave region and (ixs) Imaging in the radio band. (i).Gamma Ray imaging: Gamma ray imaging uses the gamma rays and it includes nuclear medicine and astronomical observations. In nuclear medicine, the approach is to inject a patient with a radioactive isotope that emits gamma rays as it decays. Images are produced from the emissions collected by gamma ray detectors. For example bone scan obtained by using gamma-ray imaging are used to locate sites of bone pathology, such as infections or tumors. In nuclear imaging called positron emission tomography (PET).In this technique the patient is given a radioactive isotope that emits positrons as it decays .When a positron meets an electron, both are annihilated and two gamma rays are given off. These are detected and a tomographic image is created using the basic principles of tomography.The image shows the defects like tumors in the brain or in the lung, easily visible as small white masses. Similarly the same imaging technique can be used to take the photographs of stars and other stellar objects. Here the images are obtained using the natural radiation of the object being imaged. Also the gamma radiation can be used to get the images of gamma radiation from a valve in a nuclear reactor. (ii).X-ray Imaging X-ray imaging is used in medical diagnosis and also used extensively in industry and other areas, like astronomy. X-rays for medical and industrial imaging are generated using an X-ray tube, which is a vacuum tube with a cathode and anode. When these X-rays of low intensity are passed through the patient, and the resulting energy falling on the film develops it, much in the same way that light develops photographic film. In digital radiography, digital images are obtained by one of two methods: (1) by digitizing X-ray films; or (2) by having the X-rays that pass through the patient fall directly onto devices (such as a phosphor screen) that convert X-rays to light. The light signal in turn is captured by a light-sensitive digitizing system. Angiography is another major application in an area called contrast enhancement radiography. This procedure is used to obtain images (called angiograms) of blood vessels. A catheter (a 2
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com small, flexible, hollow tube) is inserted, for example, into an artery or vein in the groin.The catheter is threaded into the blood vessel and guided to the area to be studied.When the catheter reaches the site under investigation, an X-ray contrast medium is injected through the catheter. This enhances contrast of the blood vessels and enables the radiologist to see any irregularities or blockages. The best known use of X-rays in medical imaging is computerized axial tomography. Due to their resolution and 3-D capabilities, CAT scans revolutionized medicine from the moment they first became available in the early 1970s. Each CAT image is a ―slice‖ taken perpendicularly through the patient. Numerous slices are generated as the patient is moved in a longitudinal direction. The ensemble of such images constitutes a 3-D rendition of the inside of the patient, with the longitudinal resolution being proportional to the number of slice images taken. Figure 1.7(c) shows a typical head CAT slice image. Techniques similar to the ones just discussed, but generally involving high energy X-rays, are applicable in industrial processes. The x-ray images are used to find the flaws in the industrial boards, such as missing components or broken traces. Industrial CAT scans are useful when the parts can be penetrated by X-rays, such as in plastic assemblies, and even large bodies, like solid-propellant rocket motors. (iii).Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band : The ultra violet band imaging include lithography, industrial inspection, microscopy, lasers, biological imaging, and astronomical observations. Ultraviolet light is used in fluorescence microscopy which is one of the fastest growing areas of microscopy. The basic task of the fluorescence microscope is to use an excitation light to irradiate a prepared specimen and then to separate the much weaker radiating fluorescent light from the brighter excitation light.Thus, only the emission light reaches the eye or other detector. The resulting fluorescing areas shine against a dark background with sufficient contrast to permit detection. The darker the background of the non-fluorescing material, the more efficient the instrument. Fluorescence microscopy is an excellent method for studying materials that can be made to fluoresce, either in their natural form (primary fluorescence) orwhen treated with chemicals capable of fluorescing (secondary fluorescence). (iii).Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands The imaging in the visible range from pharmaceuticals and micro inspection to materials characterization. Even in just microscopy, the application areas are too numerous to detail here. 3
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com It is not difficult to conceptualize the types of processes one might apply to these images, ranging from enhancement to measurements.Another major area of visual processing is remote sensing, which usually includes several bands in the visual and infrared regions of the spectrum. Images of finger prints comes under visible imaging. They are routinely processed by computer, either to enhance them or to find features that help in the automated search of a database for potential matches..Applications of digital image processing in this area include automated counting and, in law enforcement, the reading of the serial number for the purpose of tracking and identifying bills. The two vehicle images taken are used for the automated license plate reading. The infrared imaging is used in the Nighttime Lights of the World data set, which provides a global inventory of human settlements. The images were generated by the infrared imaging system mounted on satellite. The infrared imaging system operates in the band 10.0 to 13.4µm, and has the unique capability to observe faint sources of visible near infrared emissions present on the Earth’s surface, including cities, towns villages, gas flares, and fires. Even without formal training in image processing, it is not difficult to imagine writing a computer program that would use these images to estimate the percent of total electrical energy used by various regions of the world. (iv).Imaging in the Microwave Band The important application of imaging in the microwave band is RADAR. The unique feature of imaging radar is its ability to collect data over virtually any region at any time, regardless of weather or ambient lighting conditions. Some radar waves can penetrate clouds, and under certain conditions can also see through vegetation, ice, and extremely dry sand. In many cases, radar is the only way to explore inaccessible regions of the Earth’s surface. An imaging radar works like a flash camera in that it provides its own illumination (microwave pulses) to illuminate an area on the ground and take a snapshot image. Instead of a camera lens, a radar uses an antenna and digital computer processing to record its images. In a radar image, one can see only the microwave energy that was reflected back toward the radar antenna. (v).Imaging in the Radio Band The major applications of imaging in the radio band are in medicine and astronomy. In medicine radio waves are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).This technique places a patient in a 4
