Transactional Analysis

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  • http://www.ta-psychotherapy.co.uk/games.htm
  • http://www.karpmandramatriangle.com/
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  • Transactional Analysis

    1. 1. You cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him discover it within himself. -Galileo
    2. 2. Agenda Sketch of Eric Berne Origins ofTransactional Analysis What areEgo States? Detailed Explanation ofParent,Adult, Child Ego states Development ofEgo States Transactions Types ofTransactions
    3. 3. Transactional Analysis: An Overview
    4. 4. A Sketch of Eric Berne DoB:May 10, 1910; PlaceofBirth:Canada Studied Medicine & received M.D. and C.M (MasterofSurgery)- 1935 Psychiatricresidencyat YaleUniversity SchoolofMedicine - 1936 Begantraining as psychoanalystat NYPsychoanalyticInstitutein 1941 Armypsychiatrist during World WarII Practiced Group Therapy
    5. 5. Breakthrough on Transactional Analysis Coveted title of Psychoanalyst was withheld in 1956 SpurredEric Bernetodevelopnewapproach topsychotherapy Presented first paper on TA in 1957 -Introduced egostates Had started testing his theories on TA in the 1950`s itself in seminars
    6. 6. Ego States Set of consistent andcoherent patterns of thinking,feeling and behaving -Berne set: each ego state has more than one manifestation consistent & coherent: clear & integrated self-awarenessarising from diagnosis of ego-states thinking, feeling & behaving: total experiences of an individual
    7. 7. How were ego states discovered Interviewing Client felt likea child Consistent patternof childinbehavior; NoPretense Discovery ofChildEgoState Two-waysofthinking, feeling & behaving:Father & Own Discovery ofFather & AdultEgo States
    8. 8. Characteristics Experiencerecordedin brain Includesevery experience,perceptionof events & feelings associated &distortions Can be replayed& re-experienced
    9. 9. Ego States P A C
    10. 10. Set of thoughts, feelings and behaviors learntor borrowed from parents or other caretakers Parent CriticalParent – prejudicedthoughts, feelings &behaviors NurturingParent – Soft, lovingandpermission giving
    11. 11. P ParentVocabulary:  Should, don’t, must, always, never, now what? BecauseI said so  I’ll take careof you, poor thing, there-there, come on, give it a try Tone:  Sneering, loud, harsh, contemptuous, condescending, punishing,  sympathetic, encouraging Gesture/Posture:  Pointed finger,  shaking head,  arms folded on chest, tapping feet/fingers, Facial Expression:  smile encouragingly,  set jaw,  outthrust chin,  raised eyebrows
    12. 12. P Parent Don’t argue! Shame on you! Be quite! That’s really bad. Don’t worry! There there! Let me help you. Everything will be fine! Don’t youDARE ! Have somefun.
    13. 13. Seat of emotions, thoughts, memories from childhood Child How one responded to early experiences andthe positions one took about oneself & others Feelings of happiness, fear ,anxiety,withdrawaletc. FreeChild –Spontaneous feeling, playful, authentic,emotional Adapted Child –Comply with parental messages Rebellious Child –Does not comply with parental messages Types:
    14. 14. C ChildVocabulary:  Wow,  give me what Iwant,  MINE,  I wish,  I’m scared,help, Tone:  giggle, chuckle, whine, swear, yell,  fast & high-pitched, whistle, playful,  ask permission. Gesture/Posture:  slumped,  curled up,  putting up hand to ask question Facial Expression:  tears, pouting, downcast oruplifted  eyes, tilted head, wide- eyed, fluttering  eyelashes, flirtatious, admiring
    15. 15. C I don’t wanna!! Pleeeeeeeeaassse! I can’t! No-no-no! O! that’s fun! WOW-WEE! I want……! Yayyyy….!I don’t care! Lookhow tall my castle is! Child
    16. 16. Adult Orientedtowards currentrealityandobjective gathering of information No relationwitha person’s age Data processing center Solutions based on facts and not solely on pre-judged thoughts or childlikeemotions
    17. 17. A AdultVocabulary:  how, why, when, where, what,  alternatives, results, yes, no, caused by, statistics, facts not opinions. Tone: clear &calm, confident, factual, enquiring. Gesture/Posture:  straight (not stiff),  lean forward to listen/look,  relaxed, thinking with hand on chin,  patient. Facial Expression:  thoughtful, watching attentively,  questioning, alert, lively
    18. 18. Respect. Aware. Equality Rational Assertive. Open Present Objective A Sand looks interesting. Lets make a castle! Adult
    19. 19. Ego State Acting, thinking, feeling like your parent Dealing with current realities, gathering facts, objectivity Acting or feeling like u didwhen u were child
    20. 20. Examples
    21. 21. What will you do? Parent Controlling
    22. 22. What will you do? Parent Nurturing
