Crunode in Technological Development<br />Hitotsubashi University<br />JSPS DC1<br />Yasushi HARA<br />1<br />
Research Question<br /><ul><li>1.) How determine the path of Invention(*)turned into Innovation?</li></ul>*-  in which enc...
Quantitative approach
Qualitative approach
2.) how do we track the trajectory from the science discoveries into innovation?
The origin of innovation.
Spillover and scientific base.</li></ul>2<br />
Technological development<br />Invention<br />Innovation<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />...
Literature Review<br /><ul><li>Citation Network
(Martinelli; 2010)
Role of prior researches
(Comroe and Dripps; 1976)
Star Scientist Thesis: (Zucker and Darby; 1997)
Knowledge and Innovation
(Mokyr; 2003)
Knowledge Management: (Nonaka and Takeuchi; 1995)
Open Innovation: (Chesbrough; 2003, 2011), (Chesbrough and Vanhaverbeke; 2006)</li></ul>4<br />
Method and Approach<br /><ul><li>Method and Approach
To capture up  the trajectory of technological development numerically, build up “citation tree” for
1.) Ensuring the  role of organization.
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Crunode in technological development

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"Cru Node in Technological Development", presented in OUI workshop 2011, Vienna by Yasushi HARA.

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  1. 1. Crunode in Technological Development<br />Hitotsubashi University<br />JSPS DC1<br />Yasushi HARA<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Research Question<br /><ul><li>1.) How determine the path of Invention(*)turned into Innovation?</li></ul>*- in which encourages the technological development and satisfies newness [as well as the requirement of patent], but not yet to be commercialized and/or materialized. <br /><ul><li>how do we measure this?
  3. 3. Quantitative approach
  4. 4. Qualitative approach
  5. 5. 2.) how do we track the trajectory from the science discoveries into innovation?
  6. 6. The origin of innovation.
  7. 7. Spillover and scientific base.</li></ul>2<br />
  8. 8. Technological development<br />Invention<br />Innovation<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />Invention<br />time<br />0<br />3<br />
  9. 9. Literature Review<br /><ul><li>Citation Network
  10. 10. (Martinelli; 2010)
  11. 11. Role of prior researches
  12. 12. (Comroe and Dripps; 1976)
  13. 13. Star Scientist Thesis: (Zucker and Darby; 1997)
  14. 14. Knowledge and Innovation
  15. 15. (Mokyr; 2003)
  16. 16. Knowledge Management: (Nonaka and Takeuchi; 1995)
  17. 17. Open Innovation: (Chesbrough; 2003, 2011), (Chesbrough and Vanhaverbeke; 2006)</li></ul>4<br />
  18. 18. Method and Approach<br /><ul><li>Method and Approach
  19. 19. To capture up the trajectory of technological development numerically, build up “citation tree” for
  20. 20. 1.) Ensuring the role of organization.
  21. 21. 2.) Identifying the “main path (= most influenced patent and/or paper in each decade)” of trajectory.
  22. 22. 3.) Under 1.) and 2.), determining whether the existence of “cru node "scientist [talks later].
  23. 23. Field
  24. 24. Based on quantitate approach:
  25. 25. Blue LED (invented by Dr. Shuji Nakamura [ex. Nichia Corporation] )
  26. 26. Data
  27. 27. Patent [USPTO, JP Patent Library] / Paper [ISI Web of Knowledge/Science]</li></ul>5<br />
  28. 28. “Citation Tree” build algorism<br />1: Defining the starting point: Shuji Nakamura’s most-cited patent [US7205220] for blue LED.2: Referring [inventor-cited] whole forward citation data of starting point3: Under 2., referring forward citation data of 3-tier paper and/or patents.4: Repeating these procedure for 5 times.Sum: Fetches about 1,000 paper/patents and its forward citation data. [from 1903 to 2007] <br />Starting point<br />6<br />
  29. 29. Entire Network<br />Red node indicates the “Main path”.<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  30. 30. Network (delete pendants)<br />Red node indicates the “Main path”.<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  31. 31. 1910-1970<br />1960s<br />1970s<br />1930s<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  32. 32. 1910-1975<br />1960s<br />1970s<br />1930s<br />1975<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  33. 33. 1910-1980<br />1960s<br />1970s<br />1930s<br />1975<br />1980<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  34. 34. Top 10 companies from 1910-2007<br />1930s<br />1960s<br />1970s<br />1990s<br />2000s<br />1980s<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  35. 35. “Main path” of Paper and Patent (1910-2007).<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  36. 36. Cru Node in the Network<br />Cru node [definition]: the certain node which connects certain scale of social groups and/or organizations.<br />Brief Result<br />Papar? Patent? : Mostly Patent.<br />Who? : resides in big firms, and yields many papers/patents.<br />When? : Mostly 1970-1975.<br />How? : total backward-citation number is low, comparing to average of his/her another paper/patents.<br />
  37. 37. Cru node in the network [Graph]<br />Source: Web of Knowledge[Derwent Innovation Index]/Web of Science<br />
  38. 38. Cru Node in the Network [Table]<br />
  39. 39. Behavior of “Cru Node” Scientist<br />Case 1: Jacques Pankove・“Jacques Pankove was born in Russia in 1922 and lived in France for nearly 20 years. To evade Nazi persecution, Jacques and his family came to the United States in 1942, where he became an accomplished electrical engineer and worked for RCA. Jacques is Professor Emeritus at CU in the Department of Electrical Engineering. “ *- http://www.colorado.edu/memorybox/jacquespankove.html<br />Case 2: Ralph A. Logan・”Kressel began his career as a researcher in electronics and lasers at RCA Laboratories, which became Sarnoff Corporation and is now integrated into SRI as SRI International Sarnoff, where he devoted 24 years and attained the position of staff vice president.”, “Kressel also serves on the board of directors of Suniva, Inc., Telcordia Technologies, Inc., and WP Roaming Holdings SA (MACH). He is also Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Yeshiva University.”, “He holds 31 U.S. patents and has published more than 120 papers and three books.”- * http://www.sri.com/about/board/kressel.html<br />
  40. 40. Findings<br />“Cru node” scientist is not only classified as acted as “star scientist” (Zucker and Darby et al.), but also plays a role for inbounding, connecting the knowledge across the social group mostly identified as organization.<br />And, “Cru node” patent and/or paper is under the average of his paper in the measurement of backward citation, in this sense, the (tacit / un-codified) knowledge would have a role for technical breakthrough.<br />
  41. 41. Findings (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Trend in technological: initial set by German univs., Invasion via US big firms after WWII and Japan in 1980s
  42. 42. University/Industry Collaboration had certain role for proceeding the technological development of Blue LED in Japan especially in 1980s.
  43. 43. Equivalent to prior research in qualitative case studies (Shimizu et al.)
  44. 44. Still couldn’t be ensuring the linkage between core prior technology and major invention via backward citation data only.
  45. 45. We must employ the method simultaneously for determining the prior technology for innovation, hybrid of survey, interview and literature survey and numerical approach. </li></ul>19<br />
  46. 46. Thanks.<br />cd091007@g.hit-u.ac.jpyasushi.hara1982@gmail.com<br />

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