Chapter1  2014_01_24_09_44_10
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Chapter1 2014_01_24_09_44_10






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Chapter1  2014_01_24_09_44_10 Chapter1 2014_01_24_09_44_10 Presentation Transcript

  • Microprocessor & Interfacing By: Ghadiya Hitesh
  • Microprocessor • Microprocessor is a  Multipurpose  Programmable  Clock-driven  Register-based electronic device  Reads binary instruction from a storage device (MEMORY)  Accepts binary as input  Processes data according to instruction  Provides Result as output
  • A Programmable Device Input Micro Processor Memory Output
  • MP Application • MP Applications are classified into two Categories: • Reprogrammable system  MP is used for computing and data Processing  It includes General Purpose MP, Mass storage device and peripheral(i.e. Printer). • Embedded System  The MP is a part of final product  Reprogramming is not possible
  • Binary Digits • MP operates in binary digits 0 & 1,also know as a bits. • Bits are represented in terms of Electrical Voltages in Machine  0 Represents one voltage level and 1 represents another also known as Low and High respectively. • Each MP recognizes and processes a group of bits called word • MP are classified according to their word Length.
  • Memory • Memory is like the pages of a notebook  space for storing a fixed binary numbers on each line • These pages are generally made of semiconductor material. • Each line is an 8-bit register that can store eight binary bits. • several 8-bit registers are arranged in a sequence called memory.
  • Input/Output • Input Device  The user can enter instruction and data into memory through Input devices.  Ex : key board or simple switches. • Output Device  Result can be displayed by a output devices.  Ex: seven segment LEDs(Light Emitting Diodes) or printed by a Printer.
  • Block Diagram of a Computer CPU ALU Input Control Unit Memory Output
  • Microcomputer Input Micro-processor as CPU Memory Output
  • Microcontroller MPU Memory I/O Peripheral Devices A/D converter Timer & Serial I/O
  • Advance in Semiconductor Technology • Since 1950 Entire circuit consisting of several transistors, diodes and registers could be designed on a single chip(Integrated Circuit). • In early 1960 technology of integrating of circuits of a logic gates on a single chip became known as small scale integration(SSI). • More than 100 gates were fabricate on single chip which was called medium scale integration(MSI). • More than 1000 gates on a single chip which was called Large scale Integration(LSI). • Now we are in era of Very Large Scale Integration(VLSI) and Super Large Scale Integration(SLSI).
  • Historical Perspective • In 1969, Intel received a contract from Japanese company, Busicom, to design a programmable calculator. • Ted Hoff suggested a general purpose chip that could perform various logic functions. • Intel coined term “Microprocessor” and in 1971 released first 4-bit microprocessor as the 4004. • Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel Corporation, predicted that number of transistors per IC would double every 18 months, this came to known as “Moore’s Law”
  • Cont. • The Intel 4004 was quickly replaced by 8-bit microprocessor(Intel 8008) which was in turn superseded by Intel 8080. • Intel 8080 widely used in control application and small computers also were designed using 8080 as CPU, these computers became known as microprocessor. • Within few years Motorola 6800,the Zilog Z80 & Intel 8085 Microprocessor were developed as improvements over 8080. • The 8085 and Z80 were designed as upward software compatible with 8080. • 8085 developed in 1976, which has 16bit address bus and 8bit data bus.
  • Organization of a MicroprocessorBased System I/O ALU Register Array System Bus Memory Control ROM R/WM
  • Microprocessor MP can be divided into three segments • Arithmetic Logic Unit :  Performs Arithmetic & Logic Operation • Register Array :  Primarily used to store data during execution of program • Control Unit :  Provides Necessary timing and control signals to all operations
  • Memory • Memory stores binary information which may be Instruction or data. • Microprocessor fetch that information from memory. • ROM (Read Only Memory) Used to store Programs that do not need alterations • R/WM(Read/Write Memory) / RAM R/WM also know an User Memory, used to store user programs and data.
  • System Bus • Communication Path • It is nothing but a group of wires to carry bits. • All peripheral share the same bus however the MP communicate with only one peripheral at a time. • The timing is provided by control unit of MP.
  • Microprocessor Instruction Set and Computer languages • Word • Byte = 8 bits • Nibble = 4 bits • Machine Language • Assembly Language • High Level Language • Compiler or Interpreter Source Code Compiler or Interpreter Object Code
  • 8085 Machine Language • Machine language- a binary language composed of 0 and 1. • Designer decide the combination of 0 and 1 for specific function this is called instruction. • Ex: 0001 1100 Increment accumulator. • Ex: 1000 0000 Adding accumulator and register B data. • 74 instruction for performing various operation.
  • 8085 Assembly Language • Need of 8085 Assembly Language • Symbolic code of each instruction is called mnemonic • Ex: INR A similarly the binary code 1000 0000 • ADD B Adding content of accumulator with register B • Program written in mnemonic is called as assembly language program • Assembler convert ASCII code to binary code.
  • High-Level Languages • Machine Independent are called High level language • Ex: Basic, Pascal, C, C++, and Java. • Program accept English like statement as input is called source code. • The compiler or interpreter translate the source code into object code.