    23. 23. P A C Controlling Nurturing
    24. 24. What will you do? Child Adapted
    25. 25. What will you do? Child Free
    26. 26. P A C Controlling Nurturing Adapted Free
    27. 27. What will you do? Adult
    28. 28. P A C Controlling Nurturing Adapted Free
    29. 29. Development of Ego States Child Parent Adult
    30. 30. P A C Development of Ego States
    31. 31. P A C Development of Ego States
    32. 32. P A C Development of Ego States
    33. 33. C2 A2 P2 P 1 A 1 C 1 Little Professor Pseudo-parent Proto-parent Proto-adult P A C P A 2nd Order Structural Analysis
    34. 34. Transactions How peopleinteract with each other Which ego state in me is talking to which ego state in you Communication can sometimes be straightforward, easy and smooth It can also jumbled, confusing and unclear Understanding of transactions can help keep communication as clear as possible
    35. 35. P A C P A C Examples Late for an important meeting
    36. 36. P A C P C Examples A Yells and scolds
    37. 37. P A C P A C Examples Apologizes and says ‘Sorry!’
    38. 38. A P A C Examples C P Scaredof Lizards. Expresses fear.
    39. 39. A A C Examples C P P “Don’t worry. I’ll take care”
    40. 40. Complementary Transactions appropriate and expected response follows natural orderof healthy human relationships lines of communication openbetweenthe transactors gestures,facial expression, bodyposture, tone included
    41. 41. P A C P A C Examples Late for an important meeting
    42. 42. P A C P C Examples A Angry- scolds
    43. 43. Examples A C A P C P Angry– yellsback
    44. 44. Examples A C A PP Apologizesmeekly C
    45. 45. Crossed Transactions unexpected & highly unstable inappropriate ego state activated peopleglaring, turning backs at each other or switch conversation in different direction conversationmight endas well
    46. 46. Comparison AC sees self as strategies used sees others as response to disapproval inferior, entitled to less equal childhood rules spontaneous, context appropriate bigger, more entitled equal Fear, guilt, aversion objective appraisal
    47. 47. Comparison A sees self as strategies used sees others as response to disapproval intrinsically more capable equal self & others self smaller, to be protected equal cruel, mean fine P
    48. 48. Agenda BriefRecap Transactions Definition Strokes TypesofTransactions Script Analysis Life Script TypesofScript Script Matrix Life Positions
    49. 49. Brief Summary
    50. 50. A -CP -NP +NP+CP +AC+FC -AC-FC NegativeControlling ParentMode NegativeNurturing ParentMode Positive Controlling ParentMode Positive Nurturing ParentMode AccountingMode Positive Free Child Mode Positive Adapted Child Mode Negative Free Child Mode Negative Adapted Child Mode EgoStates
    51. 51. C2 A2 P2 P 1 A 1 C 1 Little Professor Pseudo-parent Proto-parent Proto-adult P A C P A 2nd Order Structural Analysis
    52. 52. Strokes Strokes are any act implying recognition of another’s presence; Unit of social recognitionStrokes are like just the physical strokes given to infants, without which they will not surviveStimulation Hunger: Sensory Stimulation Eg Baby needs fondling and love Recognition Hunger: Baby grows into adulthood, need for sensory stimulation changes into need for stimulation coming from social recognition, acknowledgement, affirmation
    53. 53. Types of Strokes Positive Strokes: supportive of life and activity • I feel good seeing you do that •I`m very proud of you, well done! Negative Strokes: destructive of a person`s life or activity • I am sorry, I did not like it very muchConditional Stroke: For ‘Doing’ or for performance Unconditional Stroke: For ‘being; - no strings attachedPhysical Stroke: Physical touch Symbolical Stroke: Using Words
    54. 54. Transactions how people interact with each other which ego state in me is talking to which ego state in you like a business deal, whereone person gives something to another and in exchange gets something back Exchange types – Material or Recognition Recognition: Strokes - anytime one personrecognizes another with a smile, a nod, a frown,a verbal greeting
    55. 55. Transactions How peopleinteract with each other Which ego state in me is talking to which ego state inyou Communication can sometimes be straightforward, easy and smooth It can also jumbled, confusing and unclear Understanding of transactions can help keep communication as clear as possible
    56. 56. Transactions Transaction: Two or more Strokes Types: Complementary, Crossed or Ulterior Stroke: any time one person recognizes another with a smile, a nod, a frown, a verbal greeting
    57. 57. P A C P A C Examples Lateforan importantmeeting
    58. 58. P A C P C Examples A Yells andscolds
    59. 59. P A C P A C Examples Apologizesandsays‘Sorry!’
