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Comparison between behaviorist theory and cognitivist theory

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  • 1. Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory
  • 2.  What is the Behaviourist Theory?  Behaviorist theory says that learning is nothing more than the acquisition of new behaviour based on environmental conditions – linking a new behaviour to a stimulus by providing reinforcement after the correct behaviour is produced.  The Theorists : Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Skinner (1904 – 1990) Watson (1878 – 1958)
  • 3.  The Behaviorist approach to language learning grew out of the belief that students could learn a second language by being taught to produce the correct “response” to the appropriate stimulus. The students would then receive either instant positive or instant negative “reinforcement” in the shape of either correction or praise from the teacher.
  • 4.  What is the Cognitivist Theory?  A cognitive theory of learning sees second language acquisition as a conscious and reasoned thinking process, involving the deliberate use of learning strategies. Learning strategies are special ways of processing information that enhance comprehension, learning or retention of information. This explanation of language learning contrasts strongly with the behaviourist account of language learning, which sees language learning as an unconscious, automatic process.
  • 5.  Cognitive theory assumes that responses are also the result of insight and intentional patterning.  The Theorists : Jean Piaget Robert Gagne Lev Vygotsky
  • 6.  Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory  Behaviorism and Cognitivism are both a good way of teaching and learning processes, however, there are some differences between them which is very significant.
  • 7.  Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory  Behaviorism is a theory that its perspective may be defined as a change of behavior as a result of experience-that can be measured.  Cognitivist theory is that its perspective is a change in mental representations and associations brought about by experiences.
  • 8.  Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory Behavior theories • • • • • Determine which cues elicit the desired responses. Arrange practice situations so they will prompt elicit responses in a “natural” setting. Arrange environmental conditions to enhance stimuli. Focus on the design of the environment to optimize learning. Use feedback (reinforcement) to modify behavior in the desired direction. Cognitive theories • • • • Focus on the mental activities of the learner. Acknowledge the processes of the mental planning, goal-setting, and organizational strategies. Stress over efficient processing strategies. Make use of feedback (knowledge of feedback) to guide and support accurate mental connections.
  • 9.  Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory  In Behaviorist theory exposure is necessary, but in a linguistically controlled way.  In Cognitivist theory exposure is plenty and necessary and it is based on the innate capacity of a learner and it is necessary.  In Behaviorist theory practice is necessary. Constant repetition is necessary.  While in Cognitivist theory practice is important but rote learning and meaningless repetition is out.
  • 10.  Comparison between Behaviorist Theory and Cognitivist Theory  In Behaviorist theory teacher is the one who teaches, plans, presents language items and exercises, makes students repeat drills and gives correct language forms.  In Cognitivist theory teacher is the one who creates opportunities for learning to occur with the help of the learner’s data processing mechanism.  In Behaviorisn learners are basically passive, just responding to stimuli.  In Cognitivism learners process, store and retrieve information for later use creating associations and creating a knowledge set useful for living. The learner uses the information processing approach to transfer and assimilate new information.
  • 11. Behaviorism Cognitivism Behaviorism and Cognitivism are two learning theories that even though they have their differences, both theories emphasize the role that environmental conditions play in facilitating learning, as well as emphasis on the role of practice with corrective feedback.
  • 12. Thank You.