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The architecture of Ancient Rome at first adopted the
external Greek architecture and by the late Republic, the
architectural style developed its own highly distinctive style
by introducing the previously little-used arches, vaults
anddomes. A crucial factor in this development, coined
the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention
of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high
population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to
discover new (architectural) solutions of their own. The use
of vaults and arches together with a sound knowledge of
building materials, for example, enabled them to achieve
unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing
structures for public use.
An amphitheatre (or amphitheater) is an open-air venue used
for entertainment and performances. The term derives from
theancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον (amphitheatron), from ἀμφί
(amphi), meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον
(théātron), meaning "place for viewing".
Ancient Greek theatres were built to a semicircular plan, with
tiered seating above a performance area. Ancient Roman
amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers
that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern
open-air stadium. Modern usage for "amphitheater" does not
always respect the ancient usage, and so the word can embrace
theatre-style stages with the audience only on one side, theatres
in the round, and stadiums. Natural formations shaped like manmade theatres or amphitheatres are sometimes known as natural
Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in parts
of France in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of
the Abbey of Cluny. The style, sometimes called "First Romanesque" or
"Lombard Romanesque", is characterised by thick walls, lack of
sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a
Lombard band. This structure has necessitated the use of very thick
walls, and massive piers from which the domes spring. There are
radiating chapels around the apse, which is a typically French feature
and was to evolve into the chevette. Notre-Dame
in Domfront, Normandy is a cruciform church with a short apsidal east
end. The nave has lost its aisle, and has probably some of its length. The
crossing has a tower that rises in two differentiated stages and is
surmounted by a pyramidical spire of a type seen widely in France and
Germany and also on Norman towers in England. The Abbey of
Fongombault in France shows the influence of the Abbey of Cluny.
The cruciform plan is clearly visible. There is a chevette of chapels
surrounding the chance apse. The crossing is surmounted by a tower.
The transepts end with gables.
French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture
prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500, which
largely divided into two styles, Early Gothic and Late Gothic
style. The Early Gothic style began in 1140 and was created
by penguin the pointed arch and transition from
late Romanesque architecture. To heighten the
wall, builders divided it into four tiers: arches
, gallery, triforium, and clerestorey.
The Late Gothic style of the 13th century canonized
proportions and shapes from early Gothic and developed
them further to achieve light, yet tall and majestic
structures. The wall structure was modified from four to
only three tiers: arcade, triforium, and clerestorey.
The French medieval Cathedral of Our Lady of
Chartres (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de
Chartres) is a Roman RiteCatholic cathedral located
in Chartres, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest
of Paris. It is considered one of the finest examples
of French Gothic architecture and is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.
Since at least the 12th century the cathedral has
been an important destination for travellers – and
remains so to this day, attracting large numbers of
Another Parisian style, Beaux-Arts originated from
the legendary École des Beaux Arts (School of Fine
Arts). Flourishing during the 19th and early 20th
centuries. Symmetrical façades were ornamented
with lavish details such as
swags, medallions, flowers, and shields. These
massive, imposing homes were almost always
constructed of stone and were reserved for only the
very wealthy. However a more 'humble' home might
show Beaux Arts influences if it has
stone balconies and masonry ornaments. Many
American architects studied at the École des Beaux
Arts, and the style strongly influenced United States
architecture from about 1880 to 1920.
The Palais Garnier (pronounced: [palɛ ɡaʁnje]; English: Garnier Palace) is a 1,979-seat opera
house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera. It was originally called the Salle des
Capucines because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines in the 9th arrondissement of
Paris, but soon became known as the Palais Garnier in recognition of its opulence and its
architect, Charles Garnier. The theatre was also often referred to as the Opéra Garnier, the Opéra
de Paris or simply the Opéra. It was the primary home of the Paris Opera and its associated Paris
Opera Ballet until 1989, when a new 2,700-seat house, the Opéra Bastille, with elaborate facilities
for set and production changes, opened at the Place de la Bastille. The Paris Opera now mainly
uses the Palais Garnier for ballet.
The Palais Garnier is "probably the most famous opera house in the world, a symbol of Paris
like Notre Dame cathedral, theLouvre, or the Sacré Coeur basilica." This is at least partly due to its
use as the setting for Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera and the novel's
subsequent adaptations in films and Andrew Lloyd Webber's popular 1986 musical.Another
contributing factor is that among the buildings constructed in Paris during the Second
Empire, besides being the most expensive, it has been described as the only one that is
"unquestionably a masterpiece of the first rank." This opinion is far from unanimous however: the
20th-century French architect Le Corbusier once described it as "a lying art" and contended that
the "Garnier movement is a décor of the grave".
Rococo developed first in the decorative arts and interior design. Louis XIV's
succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By
the end of the old king's reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter
elements with more curves and natural patterns. These elements are obvious in
the architectural designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life
moved away from Versailles and this artistic change became well
established, first in the royal palace and then throughout French high society.
The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as perfectly in tune
with the excesses of Louis XV's regime.
The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France. Rococo still
maintained the Baroque taste for complex forms and intricate patterns, but by
this point, it had begun to integrate a variety of diverse characteristics, including
a taste for Oriental designs and asymmetric compositions. The style had spread
beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture. The Rococo style
spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in
the Catholic parts of Germany, Bohemia, and Austria, where it was merged with
the lively German Baroque traditions.