    60. 60. A P A C Examples C P Scaredof Lizards. Expresses fear.
    61. 61. A A C Examples C P P “Don’t worry. I’ll take care”
    62. 62. Complementary Transactions appropriate and expected response communication can continue indefinitely lines of communication openbetweenthe transactors gestures,facial expression, bodyposture, tone included
    63. 63. Other examples - Complementary Transactions P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C
    64. 64. P A C P A C Examples Late for an important meeting
    65. 65. P A C P C Examples A Angry- scolds
    66. 66. Examples A C A P C P Angry– yellsback
    67. 67. Examples A C A PP Apologizesmeekly C
    68. 68. Crossed Transactions unexpected & highly unstable inappropriate ego state activated peopleglaring, turning backs at each other or switch conversation in differentdirection conversationmight endas well
    69. 69. Ulterior Transactions P A C P A C Transaction in which more than two ego are included Disguised under socially acceptable transaction Psychological Social
    70. 70. Salesman P A C P A C
    71. 71. Teacher – Student / Boss - Secretary P A C P A C
    72. 72. Gallows Transactions P A C P A C Ulterior Transactionwhich employs “an inappropriate laugh or smile” expressing anindividual’s destructivebehavior
    73. 73. 3 Rules of Communication complementarytransactions - communicationremains open crossed transactions - communicationceases complex transactions- outcome is predicted onlyat psychological level
    74. 74. Allthe world’s astage And allthe men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances; Eachman in his time plays many parts. Shakespeare Life Scripts
    75. 75. Life Scripts an unconscious lifeplan – decidedon early in lifein response toearly parental influence the individualis programmed to move as it were relentlessly towards its finaloutcome followedin all majordecisions
    76. 76. Life Scripts unconscious– soon after script is consciously formed, it is forgotten - action perceived natural early parentalinfluence– when the influencesperceived to containhidden messages programmed – freedom circumscribed& person doesn’t know
    77. 77. Types of Scripts Cultural Subcultural Family
    78. 78. Cultural Script expected & accepted patterns ina society determined by said & unsaid assumptions believed by majority of people liketheatricalscript – themes, actors, roles,costumes
    79. 79. Cultural Script may change or new theme may emerge withtime might be rejecteddue to irrelevance “nationalcharacter” same drama may repeat for generations
    80. 80. Subcultural Script each subculture evolves owndramatic actions conflictvery common many exist inlarge & complexculture defined by geography, religiousbeliefs, gender, age etc.