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com powerful magnet and passes radio waves through his or her body in short pulses. Each pulse causes responding pulse of radio waves to be emitted by the patient’s tissues. The location from which these signals originate and their strength are determined by a computer, which produces a two-dimensional picture of a section of the patient. MRI can produce pictures in any plane. (vi). Other Imaging fields: Among other imaging examples the sound (ultra sound imaging) ,electron microscopy and transporting are very important. Imaging using ―sound‖ finds application in geological exploration, industry, and medicine. Geological applications use sound in the low end of the sound spectrum (hundreds of Hertz) while imaging in other areas use ultrasound (millions of Hertz). The most important commercial applications of image processing in geology are in mineral and oil exploration. In a typical ultrasound image, millions of pulses and echoes are sent and received each second. The probe can be moved along the surface of the body and angled to obtain various views.The sound waves travel into the body and hit a boundary between tissues (e.g., between fluid and soft tissue, soft tissue and bone). Some of the sound waves are reflected back to the probe, while some travel on further until they reach another boundary and get reflected. The reflected waves are picked up by the probe and relayed to the computer. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) works similar to a slide projector TEMs work the same way, except that they shine a beam of electrons through a specimen (analogous to the slide).The fraction of the beam transmitted through the specimen is projected onto a phosphor screen. The interaction of the electrons with the phosphor produces light and, therefore, a viewable image. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), on the other hand, actually scans the electron beam and records the interaction of beam and sample at each location. This produces one dot on a phosphor screen.A complete image is formed by a raster scan of the bean through the sample, much like a TV camera. The electrons interact with a phosphor screen and produce light. SEMs are suitable for ―bulky‖ samples, while TEMs require very thin samples. Electron microscopes are capable of very high magnification. While light microscopy is limited to magnifications on the order 1000 X electron microscopes can achieve magnification of 10,000 X or more. 5
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Elements of Visual Perception : The elements of visual perception deals with mechanics and parameters related to how images are formed in the eye and physical limitations of human vision in terms of factors that are used in digital images. Structure of the Human Eye It is a known fact that the eye is nearly a sphere, with an average diameter of approximately 20 mm. Three membranes enclose the eye : the cornea and sclera outer cover; the choroid and the retina. The cornea is a tough, transparent tissue that covers the anterior surface of the eye. Continuous with the cornea, the sclera is an opaque membrane that encloses the remainder of the optic globe. The choroid lies directly below the sclera. This membrane contains a network of blood vessels that serve as the major source of nutrition to the eye.Even superficial injury to the choroid, often not deemed serious, can lead to severe eye damage as a result of inflammation that restricts blood flow. The choroid coat is heavily pigmented and hence helps to reduce the amount of extraneous light entering the eye and the backscatter within the optical globe. At its anterior extreme, the choroid is divided into the ciliary body and the iris diaphragm. The latter contracts or expands to control the amount of light that enters the eye. The central opening of the iris (the pupil) varies in diameter from approximately 2 to 8 mm. The front of the iris contains the visible pigment of the eye, whereas the back contains a black pigment. The lens is made up of concentric layers of fibrous cells and is suspended by fibers that attach to the ciliary body. It contains 60 to 70%water, about 6%fat, and more protein than any other tissue in the eye. The lens is colored by a slightly yellow pigmentation that increases with age. In extreme cases, excessive clouding of the lens, caused by the affliction commonly referred to as cataracts, can lead to poor color discrimination and loss of clear vision. The lens absorbs approximately8% of the visible light spectrum, with relatively higher absorption at shorter wavelengths. Both infrared and ultraviolet light are absorbed appreciably by proteins within the lens structure and, in excessive amounts, can damage the eye.The innermost membrane of the eye is the retina, which lines the inside of the wall’s entire posterior portion. When the eye is properly focused, light from an object outside the eye is imaged on the retina. Pattern vision is afforded by the distribution of discrete light receptors over the surface of the retina. There are two classes of receptors: cones and rods. The cones in each eye number between 6and 7 million. They are located primarily in the central portion of the retina, called the fovea, and are highly sensitive to 6
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com color. Humans can resolve fine details with these cones largely because each one is connected to its own nerve end. Muscles controlling the eye rotate the eyeball until the image of an object of interest falls on the fovea. Cone vision is called photopic or bright-light vision.The number of rods is much larger: Some 75 to 150 million are distributed over the retinal surface. The larger area of distribution and the fact that several rods are connected to a single nerve end reduce the amount of detail discernible by these receptors. Rods serve to give a general, overall picture of the field of view. They are not involved in color vision and are sensitive to low levels of illumination. For example, objects that appear brightly colored in daylight when seen by moonlight appear as colorless forms because only the rods are stimulated. This phenomenon is known as scotopic or dim-light vision. Image Formation in the Eye : The basic difference between the lens of the eye and an ordinary optical lens is that the lens of the eye is flexible and the lens is not. The radius of curvature of the anterior surface of the lens is greater than the radius of its posterior surface. 7
