A PRESENTATION ON “DOORDARSHAN” FORDOORDARSHAN KENDRA , RAIPUR SUBMITTED BY: YATEENDRA SAHU 5TH SEM. ECE(B) (156)
COMPANY PROFILE DOORDARSHAN- Broadcasting Corporation of india.• Head Office : Shankar Nagar,Raipur.• Sr.Admin.Offiicer : Ms. M.S.Memon• Assistant : Mr. B.K.Mohapatra• Lib.Inf.asstt.: Mr. B.S Lalli• Jaipur Station Engineer : Sh. M .s . rao• Website: ddraipur.gov.in
PROGRAMMES / SERVICES• Awareness by means of – krishi darshan, Kalyani, Paramarsh, etc.• Knowledge by means of – Khuli Charcha,bhuiyan ke goth etc.• Entertainment by means of – Chitrahaar, Sanskriti Darpan & live Coverage of other activities, etc.
CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• TV STUDIO• VISION MIXER• AUDIO/ VIDEO CHAINS• MSR• EARTH STATION• TV Tx• ANTENNAS & SATELLITES• OB VAN & DSNG• SETUP IN RAIPUR
INTRODUCTIONTo Broadcasting• A process of sending information to a distant place is called Broadcasting.• Means of Broadcasting in India: 1. Terrestrial 2. Satellite 3. Internet• Both AIR & DD make use of both Terrestrial & satellite.
cont...• Broadcasting of DD chhattisgarh started in the year 2002.• Kendra telecasts programmes for 5 hrs.• In 1947, AIR was covering 2.5% & about 11% of land & population respectively.• 1st T.V Station was established in Delhi in 1959• T.V was separated from AIR in 1976
cont... • DD national has 1500 Transmitters and 70 Production centers across the Country. • These centers are divided in 3 levels-1. -National centers2. -Regional centers3. -Local centers • transmission started on 20th sep. 1987.
TV STUDIO• A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place .
COMPONENTS OF TV STUDIO• Camera• Lighting• Microphones• Vision mixer and Audio consoles• MSR• VTR• Acoustics• Post production and video effects• Supporting services like AC, UPS
VISION MIXER• A vision mixer (also called video switcher, video mixer or production switcher) is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases mix video sources together and add special effects.• It has many input sources such as cameras, VCR/ server, Graphics/Character Generators,etc.• Out of these input, any source can be taken as output.• Sources can be changed as cut to cut, dissolve, wipe and other special effects.
TYPICAL VIDEO CHAIN Earth station through Optical Fiber Sources Vision Mixer LOGO Distributor Generator STL Link TYPICAL AUDIO CHAIN Earth station through Optical Fiber Analog to AES ConverterSources Audio Console Distributor STL Link
MSR• It is the heart of the studio.• Most of the switching electronics is kept e.g. camera base stations, switcher main frame, SPG, Satellite receivers, MW link, DDA & most of the patch panels.• Signal is routed through MSR.• Signal can be Monitored at various stages
EARTH STATION• Earth Station is a very important part of satellite communication system for broadcasting of signals.• It is an uplink center from which the signals are fed to Satellite for distribution in a specified area covered by the Satellite.• The signal is up-linked from the Earth Station and received by many down link centers in TV broad casting via PDA.• Two Types: 1) Analog, 2) Digital• Digital Earth Stations are widely used because of various advantages over analog.
Major Components of Digital Earth Station• PDA (Parabolic Dish Antenna)• FEED• Wave Guide / Low Loss Cable• HPA (TWTA, Klystrons)• Up converter• Modulator• Encoder• Multiplexer• IRD (Integrated Receiver Decoder)
Types of TV Transmitters• VLPT’s, LPT’s & HPT’s• A 10 KW HPT of Raipur zone is situated at Shankar nagar raipur.• It is only 10-20% efficient.• It has beamwidth of 360 deg, hence can cover upto 65 kms of area around it.• It has various other supporting units with it to maintain the quality of s/g to be Txd. Like- Monitoring section, blower section, amplification section
Antennas & Satellites• An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic waves into electrical currents and vice versa. Transmitting AntennaElectrical signal Electromagnetic wave Receiving Antenna
TYPES• Isotropic antenna (idealized)- o Radiates power equally in all directions.• Dipole antennas- o Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna) o Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi antenna)• Parabolic Dish / Reflective Antenna
OB Van & DSNG• A typical OB Van is usually divided into 4 parts.• The first and largest part is the production area or sitting area for all directors & producers.• The second part of a van is for the audio engineer.• The 3rd part of the van is video tape
• The 4th part is transmission where the signal is monitored by and engineered for quality control purposes and is transmitted or sent to other trucks.• DSNG is a portable uplinking centre.
DD Setup In Raipur• Satellite - INSAT-3C, 740 E• Transponder – C24Parameters:• Symbol rate – 4.25 MSPS,• Downlink Freq. – 4166.50 MHz,• FEC – ¾,• Polarisation D/L – Vertical, Linear.Equipments -• Encoder (E5411), Modulator (SM600), Multiplexer (Mx5620) –Two nos. each (Tandberg make) in 1+1 Mode• Up Converter (Advent) - Two• 700 W HPA (Xicom) – Two• Network Management PC