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  1. 1. Peer to Peer David Strom, david@strom.com PC Expo/ eBiz presentations June 2001
  2. 2. Summary <ul><li>What is P2P? </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from Napster, Groove </li></ul><ul><li>Business models </li></ul><ul><li>Motivations for using P2P </li></ul><ul><li>Technology examples </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate strategies </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is P2P? <ul><li>Sharing computing resources, such as files, CPU cycles, and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Apps are both server and client on a distributed network </li></ul><ul><li>Makes some use of Internet protocols/standards </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of P2P technologies <ul><li>Simplest example is Windows/Mac built-in file sharing: remember WfW? </li></ul><ul><li>Napster/Gnutella/Aimster/etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Chat products like ICQ, AIM, Bantu, OMNI, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other examples <ul><li>Seti@Home (search for ET) </li></ul><ul><li>Globus.org (distributed science) </li></ul><ul><li>McAfee ASAP (anti-virus protection) </li></ul><ul><li>Lightshare (desktop auctions) </li></ul><ul><li>Groove Networks (P2P Notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Uroam (remote access) </li></ul><ul><li>Roku, VxPort (file sharing) </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCola (info collection) </li></ul>
  6. 6. How does P2P leverage the existing Internet infrastructure? <ul><li>Builds on ftp, http, etc. so can pass information freely through routers and firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require new domain name services or other authentication processes </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of email and chat protocols as well </li></ul><ul><li>No specialized knowledge to setup new servers and services </li></ul><ul><li>No network administrators and other IT resources involved </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Napster? <ul><li>Easy to share digital music files </li></ul><ul><li>Uses http and ftp protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Each user's PC acts as client and server </li></ul><ul><li>It creates a community of users with common goals and interests </li></ul><ul><li>It builds upon P2P services to increase the overall value of the system </li></ul>
  8. 8. How did we obtain music before? <ul><li>Go to record store </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with surly underaged clerks </li></ul><ul><li>Try to find the right CD </li></ul><ul><li>Take it home, play on our stereos </li></ul>
  9. 9. Enter MP3 downloads <ul><li>Locate an ftp server with music on it </li></ul><ul><li>Try to connect to the server (often busy) </li></ul><ul><li>Upload a few songs first </li></ul><ul><li>Then hopefully find the right song and download it </li></ul><ul><li>And much more work to host your own music ftp server! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with the old method <ul><li>ftp sites often busy </li></ul><ul><li>Had to learn the ins and outs of ftp client software </li></ul><ul><li>Uploading requirement was onerous </li></ul><ul><li>Search tools crude, could often only find ftp sites, not songs </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up servers painful too. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Shirky’s list of lessons learned from Napster <ul><li>Centralize what you need to make your business model work </li></ul><ul><li>A poor user interface isn’t an issue, especially if people can still get things done </li></ul><ul><li>It routes around network admins/firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>It allows people to create their own namespaces without specialized knowledge </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do you share info now? <ul><li>Mydocsonline or similar “Internet hard disk” </li></ul><ul><li>PGP secure email, maybe </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo Calendars or similar </li></ul><ul><li>WebAddressBook.com </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe even a web-based Office suite like TeamOn, FreeDesk or Blox </li></ul>
  13. 13. Problems <ul><li>Motley collection difficult to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone is willing to work with multiple tools </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication is difficult – multiple logins </li></ul><ul><li>Still need to download lots of software, despite “100 % browser” emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Tiresome email exchanges of documents </li></ul><ul><li>Security by obscurity </li></ul>
  14. 14. Enter Groove Networks <ul><li>Authentication is always on </li></ul><ul><li>Different workspaces for different collections of people </li></ul><ul><li>Setup is easy </li></ul><ul><li>No browser, email file swapping needed </li></ul><ul><li>Supports a wide variety of tools and information sharing models </li></ul><ul><li>Great for sharing files between home and work PCs </li></ul>
  15. 15. How distributed does your network have to be? <ul><li>Napster: central server to authenticate and track users </li></ul><ul><li>Gnutella: everything is distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Aimster: uses AOL IM directory to authenticate/track users </li></ul>
  16. 16. What business models make sense? <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>User charges </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate site licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Core technology licenses </li></ul><ul><li>ISP/ASP volume purchases </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dale Dougherty’s thoughts on business models <ul><li>“All the P2P players are hoping that their research leads them to establish a new way of doing things. At that point, the winner will be obvious and the business model will be crystal clear.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Signs that P2p is maturing <ul><li>Porn industry file swapping services (PornDigger, PORN.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Already seeing downside articles in the press </li></ul>
  19. 19. Motivations for implementing P2P <ul><li>Add intelligence to network edge devices </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience and control </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Free up bandwidth </li></ul>
  20. 20. Motivations: the network edge <ul><li>Right now network edge devices are underused or dumb when it comes to working with the network fabric itself </li></ul><ul><li>P2P adds intelligence, increased utilization at the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Makes it easier for people to get more work done, just like c. 1981 PCs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Controlling your own network destiny <ul><li>Ask your IT department for the capability to have real-time conversations with Internet users directly from your PC, that you wanted this set up within the hour, and that you had no budget for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Now imagine being laughed out of the room. (from Shirky) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Advantages of ICQ <ul><li>No need for setting up IP addresses, DNS configuration, firewall rules, web server hosting co-location agreements, IT policy pronouncements, lengthy approvals up the IT command structure, IT R&D review, IT rollouts, … </li></ul><ul><li>Do you detect a pattern here? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Motivations: convenience and control <ul><li>Stress-testing web sites over the Internet, from Exodus/United Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Shared-processing model frees up resources in their test lab for other projects, also provides more realism for test scenarios </li></ul>
  24. 24. Motivations: altruism <ul><li>“ My goal was to harness wasted CPU cycles that to me were just warming the air. I also liked the fact that I would be participating in an interesting community and doing some good science.&quot; -- SETI user </li></ul>
  25. 25. Motivations: bandwidth <ul><li>McAfee ASAP uses P2P to download virus pattern files from local users, saving on wide-area connections </li></ul><ul><li>The more you distribute the network, the less bandwidth you need from any centralized locations </li></ul>
  26. 26. Drawbacks to P2P <ul><li>Security loopholes </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of control over desktop activities </li></ul><ul><li>Some companies don’t like to share and play with others </li></ul>
  27. 27. Corporate strategies <ul><li>Download and try Napster or uRoam </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with downloading music or PC/Anywhere for functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Examine your own programs for file transfer components that could benefit from peering </li></ul><ul><li>Examine whether you can benefit from shared processing models </li></ul><ul><li>Setup a trial Groove workgroup and project team </li></ul>
  28. 28. Places for more information <ul><li>O’Reilly P2P conference: www.openP2P.com/pub/a/P2P/conference/ </li></ul><ul><li>My review of Groove: strom.com/pubwork/varbiz.html </li></ul>