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com The shape of the lens is controlled by tension in the fibers of the ciliary body. To focus on distant objects, the controlling muscles cause the lens to be relatively flattened. Similarly, these muscles allow the lens to become thicker in order to focus on objects near the eye. The distance between the center of the lens and the retina (called the focal length) varies from approximately 17 mm to about 14 mm, as the refractive power of the lens increases from its minimum to its maximum. When the eye focuses on an object farther away than about 3 m, the lens exhibits its lowest refractive power. When the eye focuses on a nearby object, the lens is most strongly refractive. This information makes it easy to calculate the size of the retinal image of any object. In Fig. above the observer is looking at a tree15 m high at a distance of 100 m. If h is the height in mm of that object in the retinal image, the geometry yields 15/100= h/17 or h=2.55 mm. Brightness Adaptation and Discrimination The digital images are displayed as a discrete set of intensities, hence the eye’s ability to discriminate between different intensity levels is an important consideration in presenting imageprocessing results. The range of light intensity levels to which the human visual system can adapt is enormous (of the order of1010—from the scotopic threshold to the glare limit. Experimental evidence indicates that subjective brightness (intensity as perceived by the human visual system) is a logarithmic function of the light intensity incident on the eye Examples of human perception phenomena are optical illusions, in which the eye fills in non existing information or wrongly perceives geometrical properties of objects.Optical illusions are a characteristic of the human visual system that is not fully understood. Image Sensing and Acquisition : Image sensing is done by a sensor ,when it is illuminated by either reflected or transmitted energy from the object or picture under consideration. In the process of image acquisition there are three components .They are (i) . Illumination (ii) Optical system (lens system) (iii). Sensor system. The illumination may be either from a light source or from a source of electromagnetic energy such as radar, infrared, or X-ray energy etc. Depending on the nature of the source, illumination energy is reflected from, or transmitted through, objects. To focus the reflected or transmitted energy certain lens or mirror like system is required. This is called optical system. In some situations, the radiation is focused onto a photo converter (e.g., 8
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com a phosphor screen), which converts the energy into visible light. Electron microscopy and some applications of gamma imaging use this approach. The important part of the image acquisition is the Image sensor. The light reflected from the object of is focused by a lens system must be recorded. This is done by an image sensor . An image sensor consists of a 2D array of cells and each of these cells is denoted a pixel and is capable of measuring the amount of incident light and convert that into a voltage, which in turn is converted into a digital number. Actually the image sensor is a part of a digital camera. Before a camera capture an image, all cells are emptied, meaning that no charge is present. When the camera captures an image, light is allowed to enter and charges amount of time, known as the exposure time, which is each cell. After a certain controlled by the shutter, the incident light is shut out again. If the exposure time is too low the result is an underexposed picture or if the time too high ,it forms overexposed image . Fig (a) ,(b) &(c) shows the three principal sensor arrangements used to transform illumination energy into digital images. In this case the in coming energy is transformed into a voltage by the combination of input electrical power and sensor material that is responsive to the particular type of energy being detected. The output voltage waveform is the response of the sensor(s), and a digital quantity is obtained from each sensor by digitizing its response. Fig (a) .Single imaging sensor Fig(b).s Line sensor 9
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Fig (c). Sensor array Image Acquisition Using a Single Sensor : A single sensor is the simplest among all the image acquisition sensors. Fig below shows a single sensor . The best example for a single sensor is the photodiode, which is constructed of silicon material whose output voltage waveform is proportional to incident light. The use of a filter in front of a sensor improves selectivity. For example, a green (pass) filter in front of a light sensor allows only green light .As a consequence, the sensor output will be stronger for green light than for other components in the visible spectrum. In order to generate a 2-D image using a single sensor, there has to be relative displacements in both the x- and y-directions between the sensor and the area to be imaged. Fig. below shows an arrangement used in high-precision scanning, where a film negative is mounted onto a drum whose mechanical rotation provides displacement in one dimension.The single sensor is mounted ona lead screw that provides motion in the perpendicular direction. 10
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Since mechanical motion can be controlled with high precision, this method is an inexpensive (but slow) way to obtain high-resolution images. Other similar mechanical arrangements use a flat bed, with the sensor moving in two linear directions. These types of mechanical digitizers sometimes are referred to as micro-densitometers. Another example of imaging with a single sensor places a laser source coincident with the sensor. Moving mirrors are used to control the outgoing beaming a scanning pattern and to direct the reflected laser signal onto the sensor. Image Acquisition Using Sensor Strips: A sensor strip consists of an in-line arrangement of sensors in the form of a sensor strip and it is more widely used than a single sensor. The strip provides imaging elements in one direction. Motion perpendicular to the strip provides imaging in the other direction, as shown in Fig. below.This type of arrangement is used in flat bed scanners. Sensing devices with 4000 or more in-line sensors are used. In-line sensors are used routinely in air borne imaging applications, in which the imaging system is mounted on an aircraft that flies at a constant altitude and speed over the geographical area to be imaged. One-dimensional 11
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com imaging sensor strips that respond to various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum are mounted perpendicular to the direction of flight. The imaging strip gives one line of an image at a time, and the motion of the strip completes the other dimension of a two-dimensional image. Lenses are used to project the area to be scanned onto the sensors. A similar sensor strip arrangement mounted in a ring configuration is used in X-ray medical and industrial imaging to obtain cross-sectional images of 3-D objects . Some Basic Relationships Between Pixels : Any image is denoted by the function f(x, y) and the image is composed of many pixels.. The important relationships between pixels are adjacency, connectivity, regions, and boundaries and distance Measures. (i). Neighbors of a Pixel A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has four horizontal and vertical neighbors whose coordinates are given by (x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y-1) This set of pixels, called the 4-neighbors of p, is denoted by N4(p). Each pixel is a unit distance from (x, y), and some of the neighbors of p lie outside the digital image if (x, y) is on the border of the image. The four diagonal neighbors of p have coordinates (x+1, y+1), (x+1, y-1), (x-1, y+1), (x-1, y-1) and are denoted by ND(p). These points, together with the 4-neighbors, are called the 8neighbors of p, denoted by N8(p). Some of the points in ND(p) and N8(p) fall outside the image if (x, y) is on the border of the image. Adjacency, Connectivity, Regions, and Boundaries Connectivity between pixels is a fundamental concept that simplifies the definition of numerous digital image concepts, such as regions and boundaries. To establish if two pixels are connected, 12
