Translation procedure can be roughlydivided into two categories :1.Technical2.Organisational
Technical Procedures Technical procedures consist essentially of three phases: A. Analysis of the source and receptor languange a good translator must have : - a good grasp of the linguistic structures of the two languanges,not only in terms of the usual types of transfers from one languange to another but also and more specifically in terms of the types of transforms which occurs within a specific languange. - a complete understanding of the meaning of lexical elements,whether endocentric or exocentric. - must be both sensitive to and capable of producing an appropriate style,whether in spoken or written form.
B. Analysis of source-languange textThe semantic analysis stage consist of:1.Lexico-grammatical of the immediate unit.2.Discourse context.3.Communicative context.4.Cultural context of the source languange.5.Cultural context of the receptor languange.
C.Determination to equivalenceThe process by which one determines equivalencebetween source and receptor languange is obviously ahighly complex one.However it may be reduced to twoquite simple procedures:a.decomposition of the message into the simplestsemantic structure.b.recomposition of the message into the receptorlanguange.
Organisational ProcedureA. Translation by one personSome of the principal steps in procedure employed by a competent translator can be outlined, as follows: 1.reading over the entire document 2.Obtaining background information 3.Comparing existing translation of the text 4.Making a first draft of sufficiently comprehensive units 5.Revising the first draft after a short lapse of time 6.Reading aloud for style and rhytm 7.Studying the reactions of receptor by reading of the text by another persons 8.Submitting a translation to the other competent translators 9.Revising the text for publication
B. Translation by comitteesTypes of committees:1.Editorial CommitteeThe editorial committee should be as small as practicable(from three tofive) to get the work done.It is of utmost importance that the members ofeditorial committee be of relatively equal competence,since a fair sharing ofresponsibility and mutual respect are essential ingredients in any co-operative undertaking.2.Review ComimitteeThe review committee should be limited to about 10 persons, chosen fortheir special abilities; they should have either stylistic competence in thereceptor languange or expert knowledge of the source languange.3. The consulative committeeThe consulative committee may number from 25 to 100 persons,dependingupon the practical requirements of the situation.They should make theircontributions through correspondence,except when some major issue mayrequire the presence of an unusually representative body.They are chosenfor a variety reasons such as political,geographical,dialectal,etc.
Translation by comittees procedures:1.dividing the work among members of the editorial committee.2.translating of assigned portions by members of editorialcommittee.3.Submitting the work to other member of editorial committe.4.Studying of these suggestion by the translator.5.Submitting the resultant draft to the review committee6.Studying all changes and suggestions made by a reviewcommittee.7.Preparing a revised draft by the editorial secretary.8.Submitting a revised draft to members of the consultativecommittee.
9.Studying all suggestions made by the consultative committee.10.Preparing a final draft.11.Publishing tentative additions of limited portions.12.Studying public reactions to limited portions.13.Publishing of the final draft.14.Publishing of the complete translation.15.Incorporating postpublication corrections into subsequent printing.16.Postpublication revision of the text.
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