Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor
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Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor

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Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor

Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor
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Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Case record...Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Document Transcript

  • CASE OF THE WEEK PROFESSOR YASSER METWALLY CLINICAL PICTURE CLINICAL PICTURE: CLINICAL PICTURE: A 6 years old male patient presented clinically with intractable complex partial seizure. The child is mentally subnormal. RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Figure 1. Precontrast MRI T1 image (A) and postcontrast MRI T1 images (B,C) showing evidence of lissencephaly and pachygyria. Also observed an intracortical mass in the left posterior parieto-occipital; area. The mass is hypointense on precontrast scans with no observable postcontrast enhancement. The mass has a very minimal mas effect. No evidence of perilesional edema is observed. Figure 2. MRI T2 images showing showing similar finding observed in figure 1. The mass is hyperintense on the MRI T2 images, purely intracortical with minimal mass effect. Also noted lissencephaly, pachygyria with probable subependymal heterotopia. No evidence of perilesional edema is observed.
  • Figure 3. MRI FLAIR images. The left parieto-occipital mass is hyperintense on FLAIR images, purely intracortical with mild mass effect. Also observed lissencephaly, polymicrogyria and subependymal nodular heterotopia. No evidence of perilesional edema is observed. Stereotactic biopsy of the cortical mass revealed a Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor [DNET]. SEE figure 4. Figure 4. Photomicrograph (original magnification, x160; hematoxylineosin stain) of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor with cystic degeneration shows a trabecular pattern (long arrows) of glial elements, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Oligodendroglial cells (arrowhead) contain small dark nuclei, whereas the astrocytic cells (short arrow) are somewhat larger with pink cytoplasm. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor [DNET] is a relatively newly described benign tumor arising within the supratentorial cortex and almost always associated with partial complex seizures. These lesions may occasionally appear cystic and show one of the three characteristics which include: a) specific glioneuronal element, b) nodular component, or c) association with cortical dysplasia. MR scan usually demonstrates a focal cortical lesion most commonly in the temporal lobe that is hypodense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 weighted studies. It is not uncommon for a small subset of these tumors to resemble benign cysts with slightly increased signal on proton density-weighted and FLAIR sequences. Post-contrast enhancement and calcification may also occur occasionally.  Imaging Findings for Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Imaging characteristics of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor is similar to those of other low-grade glial tumors and may not be possible to distinguish this tumor from diffuse astrocytoma, ganglioglioma, oligodendroglioma, or other low-grade neoplasms.  At CT, the tumor manifests as a hypoattenuating mass.  Calcification may be seen.
  •  Remodeling of the adjacent inner table of the skull may also be seen.  At MR imaging, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors most commonly manifest as cortical masses that are hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images without surrounding vasogenic edema.  Some lesions may appear as an enlarged gyrus, producing a soap bubble appearance at the cortical margin.  Approximately one-third of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors enhance following intravenous administration of contrast material. DIAGNOSIS: DIAGNOSIS: DYSEMBRYOPLASTIC NEUROEPITHELIAL TUMOUR ASSOCIATED WITH CORTICAL DYSPLASIA DISCUSSION DISCUSSION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor [DNET] is a benign tumor of neuroepithelial origin arising from the cortical or deep gray matter. Since the description of 39 cases in 1988 by investigators from Paris and the Mayo Clinic, there are now more than 300 cases on record (1,2). These tumors virtually always manifest in patients with medically refractory partial seizures. The vast majority of patients are younger than 20 years, and males are more commonly affected (3). In contrast to other brain neoplasms, neurologic deficits are not common with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors unless they occur in the presence of complex congenital abnormalities (3). The temporal lobe is the most common site (62%), followed by the frontal lobe (31%) (3). Although the vast majority of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors are confined to the cortical gray matter, they may also arise within the caudate nucleus, cerebellum, or pons (4,5). Patients with cerebellar dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors present with symptoms (eg, ataxia, vertigo, gait problems) related to this location rather than seizure activity (2). The locations of these tumors support the hypothesis that these lesions are derived from secondary germinal layers (1). Figure 1. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors appear to be remarkably stable in terms of biologic behavior. Despite only partial resection of many of these lesions, complete cessation of all seizure activity is a common result following neurosurgical intervention (1). Recurrence is also very rare (3). However, there is one recent report in the literature of malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor that showed a higher degree of mitotic activity than is commonly seen in these tumors (6). The tumor in this case recurred 11 years after the initial surgical resection (6). This case emphasizes