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com it must be determined if they are neighbors and if their gray levels satisfy a specified criterion of similarity (say, if their gray levels are equal). For instance, in a binary image with values 0 and 1, two pixels may be 4-neighbors, but they are said to be connected only if they have the same value. Let V be the set of gray-level values used to define adjacency. In a binary image, V={1} if we are referring to adjacency of pixels with value 1. In a grayscale image, the idea is the same, but set V typically contains more elements. For example, in the adjacency of pixels with a range of possible gray-level values 0to 255, set V could be any subset of these 256 values. We consider three types of adjacency: (a) 4-adjacency. Two pixels p and q with values from V are 4-adjacent if q is in the set N4(p). (b) 8-adjacency. Two pixels p and q with values from V are 8-adjacent if q is in the set N8(p). (c) m-adjacency (mixed adjacency).Two pixels p and q with values from V are m-adjacent if (i) q is in N4(p), or (ii) q is in ND(p) and the set has no pixels whose values are from V. Mixed adjacency is a modification of 8-adjacency. It is introduced to eliminate the ambiguities that often arise when 8-adjacency is used. For example, consider the pixel arrangement shown in Fig(a) .below for V={1}.The three pixels at the top of Fig(b). below show multiple (ambiguous) 8-adjacency, as indicated by the dashed lines. This ambiguity is removed by using m-adjacency, as shown in Fig. (c).Two image subsets S1 and S2 are adjacent if some pixel in S1 is adjacent to some pixel in S2. It is clear from the above that adjacent means 4-, 8-, or madjacent. Fig: (a) Arrangement of pixels (b) pixels that are 8-adjacent (shown dashed) to the center pixel (c) m-adjacency. A (digital) path (or curve) from pixel p with coordinates (x, y) to pixel q with coordinates (s, t) is a sequence of distinct pixels with coordinates (x0 , y0), (x1 , y1) , ……(xn , yn) 13
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com where (x0 , y0) = (x, y), (xn , yn) = (s, t), adjacent for 1≤ I ≤ n and pixels (xi , yi) and (xi-1 , yi-1) are . In this case, n is the length of the path. If (x0,y0) = (xn,yn) the path is a closed path. Let S represent a subset of pixels in an image. Two pixels p and q are said to be connected in S if there exists a path between them consisting entirely of pixels in S. For any pixel p in S, the set of pixels that are connected to it in S is called a connected component of S. If it only has one connected component, then set S is called a connected set. Let R be a subset of pixels in an image. R is called a region of the image if R is a connected set. The boundary (also called border or contour) of a region R is the set of pixels in the region that have one or more neighbors that are not in R. If R happens to be an entire image (which we recall is a rectangular set of pixels), then its boundary is defined as the set of pixels in the first and last rows and columns of the image. Distance Measures : For pixels p, q, and z, with coordinates (x, y), (s, t), and (v, w), respectively, D is the distance function or metric . The Euclidean distance between p and q is defined as De(p,q) = [ ( x- s)2 + (y – t)2]1/2 For this distance measure, the pixels having a distance less than or equal to some value r from (x, y) are the points contained in a disk of radius r centered at (x, y). The D4 distance (also called city-block distance) between p and q is defined as D4(p,q) = │ x- s│ + │y – t │ In this case, the pixels having a D4 distance from (x, y) less than or equal to some value r form a diamond centered at (x, y). For example, the pixels with D4 distance ≤ 2 from (x, y) (the center point) form the following contours of constant distance: The pixels with D4=1 are the 4-neighbors of (x, y). The D8 distance (also called chessboard distance) between p and q is defined as 14
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com D8(p,q) = max(│ x- s│,│y – t │) In this case, the pixels with D8 distance from (x, y) less than or equal to some value r form a square centered at (x, y). For example, the pixels with D8 distance ≤ 2 from (x, y) (the center point) form the following contours of constant distance The pixels with D8=1 are the 8-neighbors of (x, y). The D4 and D8 distances between p and q are independent of any paths that might exist between the points because these distances involve only the coordinates of the points. If we elect to consider m-adjacency, however, the Dm distance between two points is defined as the shortest m-path between the points. In this case, the distance between two pixels will depend on the values of the pixels along the path, as well as the values of their neighbors. Basic Concepts in Sampling and Quantization : In the digital image processing the most important part is digitizing the analog signals .To get digital signals first the analog signals are discretized and then quantized . Digitizing the coordinate values is called sampling and digitizing the amplitude values of the discrete signal is called quantization. This sampling can be as shown below. Basic Concepts in Sampling and Quantization To understand the basic idea behind sampling and quantization let us consider a continuous image, f(x, y),which is to be converted into digital form.An image may be continuous with respect to the x- and y- coordinates, and also in amplitude. To convert it to digital form, first it is 15
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com sampled in both coordinates and in amplitude. Digitizing the coordinate values is called sampling. Digitizing the amplitude values is called quantization. Continuous image (a) Sampling (b). Quantization When a sensing strip is used for image acquisition, the number of sensors in the strip establishes the sampling limitations in one image direction. Mechanical motion in the other direction can be controlled more accurately, but it makes little sense to try to achieve sampling density in one direction that exceeds the sampling limits established by the number of sensors in the other. Quantization of the sensor outputs completes the process of generating a digital image.When a sensing array is used for image acquisition, there is no motion and the number of sensors in the array establishes the limits of sampling in both directions. Quantization of the sensor outputs is as before. In practice, the method of sampling is determined by the sensor arrangement used to generate the image. When an image is generated by a single sensing element combined with mechanical 16