    81. 81. Family Script passed on from Parent to Parentego state some families develop uniqueactions; insist on children playing traditionalroles transmittedfrom generation after generation
    82. 82. Injunctions Prohibitingmessages, usuallygiven as hiddenmessages and indirectly Such messages – expressions of disappointment, frustration, anxiety establish thedon`ts by whichchildrenhave to live Givenfrom Parent`s childego state out of awareness of their adult ego states Examples– Don`t be, Don`t need, Don`t think,Don`t be a child, Don`t belong
    83. 83. Counter Injunctions Parental directives on how to livein a sociallyacceptable way Messages convey the “shoulds”, “oughts”,“dos” of parental expectations Consist of certainpermissions as wellas prohibitions that assist childto exist in the society Can become drivers to the child Examples– Be perfect, Hurryup, Be strong,
    84. 84. Program Educationgiven by parents Through theirown examples Givento the Adult of the small childon how to livehis or her life-script Usuallyconstructive andPositive Examples– Be perfect,Hurryup, Be strong
    85. 85. First permission and Injunction Don’t Exist Permission: For the infantto exist If ignored,kept at a distanceetc. : willnot experience permission to live Manifestationof Don’t Exist injunction – Overt suicidal behavior, significant depression “Go away”,“Iwishyou’d never have been born”
    86. 86. Permission - To have and be aware of sensations Second Permission and Injunction Don’t Feel Sensations infant needs basic bodily sensations: hunger, pain, temperature and touch may not use parts of sensations, if parents upset by them mother annoyed by cries of hunger; disliked feeding learned to stop crying and suppresshis feeling of hunger
    87. 87. Third Permission and Injunction Don’t Feel Permission: To feel emotions infantable to express satisfaction, dissatisfaction & severe stress If parents discount his feelings, they transmit a Don’t Feel injunction childmay discount his feelingsand substitute other feelings whichhis parents approve of
    88. 88. Fourth Permission and Injunction Don’t Think From “the LittleProfessor” stage, individualneeds permission to think It’s important forparents to respond reasonably, clearly,and withinterest to ideas, creativityandenthusiasms of the child Discounting(ignoringand makingfun) gives Don’tThink injunction
    89. 89. Script matrix P A C P A C P1 A 1 C 1 2.CounterInjunction 1.Injunction 3.Program Mother Father a diagram to show the transmission of scriptmessages viewedin terms of ego-states.
    90. 90. Decisions & Re-decisions •TA emphasizes our ability to become aware of our decisions that governour behavior andthecapacity to makenew decisions that willbeneficially alter our courseof life •We look at the decisions made in response to parental injunctionsand counterinjunctions •Example 1-“Don’tmakemistakes” Children fear takingrisksthatmakethem lookstupid.They tend toequate mistakestofailure PossibleDecisions– “I`mscared of makingthe wrongdecision, so I simplywontdecide”
    91. 91. Decisions & Re-decisions •Example 2–“Don’t beclose” •Message interpreted as Don’ttrustpeople and don’t love Possible Decisions– “because itsscary toget close, i`llkeep myselfdistant” •Example 3-“Don’tbe a child” Message says– ActAdult and keep control of yourself PossibleDecisions– “I`ll takecare of othersand wont askmuch for myself. I wontlet myselfhaveall thefun”
    92. 92. Decisions & Re-decisions Whatever injunctions people have received, and whatever the resulting life decisions were, transactional analysis maintains that people can make substantive life changes by changing their decisions—by re-deciding in the moment. Basic assumption of TA – Anything that be re-learnt
    93. 93. Psychological Positions • Mentally healthy position • Realistic people; can solve problems on their own • Accepts significance of others I’m OK, You’re OK • Person feels victimized, So victimizes others • Blame others for their miseries • Delinquents & criminals – extreme: Homicide I’m OK, You’re not- OK • Feel powerless when compare with others • Leads them to withdraw, to experience depression • Severe case: suicidal I’m not-OK, You’re OK • Lost interest in living • Schizoid behavior • Extreme case: suicide or homicide I’m not-OK, You’re not-OK
    94. 94. A -CP -NP +NP+CP +AC+FC -AC-FC NegativeControlling ParentMode NegativeNurturing ParentMode Positive Controlling ParentMode Positive Nurturing ParentMode AccountingMode Positive Free Child Mode Positive Adapted Child Mode Negative Free Child Mode Negative Adapted Child Mode EgoStates
    95. 95. C2 A2 P2 P 1 A 1 C 1 Little Professor Pseudo-parent Proto-parent Proto-adult P A C P A 2nd Order Structural Analysis
    96. 96. Transactions Transaction: Two or more Strokes Types: Complementary, Crossed or Ulterior Stroke: any time one person recognizes another with a smile, a nod, a frown, a verbal greeting
    97. 97. Life Scripts an unconscious lifeplan – decidedon early in lifein response toearly parental influence the individualis programmed to move as it were relentlessly towards its finaloutcome followedin all majordecisions
    98. 98. Injunctions Prohibitingmessages, usuallygiven as hiddenmessages and indirectly Such messages – expressions of disappointment, frustration, anxiety establish thedon`ts by whichchildrenhave to live Givenfrom Parent`s childego state out of awareness of their adult ego states Examples– Don`t be, Don`t need, Don`t think,Don`t be a child, Don`t belong
    99. 99. Script matrix P A C P A C P1 A 1 C 1 2.CounterInjunction 1.Injunction 3.Program Mother Father a diagram to show the transmission of scriptmessages viewedin terms of ego-states.
