An emotion, desire, physiological need, or
similar impulse that acts as an incitement
1. Intensity: how hard a person tries
2. Direction: toward beneficial goal
3. Persistence: how long a person tries
The processes that account for an individual’s
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward
attaining a goal.
Unique to each and every person
Not fully understood
the forces within the individual that
account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort
expended at work.
a work outcome of positive value to the
valued outcomes given to
someone by another person.
valued outcomes that occur
naturally as a person works on a task.
To achieve maximum motivational potential in
linking rewards to performance …
– Respect diversity and individual differences to best
understand what people want from work.
– Allocate rewards to satisfy the interests of both
individuals and the organization.
– having high expectations of employees,
– providing rewards that are valued,
– relating rewards to performance,
– treating employees as individuals,
– encouraging employee participation, and
– providing feedback, including praise.
The Motivation Process
Giving people incentives that cause them
to act in desired ways.
The objective of motivating employees is to
lead them to perform in ways that meet the
goals of the department and the
supervisors' are largely evaluated on the
basis of how well their group as a whole
performs, motivation is an important skill
for supervisors to acquire.
How can a leader/manager motivate their
Five groups of basic needs
Healthy adults try to satisfy these needs
So basic that they motivate behavior in
Chronic frustration of needs can lead to
Physiological needs: basic requirements of
the human body; food, water, sleep, sex
Safety needs: desires of a person to be
protected from physical and economic
Belongingness and love needs (social):
desire to give and receive affection; be in
the company of others
Esteem needs: self-confidence and sense
Esteem from others: valuation of self from
Self-esteem: feeling of self-confidence and
Self-actualization needs: desire for self-
Maslow: “. . . the desire to become more and more
what one is, to become everything that one is
capable of becoming.”
Unsatisfied need is a potential motivator of
Satisfied need is no longer a motivator
Focus on more than one need: promotion
leads to more money (esteem and
Need satisfaction follows the order shown but
Weak empirical support
Remains a classic interpretation of behavior
Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
Three need levels:
Existence needs — desires for physiological and
Relatedness needs — desires for satisfying
Growth needs — desires for continued
psychological growth and development.
Any/all needs can influence behavior at one
An already satisfied lower-level need becomes
reactivated when a higher-level need is frustrated.
I. Involvement of employees
II. Establishment of informal structure
III.Establishment of trust
IV.Establishment of coordination among
Developed by Victor Vroom.
Key expectancy theory variables:
Expectancy — belief that working hard will result
in desired level of performance.
Instrumentality — belief that successful
performance will be followed by rewards.
Valence — value a person assigns to rewards and
other work related outcomes.
Motivation (M), expectancy (E),
instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related
to one another in a multiplicative fashion:
M = E x I x V
If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will
ELEMENTS IN THE EXPECTANCY THEORY OF
1.) BEING SATISFIED WITH ONE’S JOB IS
EQUIVALENT TO BEING MOTIVATED; “A
SATISFIED WORKER IS A MOTIVATED WORKER”
2.) JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION
ARE SEPARATE CONCEPTS WITH UNIQUE
DETERMINANTS BASED ON WORK WITH
ACCOUNTANTS AND ENGINEERS
Company policies and their administration
Quality of supervision
1st to argue that job
content/job design was
Job enrichment (the work
itself) as a job satisfaction
Model appealing and easy
May be “method-bound” by
differences, like desire for
pay, rejected as a motivator.
Also, not everyone wants an
(presence of motivators) =
McClelland and colleagues studied the
behavioral effects of three needs
Need for Achievement
Need for Power
Need for Affiliation
Emphasized the Need for Achievement,
although they investigated all three needs
Increase in Reputation
What types of employee
recognition awards are there?
• Service/Anniversary awards
• Peer-to-peer appreciation
• Performance awards
• Spot awards for good citizenship behaviors
• Sales performance
• Suggestions & ideas
• Employee of the month/year awards
• Retirement awards.
Why do companies use employee
o Increase employee retention and reduce turnover
o Increase employee loyalty
o Make a statement about what’s important to the
o Build self esteem, reinforce desired behaviors,
create an atmosphere of appreciation and trust
o Quality, continuous improvement and effective
o “Bottom-line” concerns- increasing profitability and
sales- are secondary.