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com motion, the output of the sensor is quantized. However, sampling is accomplished by selecting the number of individual mechanical increments at which we activate the sensor to collect data. Mechanical motion can be made very exact so, in principle, there is almost no limit as to how fine we can sample an image. However, practical limits are established by imperfections in the optics used to focus on the sensor an illumination spot that is inconsistent with the fine resolution achievable with mechanical displacements. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing : The important steps involved in image processing are (i). Image acquisition (ii).Image enhancement (iii). Image restoration (iv).Image Compression (v).Image segmentation (v).Image Recognition and (vi).Color Image processing. The various steps in the digital image processing are shown below. Image acquisition is the first step where in the image of an object is acquired using a suitable image sensor (camera). 17
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Image enhancement is the simplest and most appealing areas of digital image processing. The enhancement technique bring backs the detail that is obscured, or simply to highlight certain important features of the image. A familiar example of enhancement is changing the contrast of an image to make it look better. But this Image enhancement is always subjective. Image restoration is an area that deals with improving the appearance of an image. However, unlike enhancement, which is subjective, image restorations objective, in the sense that restoration techniques tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation. Enhancement, on the other hand, is based on human subjective preferences regarding what constitutes a ―good‖ enhancement result. Color image processing is an area that has been gaining in importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet . Color is used also as the basis for extracting features of interest in an image. Wavelets are the foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution.This method is also used for image data compression and for pyramidal representation, in which images are subdivided successively into smaller regions. Compression, is a technique of reducing the storage required to save an image, or the bandwidth required to transmit it. This is true particularly in uses of the Internet, which are characterized by significant pictorial content. Image compression is widely used in computers in the form of image file extensions, such as the jpg file extension used in the JPEG(Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard. Morphological processing deals with tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape. Segmentation means partition of an image into its constituent parts or objects. In general, autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in digital image processing. A rugged segmentation procedure provides successful solution of imaging problems that require objects to be identified individually. On the other hand, weak or erratic segmentation algorithms always gives failure results. In general, the more accurate the segmentation, the more successful is the recognition. Representation and description always follow the output of a segmentation stage, which usually is raw pixel data, constituting either the boundary of a region (i.e., the set of pixels separating one image region from another) or all the points in the region itself. In either case, converting the 18
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com data to a form suitable for computer processing is necessary. The first decision that must be made is whether the data should be represented as a boundary or as a complete region. Boundary representation is appropriate when the focus is on external shape characteristics, such as corners and inflections. Regional representation is appropriate when the focus is on internal properties, such as texture or skeletal shape. In some applications, these representations complement each other. Choosing a representation is only part of the solution for transforming raw data into a form suitable for subsequent computer processing. A method must also be specified for describing the data so that features of interest are highlighted. Description, also called feature selection, deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interest or are basic for differentiating one class of objects from another. Recognition is the process that assigns a label to an object based on its descriptors. Image compression A digital image is a 2D image I[x,y] represented by a discrete 2D array of intensity samples(data), of the order of 105 to 106 .As the number of samples is very large ,it is always a tedious job not only to process this data but also to store .I.e large amount of memory space is required to store the digital images .Another important is that there will be some redundancy in the data also. To overcome these limitations, it is always required to compress the data based on certain procedure. The method of efficiently coding the digital image data to reduce the number of bits is called Image compression. This image compression reduces the data redundancy in the image and also the amount of space required to store it. Normally the redundancy is of three types. Spatial redundancy ,Spectrl redundancy and Temporal Redudancy. The spatial redundancy is mainly due to correlation between neighboring pixels and the spectral redundancy arises due to the correlation between various color plans. The temporal redundancy is due to the correlation between various frames in an image sequence. To compress the digital image ,the first step is ,converting the continuous image into digital image by using the ADC(Analog to Digital converter).This digital signal is fed to a Quantizer using a serial to parallel converter. The quantized output is then coded by using suitable lossless 19
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com coding device. This gives the compressed image signal .The block diagram of the image compression system is shown below. Image Enhancement Image enhancement is a technique that improves the image features such as edges, boundaries or the contrast so that the visual appearance of an image will become more suitable for display and analysis.The enhancement process does not increase the information content in the data but increases the dynamic range of the chosen features so that they can be detected easily.This image enhancement is a very important process because of its utility in all the image processing applications.This Image enhancement includes gray level and contrast manipulation ,noise reduction ,edge crispening and sharpening, filtering ,interpolation ,magnification and pseudocoding etc. The commonly used image enhancement techniques are given below. Under the point operations we consider (i) contrast stretching (ii) Noise clipping(iii) Window slicing and (iv)Histogram modeling. 20