The first phase of neoclassicism in France is expressed in the "Louis XVI style" of architects
like Ange-Jacques Gabriel (Petit Trianon, 1762–68); the second phase, in the styles
called Directoire and "Empire", might be characterized by Jean Chalgrin’s severe astylar Arc de
Triomphe (designed in 1806). In England the two phases might be characterized first by the
structures of Robert Adam, the second by those of Sir John Soane. The interior style in France was
initially a Parisian style, the "Goût grec" ("Greek style") not a court style. Only when the young
king acceded to the throne in 1771 did Marie Antoinette, his fashion-loving Queen, bring the "Louis
XVI" style to court.
From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of
etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival.
Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and
beyond— a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th
century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical
circles. By the mid-19th century, several European cities - notably St Petersburg, Athens, Berlin
and Munich- were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture. By
comparison, the Greek revival in France was never popular with either the State or the public.
What little there is started with Charles de Wailly's crypt in the church of St Leu-St Gilles (1773–
80), and Claude Nicolas Ledoux's Barriere des Bonshommes (1785-9). First-hand evidence of Greek
architecture was of very little importance to the French, due to the influence of Marc-Antoine
Laugier's doctrines that sought to discern the principles of the Greeks instead of their mere
practices. It would take until Laboustre's Neo-Grec of the second Empire for the Greek revival to
flower briefly in France.
Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg
Kazan Cathedral or Kazanskiy Kafedralniy
р), also known as the Cathedral of Our
Lady of Kazan, is a cathedral of the Russian
Orthodox Church on the Nevsky
Prospekt in St. Petersburg. It is dedicated
to Our Lady of Kazan, probably the most
venerated icon in Russia.
French Baroque is a form of Baroque architecture that evolved in France during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610–
43), Louis XIV (1643–1714) and Louis XV (1714–74). French Baroque profoundly influenced 18th-century secular
architecture throughout Europe. Although the open three wing layout of the palace was established in France as
the canonical solution as early as the 16th century, it was the Palais du Luxembourg (1615–20) by Salomon de
Brosse that determined the sober and classicizing direction that French Baroque architecture was to take. For the
first time, the corps de logis was emphasized as the representative main part of the building, while the side wings
were treated as hierarchically inferior and appropriately scaled down. The medieval tower has been completely
replaced by the central projection in the shape of a monumental three-storey gateway.
Probably the most accomplished formulator of the new manner was François Mansart, credited with introducing
the full Baroque to France. In his design for Château de Maisons (1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic
and baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for the gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the French
tradition. Maisons-Laffitte illustrates the ongoing transition from the post-medieval chateaux of the 16th century
to the villa-like country houses of the eighteenth. The structure is strictly symmetrical, with an order applied to
each story, mostly in pilaster form. The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with
remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are
stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome. Italian Baroque influence is muted and
relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation.
The next step in the development of European residential architecture involved the integration of the gardens in
the composition of the palace, as is exemplified by Vaux-le-Vicomte (1656–61), where the architect Louis Le
Vau, the designer Charles Le Brun and the gardener André Le Nôtre complemented each other. From the main
cornice to a low plinth, the miniature palace is clothed in the so-called "colossal order", which makes the structure
look more impressive. The creative collaboration of Le Vau and Le Nôtre marked the arrival of the "Magnificent
Manner" which allowed to extend Baroque architecture outside the palace walls and transform the surrounding
landscape into an immaculate mosaic of expansive vistas
The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is
a baroque French château located
in Maincy, near Melun, 55 km southeast of Paris in
the Seine-et-Marne département of France. It was built
from 1658 to 1661 for Nicolas Fouquet, Marquis de Belle
Île, Viscount of Melun and Vaux, the superintendent of
finances of Louis XIV.
The château was an influential work of architecture in mid17th century Europe. At Vaux-le-Vicomte, the architect
Louis Le Vau, the landscape architect André le Nôtre, and
the painter-decorator Charles Le Brun worked together on
a large-scale project for the first time. Their collaboration
marked the beginning of the "Louis XIV style" combining
architecture, interior design and landscape design. The
garden's pronounced visual axis is an example of this style.
During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in
northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as
their war booty, but also stylistic ideas. In the Loire Valley a wave of building was
carried and many Renaissance chateaux appeared at this time, the earliest
example being the Château d'Amboise (c. 1495) in which Leonardo da Vinci spent
his last years. The style became dominant under Francis I (See Châteaux of the
The style progressively developed into a French Mannerism known as the Henry
II style under architects such asSebastiano Serlio, who was engaged after 1540 in
work at the Château de Fontainebleau. At Fontainebleau Italian artists such
as Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, and Niccolo dell' Abbate formed the
First School of Fontainebleau. Architects such as Philibert Delorme, Androuet du
Cerceau, Giacomo Vignola, and Pierre Lescot, were inspired by the new ideas.
The southwest interior facade of the Cour Carree of the Louvre in Paris was
designed by Lescot and covered with exterior carvings by Jean Goujon.
Architecture continued to thrive in the reigns of Henry II and Henry III.