How Hitler filtered Germany from ‘Degenerates’ and ‘useless eaters’
Hitler’s aim was to cleanse the German blood in order for Germany to be strong, fit and superior to link in with the whole idea of ‘master race’ He did this by selective breeding and eliminating those lacking moral fibre, most commonly known as ‘degenerates’ and ‘useless eaters’ as they were using up Germanys resources.
1933- Propaganda campaign targeted useless eaters July 1933- compulsory sterilisation against degenerates September 1933- Undesirables sent to concentration camps and sterilised 1936- second campaign of sterilisation 1939- Beginning of Aktion T4
1939- Nazi’s established ‘special hospitals’ for severally disabled children in which they were sterilised. (lethal injections) 1940- project known as Aktion T4. project expanded and extended to adults, children are taken from parents. Extermination projects constructed in Haretheim and Grafeneck. 1941- Aktion T4 cancelled due to exposure from Catholic church. 72,000 killed.
Split into three sections: Persecution 1933-1938 Genocide 1939-1941 ‘Final solution’ 1942-1945
Harassment and picketing of Jewish stores Anti Semitic propaganda and literature Public speaking about the hatred of Jews
Intention of protection of German blood and honour by: German and a Jew are not allowed to marry or have a relationship Jews not permitted to employ German women below age of 45 Jews were not permitted to display national flag of Germany or its colours.
The intention of isolating and de-humanising Jews. German Jews were ‘subjects’ Not allowed to vote of work for the government Jewish property confiscated by Government No education for Jews past 14 Jews banned from certain public places
50% of more Jewish Michelin class 2 and Jews.
Jews had to change their name to ‘Sarah’ or ‘Israel’ German Jews were allowed to use their passports in order to leave, but never return. Nazis aim from 1933-1938 was to drive out as many Jews as possible
8th November 1938 attacks on German Jews because an expelled Jew shot a German diplomat. Austria was annexed at the time so it was involved too. Germany Austria 200 Synagogues destroyed 191 Synagogues destroyed 7000 shops destroyed 815 shops destroyed 30’000 men sent to 100’00 men imprisoned concentration camps
Between March 1938 and June 1941, Germany had captured, recaptured and conquered most of eastern Europe. Because of the German conquest, Germany had now 6 million Jews living under the Nazi ideology Nazis plan is to re-populate large parts of E. Europe with Germans.
Himmler and the SS removed Jews from general population to ‘Jewish quarters’ or Ghettos. Warsaw, Lodz and Riga all in Poland The conditions in the ghettos were unbearable, overcrowded, limited supplies of food The ghetto’s were sealed with bricks and barbed wire. There was no water sewage system which led to disease Many Jews were made to work
Einsatzgruppen- led by Heydrich, RSHA, Waffen SS, Gestapo and local volunteers They eliminated Jewish residents by: Shooting , burning and hanging. Einsatzgruppen were responsible for 1 million deaths.
Unsustainable methods of killing Required a lot ammunition/ man power No quick way of disposing bodies Psychological effects on SS members The Genocide drew up plans for ‘Final solution’
Wannsee conference 20th January 1942 held by Eichmann and Heydrich. All Jews were to be exterminated in stations in remote areas All Nazi departments must co-operate.
Aktion T4 were responsible for developing efficient ways of killing in mass numbers Gas chambers with carbon monoxide used in 1942 In 1943 Zyklon B was used instead Some died immediately after arrival, others were selected and forced into labour camps. Others died due to starvation, beaten or worked to death.
Special railway lines were constructed Others drove to the death camps in cattle trucks 10% of Jews died on route Prisoners went through ‘Selection’ those considered fit enough to work were sent to labour camps Women, children and elderly were sent to gas chambers straight away.
Research on genetics and cancer were used on prisoners The effectiveness of military equipment were tested on prisoners within Auschwitz. By 1945, many troops liberated a number of death camps.