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Similarly under Spatial operations ,we consider the operations like (i)Noise smoothing (ii)Median filtering (iii) Unsharp masking (iv) Filtering(L.P;H.P;B.P) and (v) Zooming In Transform operations we consider (i) Linear filtering (ii)Root filtering and (iii) Homomorphic filtering. In Pseudocoloring we consider the operations (i) false coloring and (ii) Pseudocoloring. The point operations are simplest and they are zero memory operations where a given gray level u є [0 , L] is mapped into a gray level v є [0,L] according to the transformation V= f(u). One of the most common defects of photographic or electronic images is poor contrast resulting from a reduced, and perhaps nonlinear, image amplitude range. Image contrast can often be improved by amplitude rescaling of each pixel. Actually the low contrast images occur due to the poor or non-uniform lighting conditions or due to non-linearity or small dynamic range of imaging sensors. The contrast stretching transformation can be expressed as αu 0≤u≤a β(u-a) +va a≤u≤b γ (u-b) + vb v = b≤u≤L here the parameters a and b can be obtained from the histogram of the image. Clipping and Thresholding : A special case of contrast stretching where α = γ = 0is called clipping. This is useful for noise reduction when the input signal is known to lie in the range[a,b]. Thresholding is a special case of clipping in which the output becomes binary. For example ,a seemingly binary image ,such as a printed page does not give binary output when scanned ,because of sensor noise and back ground illumination variations..Thresholding is used to make such an image binary. Digital Negative : A negative image can be obtained by reverse scaling of the gray levels based on the transformation v = L-u 21
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Digital negatives are useful in the display of medical images and in producing negative prints of the images. Histogram Modelling: Histogram modelling is another image enhancement technique where the image is modified so that the histogram will get a desired shape.The histogram of an image represents the relative frequency of concurrency of the various gray levels in the image. The histogram modeling technique modify an image so that its histogram has a desired shape.This is useful in stretching the low-contrast levels of the images with narrow histograms. Using the histogram equalization , a uniform histogram for the output image is obtained. Spatial Operations : The spatial operations are performed on local neighborhoods of input pixels.The image is convolved with a finite impulse resonse filter called spatial mask. Under the spatial operations, averaging and spatial low-pass filters and median filters are used . In the median filtering the input pixel is replaced by the median of the remaining pixels in a window around the input pixel. v(m,n) = median{y(m-k , n-l),(k, l)єW} here W denotes the window around the pixel .Generally the window size is chosen such that N w is odd. If the Nw is even the median is taken as the average of the two values in the middle. Unsharp Masking and Crispening: The unsharp masking technique is used in the printing industry for crispy edges.A signal proportional to the unsharp or low-pass filtered version of the image is subtracted from the image. This is equivalent to adding the gradient or a high-pass signal to the image. Magnification and Zooming: Some times it is desirable to zoom the image on a given region so that image can be displayed as a larger one. Transform Operations : In the transform operation enhancement techniques ,zero memory operations are performed on a transformed image followed by the inverse transformations. Image Restoration : It is a process of filtering the image such that the effect of degradation is minimized. The effectiveness of the image restoration filters depend on the extent and the accuracy of the knowledge of the degradation process as well as on the filter design criteria.Any 22
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com image is acquired by optical, electro-optical or electronic means is likely to be degraded by the sensing environment. The degradations may be due to (i) sensor noise (ii) blur due to camera misfocus (iii) relative object-camera motion (iv) random atmospheric turbulence etc.These errors deteriorate the quality of the image. So,we can say that the process of image restoration is one which produces a sharp, clean and high quality images. This process of image formation and recording can be denoted by the following equation. g(x,y) = R[ ∫∫ h(x-x1,y-y1)f(x1,y1)dx1dy1] + n(x,y) Here g(x,y) is the actual image and R is the response characteristic of the recording process and n(x,y) s is the additive noise source. The restoration of digital image in the discrete form can be written as N-1 N-1 g(p,q) = ∑ ∑ f(i,j)h(p-i,q-j) i=0 j=0 Image restoration is different from the image enhancement. Because in image restoration ,the degraded information of the image is restored back and in image enhancement the image features are improved and extracted . The digital image restoration process is shown by the following block diagram. In the Image restoration process, first the analog image is converted into digital image by using suitable ADC .The digital image is processed by using suitable digital filter depending on the type of degradation present in the Image. Normally in the process of removing the noise from the digital images ,non-linear filters are widely used. Among them Median filters or adaptive median filters are very widely used. After removing the noise the digital image is again converted back to analog image so that it can be either displayed or recorded. 23
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Voice Processing: It is one of the very important signal processing method used to remove the noise from speech or sound and helps to transmit the signal over long distances at high speeds in the real time environment. The recent developments in DSP algorithms have become very important because the bandwidths associated with speech or voice are well matched to the processing speeds available. The voice processing methodology can be broadly classified into three types. They are (i) Speech analysis and sysnthesis (ii)Compression and coding and (iii)Voice privacy. Speech is produced by the excitation of an acoustic tube called vocal tract.The vocal tract starts from the glottis and is terminated by lips.The speech signal consists of periodic sounds associated with bursts of wide band noise and also short silences. As the vocal organs are in motion continuously ,the signal generated is not stationary .So, to process this speech signal Short time Fourier transforms are used. To transmit the speech signal over long distances , first it is digitized ,encoded ,processed and then transmitted over a limited bandwidth channel and finally converted back to speech signal. Generally lot of redundancy is present in voice signals .To reduce the redundancy in the signal it is properly compressed by coding. This signal compression improves the efficiency of the transmission and storage capacity. The coding of the signal by using channel Vo-Coders is shown in the block diagram below. 24