    100. 100. Decisions & Re-decisions •TA emphasizes our ability to become aware of our decisions that governour behavior andthecapacity to makenew decisions that willbeneficially alter our courseof life •We look at the decisions made in response to parental injunctionsand counterinjunctions •Example 1-“Don’tmakemistakes” Children fear takingrisksthatmakethem lookstupid.They tend toequate mistakestofailure PossibleDecisions– “I`mscared of makingthe wrongdecision, so I simplywontdecide”
    101. 101. Decisions & Re-decisions •Example 2–“Don’t beclose” •Message interpreted as Don’ttrustpeople and don’t love Possible Decisions– “because itsscary toget close, i`llkeep myselfdistant” •Example 3-“Don’tbe a child” Message says– ActAdult and keep control of yourself PossibleDecisions– “I`ll takecare of othersand wont askmuch for myself. I wontlet myselfhaveall thefun”
    102. 102. Decisions & Re-decisions Whatever injunctions people have received, and whatever the resulting life decisions were, transactional analysis maintains that people can make substantive life changes by changing their decisions—by re-deciding in the moment. Basic assumption of TA – Anything that be re-learnt
    103. 103. Ulterior Transactions P A C P A C Transactionin which more thantwo egoare included Disguised undersocially acceptable transaction
    104. 104. Angular Transaction P A C P A C Salesman: "This one is better,but you can't affordit." Housewife: "That's the one I'll take." Social level
    105. 105. Duplex Transaction P A C P A C Boss: “I need you tostay late atthe office with me.” Secretary:“Ofcourse!” (with a wink) Social level Psychological level
    106. 106. Games People Play
    107. 107. Games a series of transactions-complementary (reciprocal),ulterior, proceeds towardsa predictable/definite outcome. complementaryare also said to beulterior predictable/definite:cross transaction willhappen; communicationceases: Switch feelingof guilt,anger, fear, tiredness etc.
    108. 108. Switch P A C P A C Boss: “You should leave, it is late.” Secretary:“OK!”(confused) Social level Reversal of role
    109. 109. Con the hook whichinvitesthe person into the game Boss: “Ineed you to stay late at the office withme.”
    110. 110. Gimmick the interest in thehook Secretary: “Of course!”(witha wink)
    111. 111. Cross-up the immediate sense of confusion whenthe person realizes the fact that they have been had Secretary: “OK!”(confused)
    112. 112. Pay-offs Instigator of the game feels justified& superior Other feels deskilled& foolish
    113. 113. If and only if… Ulterior Transaction Con + Gimmick Switch Cross-up Pay-off
    114. 114. The Formula ‘G’ C + G = R > S > X > P
    115. 115. Karpman Drama Triangle Victim RescuerPersecutor
    116. 116. Karpman Drama Triangle Victim RescuerPersecutor  Provoke others to put them down, use or hurt them  Send “helpless” messages  Act confused
    117. 117. Karpman Drama Triangle Victim RescuerPersecutor  Make unrealistic rules  Enforce rules in cruel ways  Pick “little” guys than people of their own size
    118. 118. Karpman Drama Triangle Victim RescuerPersecutor  Offer phony helpfulness to keep others dependent on them  Don’t actually help  Work to maintain Victim role, so they can be Rescuer
    119. 119. Some Common Games Blemish Now I’veGot you, you SOB (NIGYSOB) Rapo WoodenLeg Kick Me Schlemiel Harried
    120. 120. Why Play Games? gainingattentionand stimulation,whichare essential for our well being Defending againstinternalfears and old unwantedfeelings theavoidance of afeared situationby playingthe game Providing players withpseudo-intimacy
    121. 121. P A C P A C Thank You!

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