  • the need for long-term follow-up of patients with atypical dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. Figure 2. Dysembyroplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Coronal proton density-weighted image (A) and postcontrast (B) images demonstrate a peripherally based lesion (arrow) with trabeculated enhancement. Based solely on these images, it appears that the lesion is extra-axial because gray matter can be seen surrounding the lesion, especially in (A). However, it is not uncommon for an intra-axial neoplasm causing chronic epilepsy to appear extra-axial because it is situated within or replaces the cortex and has the appearance of being outside the cortex in some cross-sectional planes. Thin section imaging allowed visualization of the multicystic nature of this lesion on the enhanced image (B). The original description of 39 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in 1988 resulted from a retrospective review of nearly 300 tumors initially diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas in patients with medically refractory seizures (1). These 39 specimens shared common histologic features: a multinodular architecture, a "specific glioneuronal element" in a columnar pattern oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface, and focal areas of cortical dysplasia (1). Since that initial description, neuropathologists have noted that these three characteristics may not always be present. This observation has led to the latest classification scheme, which divides these tumors into a "simple form" (without a nodular architecture) and a "complex form" (with a multinodular appearance) (3). They are characterized by an admixture of astrocytes and oligodendroglial elements, in association with "floating neurons" and mucinous degeneration. The tumors generally have a low growth potential as measured by certain metabolic indexes (3). There are several reports of composite neoplasms with both ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor components. Since cortical dysplasia is commonly seen with both of these tumors, perhaps they represent the tumoral form of cortical dysplasia or neoplastic transformation of a dysplastic area (7,8,9,10,11). Figure 3. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in a 14-year-old girl who experienced a seizure while sleeping. (a) Axial CT image shows a hypoattenuating mass of the right parietal lobe. Note the remodeling of the adjacent inner table of the skull. (b) Axial T2-weighted MR image shows marked high signal intensity of the mass, which extends beyond the normal cortical margin ("soap bubble" appearance) and directly remodels the skull. There is no evidence of vasogenic edema associated with the mass. (c) Contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted MR image shows no evidence of enhancement within the mass.
  • Figure 4. Photomicrograph (original magnification, x120; hematoxylineosin stain) of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor shows neuronal elements surrounded by prominent vacuoles, which represent so-called floating neurons (arrows). SUMMARY SUMMARY Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNT) is a recently recognized, benign tumor associated with medically intractable, partial complex seizures. Mean age of onset of symptoms is nine years (range 1-19 years). All reported DNT's have been supratentorial, most often involving the temporal lobe (approximately 2/3) followed in frequency by the frontal lobe (1/3). The tumors are primarily cortical in location, although they may extend to involve the subcortical white matter. On CT scans, DNT's are well-defined, low-attenuation lesions which may be mistaken for cysts. The tumors tend to be low signal on T1- weighted MR images and high signal on T2-weighted images, i.e., similar to CSF, but on proton-density images, they are slightly higher in signal than CSF, allowing them to be differentiated from simple cysts. Less than 25% calcify or enhance. There is associated calvarial remodeling in approximately 1/3 of cases. Differential diagnoses include ganglioglioma and low-grade astrocytoma. A ganglioglioma, however, is more likely to be located within the white matter. Calvarial remodeling, if present, is a helpful differentiating feature in that it would be unlikely for either a ganglioglioma or a low-grade astrocytoma to cause such changes. The prognosis for patients with DNT is excellent. 70-81% of patients are seizure-free following surgery, and the tumor does not recur, even in cases where resection is considered incomplete.  Addendum  A new version of this PDF file (with a new case) is uploaded in my web site every week (every Saturday and remains available till Friday.)  To download the current version follow the link "http://pdf.yassermetwally.com/case.pdf".  You can also download the current version from my web site at "http://yassermetwally.com".  To download the software version of the publication (crow.exe) follow the link: http://neurology.yassermetwally.com/crow.zip  The case is also presented as a short case in PDF format, to download the short case follow the link: http://pdf.yassermetwally.com/short.pdf  At the end of each year, all the publications are compiled on a single CD-ROM, please contact the author to know more details.  Screen resolution is better set at 1024*768 pixel screen area for optimum display.
  •  For an archive of the previously reported cases go to www.yassermetwally.net, then under pages in the right panel, scroll down and click on the text entry "downloadable case records in PDF format"  Also to view a list of the previously published case records follow the following link (http://wordpress.com/tag/case- record/) or click on it if it appears as a link in your PDF reader REFERENCES References 1.Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW, Chodkiewicz JP, Laws ER, Jr, Vedrenne C. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour: a surgically curable tumour of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Neurosurgery 1988; 23:545-556. 2.Fujimoto K, Ohnishi H, Tsujimoto M, Hoshida T, Nakazato Y. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor of the cerebellum and brainstem. J Neurosurg 2000; 93:487-489. 3.Daumas-Duport C, Pietsch T, Lantos PL. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour. In: Kleihues P, Cavenee WK, eds. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the nervous system. Lyon, France: IARC, 2000; 103-106. 4.Cervera-Pierot P, Varlet P, Chodkiewicz JP, Daumas-Duport C. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors located in the caudate nucleus area: report of four cases. Neurosurgery 1997; 40:1065-1070. 5.Kuchelmeister K, Demirel T, Schlorer E, Bergmann M, Gullota F. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour of the cerebellum. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1995; 89:385-390. 6.Hammond RR, Duggal N, Woulfe JMJ, Girvin JP. Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Neurosurg 2000; 92:722-725. 7.Prayson RA. Composite ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123:247- 250. 8.Koeller KK, Dillon WP. MR appearance of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT). AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992; 13:1319-1325. 9.Kuroiwa T, Kishikawa T, Kato A, Ueno M, Kudo S, Tabuci K. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1994; 18:352-356. 10.Ostertun B, Wolf HK, Campos MG, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR and CT evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17:419-430. 11.Abe M, Tabuchi K, Tsuji T, Shiraishi T, Koga H, Takagi M. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: report of three cases. Surg Neurol 1995; 43:240-245. 12. Metwally, MYM: Textbook of neuroimaging, A CD-ROM publication, (Metwally, MYM editor) WEB-CD agency for electronic publication, version 10.4a October 2009