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com The channel vocoders splits the speech signal into increasing non-overlapping sub-bands.The whole range covers the frequencies that humans can hear. Incoming signal is periodically sampled at every 20ms. The channel vocoder uses a multiplexer to send two categories of information on the same channel. The sampling rate for all signals is selected above the Nyquist rate .These samples are then transmitted as a single signal. A De-Multiplexer at the receiving end can easily separate each signal.This multiplexing scheme is called Time-Division multiplexing.As shown in the diagram ,the band-pass filters divide the speech into smaller frequency bands and each sub-band is rectified and filtered using a low-pass filter to determine the spectral envelop of the speech.After this they are digitized and multiplexed for transmission. Normally there will be 16 -sub bands used to cover the entire audible range of frequencies. The pitch detector tries to distinguish between the voiced and unvoiced segments. Now the speech signals are synthesized .This is the reverse process of coding and compression. The received signal is de-multiplexed to separate out the different information categories .The part of the signal carrying the spectral envelope information is then converted into analog signal. The process of synthesis is shown below . Finally the signal segment is band-passed to its original frequency range. Digital signal processors provide necessary block to perform all these operations. The digital filters can be implemented easily using the DSP processors and their processing times are well within the range required by speech signals..There are a number of pitch estimator algorithms which can be implemented using the DSPs. 25
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com The last part of voice processing is the voice privacy. In systems like telecommunications this is very important. In these systems the encoding of the speech signals is done using various coding techniques. The technique like PCM(Pulse coding Modulation ) is widely used. RADAR : RADAR is an acronym for Radio Detection And Ranging . It is used to detect a stationary or moving target by sending radio waves towards it. The main sub-systems of a modern radar are the antenna, the tracking computer and the signal generator. The tracking computer in the modern radar performs and controls all the functions. By scheduling the appropriate antenna positions and transmitted signals as a function of time, keeps track of targets and running the display system.The RADAR model block diagram model is shown below. The transmitter of the RADAR transmits the signals generated by the signal generator through the anrenna.The receiver receives the echoed signal from the target .Based on the time lapse between the transmitted and received signals ,the distance at which the target is located is found. During the process of detection the signal is corrupted due to echoes, atmospheric noise or noise generated in the RADAR receiver.The noise power existing at the output of the Radar receiver is reduced by using the matched digital filters, whose frequency response function maximizes the output peak-signal to mean-noise power ratio. The working of this matched filter is similar to FIR filter and helps to store the filter impulse response in a memory chip.It can be used to process the signal in real time to meet a changing target environment. The block diagram of RADAR is shown below 26
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com The front end of the receiver for RADAR is mainly analog due the high frequencies involved. With fast ADC convertors - multiple channel, complex IF signals are digitized .But around the antenna, digital technology is followed. Fast digital interfaces are necessary to detect antenna position, or control other hard ware. The main task of a radar's signal processor is to make decisions. After a signal has been transmitted, the receiver starts receiving return signals, with those originating from near objects arriving first because time of arrival translates into target range. The signal processor over the whole period of time has to make a decision for each of the range as to whether it contains an object or not.This decision-making is severely hampered by noise. Atmospheric noise enters into the system through the antenna, and all the electronics in the radar's signal path produces noise too.These noises are reduced. DSP in Telecommunications: The fast developments in very large scale integrated technology (VLSI) revolutionized the digital integrated circuit technology in terms of small size ,low power ,low cost ,noise immunity and reliability. So , the today’s new and efficient Digital signal processors are found to be most suitable solution to the ever expanding Telecommunication field.Using the DSP filters ,the signals which are multiplexed on a high speed digital line can be filtered so that out of band components can be reduced. Otherwise distortion occurs due to the inter-channel interference of these signals. In today’s modern telephone systems , tone signaling is used instead of conventional sequential pulsing. To generate and detect these signals , suitable signal 27
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com processing techniques are applied. The signal processing is also applied in locating the faults in the operation of the wide range signals. Digital transmission system can carry easily the digital signals at a rate of 1.0Mbps .Based on this a T-carrier system is developed which can transmit 24-voice band channels simultaneously over a single twisted pair or wire pair. In this process pulse code modulation is used(PCM). Digital switching is another important area which implements Time division Multiplex operation.This TDM allows to carry nearly 120 signals simultaneously via time sharing method on each of its 16 input or output connections. Digital signal processing is also used in pulse code modulated transmission terminals to perform basic band limiting functions using the digital filters. Generally the analog signals are digitized at a high rate of around 32K.Hz and digitize these into linear PCM or differential PCM code. Digital filters operating at the high sampling rate removes energy above 3.2K.Hz and the noise or hum below 200Hz. The use of CODEC followed by a digital multiplexer reduces the chances of inter channel intelligible cross talk. One of the important and crucial problems in Telecommunications is the Echo generation. This will create problems to the user , where the user hears his own voice in return during the conversation over a telephone line. This echo is cancelled by using suitable digital transversal filters. This technique is known as echo cancellation. ECHO Canceller: Echo is the repetition of a waveform due to reflection from different points or interface of the medium. Echo can severely affect the quality and intelligibility of voice conversation in a telephone system. In telecommunication, echo can degrade the quality of service, and echo cancellation is an important part of communication systems. The development of echo reduction started in 1950s . There are two types of echo in communication systems: acoustic echo and telephone line hybrid echo. Acoustic echo results from a feedback path set up between the speaker and the microphone in a mobile phone, hands-free phone, teleconference or hearing aid system. Acoustic echo maybe reflected from a multitude of different surfaces, such as walls, ceilings and floors, and travels through different paths. Telephone line echoes result from an impedance mismatch at telephone exchange hybrids where the subscriber's 2-wire line is connected to a 4-wire line. 28
