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Microorganisms Vaccine And Antibiotics
 

Microorganisms Vaccine And Antibiotics

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PRESENTATION BY ZULHILMI AND HANNAN ATHARI-4SIGMA MOZAC

PRESENTATION BY ZULHILMI AND HANNAN ATHARI-4SIGMA MOZAC

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    Microorganisms Vaccine And Antibiotics Microorganisms Vaccine And Antibiotics Presentation Transcript

    • Function of Microorganisms in the Production of Antibiotics and Vaccines… By: Zulhilmi Rusli… Hannan Athari Hassan…
    • Vaccines
      • What are vaccines?
      • Vaccines are preparations that contain a small portion of a killed or weakened organism (often a virus) that we want to avoid. The vaccine is designed to trigger an immune response to produce neutralising antibodies to the disease normally caused by this organism. This process then protects us in the future if exposed to the genuine bug. Vaccines can be prophylactic (e.g. to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated).
      • How are vaccines designed?
      • Depending on the nature of the organisms and the disease it causes, vaccines are designed using a variety of strategies:
      • For viruses:
      • Weaken the virus - viruses become unable to reproduce sufficiently to cause disease, but well enough to protect against infection in the future. Measles, Mumps and Chickenpox vaccines are made this way.
      • Inactivate the virus - viruses are completely killed with a chemical so it cannot reproduce or cause disease. Polio, Hepatitis A, Influenza and Rabies vaccines are made this way.
      • For bacteria:
      • Use a bacterial process - bacteria that cause disease by producing a toxic protein are neutralised by inactivating the toxins with a chemical. Diptheria, Tetanus and Whooping Cough vaccines are made this way.
      • Use part of the bacteria - the vaccine confers immunity to the sugar coating of the bacteria, sometimes combined with a harmless protein, rather than to the bacteria itself. Pneumococcal and Meningococcal vaccines are made this way.
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    • Antibiotics
      • What are antibiotics?
      • The word antibiotic comes from the Greek anti meaning 'against' and bios meaning 'life' (a bacterium is a life form).' Antibiotics are also known as antibacterials, and they are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Bacteria are tiny organisms that can sometimes cause illness to humans and animals. The singular word for bacteria is bacterium.