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com In telephone networks, the cost of running a 4-wire line from the local exchange to subscribers’ premises was considered uneconomical. Hence, at the exchange the 4-wire truck lines are converted to 2-wire subscribers local lines using a 2/4-wire hybrid bridge circuit. At the receiver due to any imbalance between the 4/2-wire bridge circuit, some of the signal energy of the 4wire circuit is bounced back towards the transmitter, constituting an echo signal. If the echo is more than a few milliseconds long then it becomes noticeable, and can be annoying and disruptive. So , Hybrid echo is the main source of echo generated from the public-switched telephone network (PSTN) and . Echoes on a telephone line are due to the reflection of signals at the points of impedance mismatch on the connecting circuits. In digital mobile phone systems, the voice signals are processed at two points in the network: first voice signals are digitized, compressed and coded within the mobile handset, and then processed at the radio frequency interface of the network. The total delay introduced by the various stages of digital signal processing range from 80 ms to 100 ms, resulting in a total roundtrip delay of 160–200 ms for any echo. A delay of this magnitude will make any appreciable echo disruptive to the communication process. Owing to the inherent processing delay in digital mobile communication systems, it is essential and mandatory to employ echo cancellers in mobile phone switching centres. The echo circuit attenuates the echo signal by detecting in which direction the conversation is active and to break the round trip the echo cancellers are used. An echo suppresser is primarily a switch that allows the speech signal during the speech-active periods and attenuates the line echo during the speech-inactive periods. A line echo suppresser is controlled by a speech/echo detection device. The echo detector monitors the signal levels on the incoming and outgoing lines, and decides if the signal on a line from, say, speaker B to speaker A is the speech from the speaker B to the speaker A, or the echo of speaker A. If the echo 29
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com detector decides that the signal is an echo then the signal is heavily attenuated. There is a similar echo suppression unit from speaker A to speaker B. The performance of an echo suppresser depends on the accuracy of the echo/speech classification subsystem. Echo of speech often has a smaller amplitude level than the speech signal, but otherwise it has mainly the same spectral characteristics and statistics as those of the speech. Therefore the only basis for discrimination of speech from echo is the signal level. As a result, the speech/echo classifier may wrongly classify and let through high-level echoes as speech, or attenuate low-level speech as echo. Adaptive Echo Cancellation : The working of an adaptive line echo canceller is shown in the below diagram. The speech signal on the line from speaker A to speaker B is input to the 4/2wire hybrid B and to the echo canceller. The echo canceller monitors the signal on line from B to A and attempts to model and synthesis a replica of the echo of speaker A. This replica is used to subtract and cancel out the echo of speaker A on the line from B to A. The echo canceller is basically an adaptive linear filter. The coefficients of the filter are adapted so that the energy of the signal on the line is minimized. The echo canceller can be an infinite impulse response (IIR) or a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. The main advantage of an IIR filter is that a long-delay echo can be synthesized by a relatively small number of filter coefficients. But in practice, echo cancellers are based on FIR filters. This is mainly due to the practical difficulties associated with the adaptation and stable operation of adaptive IIR filters. 30
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com For satisfactory performance, the echo canceller should have a fast convergence rate, so that it can adequately track changes in the telephone line and the signal characteristics. SONAR : SONAR is an acronym for Sound Navigation And Ranging.This technique, similar to RADAR is used to determine the range ,velocity and direction of the objects that are remote from the observer. SONAR employs sound waves of high frequencies (ultra sounds) to detect the objects under water ,because radio waves cannot pass through water. SONAR s y s t e m s divided Passive into two main categories SONAR system provides – active are and passive. monitoring the undersea environment without sending energy through the water. On the other hand, active SONAR system can act same as RADAR using responses from signals sent towards targets The major sources of ambient noise in the under water systems is i. Seismic disturbances ,ii. Biological organisms' activities iii.Oceanic turbulence,iv. Distant shipping v. Wind and vi. Thermal noise In deep waters the distant shipping noise is dominant in frequencies from about 10-20 Hz to about 200-300 Hz, and wind noise is dominant in frequencies from about 200-300 Hz to several tens of kHz. 31
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com Sonar hardware transmitter block diagram is shown below.In the diagram the generator generates wave form CW (continuous waveforms), e.g. sinusoidal pulse with rectangular or Gaussian envelope FM (frequency modulated) waveforms. Array Shading performs Amplitude shading for side-lobe suppression Complex shading amplitude shading and phase shifting / time delays) for main-lobe steering, shaping and broadening. Power Amplifier / Impedance Matching are the Switching amplifiers to achieve high source levels and Linear amplifiers if moderate source levels are sufficient but an enhanced coherence of consecutive pulses is required ,Impedance matching networks that supplies an optimal coupling of the amplifiers to the transducers are used. The SONAR receiver block diagram is shown below. Signal Conditioning provides the Preamplifier and Band Pass Filter with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) and/or (Adaptive) Time variable Gain ((A)TVG).The Quadrature Demodulation 32
  • Dr.Y.Narasimha Murthy Ph.D yayavaram@yahoo.com (analog or digitally) and anti-aliasing Filter and Analog-to-Digital Conversion with 16 up to 24 bits are used during the signal conditioning. Signal Processing block performs the signal processing using Matched Filtering / Pulse so that Conventional motion compensated near and far field beam forming in time or frequency domain The Information Processing performs the Image Formation (range decimation, azimuth decimation and interpolation, geo-coding) and Image Fusion (multi-ping and/or multi-aspect mode) and also Computer aided detection and classification (CAD and CAC) of Targets (semiautomatic for aiding an Operator or fully automatic for autonomous operations). The Display Processing block performs the display of the image of the object detected on the screen. References: This class notes is prepared based on the book ―Digital Image Processing‖ by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods and other internet material .This is purely for academic purpose ,not for commercial use 33