Marketing Management

Unit 2
Nature and concept of
marketing plan

 A Marketing Plan is a written strategy for selling the
products/services of a new ...
Marketing environment
Marketing Environment
Successful Companies take outside- Inside
view of the business
Recognition of new Opportunities & ...
The Marketing Environment
Consists of the outside actors and forces that
affect a company’s ability to develop and
maintai...
Environmental forces affecting the organization,
as well as its suppliers and customers
Organization
• Marketing departmen...
The Marketing Environment
The Microenvironment
 Company: Managers working with top
management and other departments.
 Su...
The Marketing Environment
The Microenvironment

Marketing services agencies:
marketing research firms, advertising
agenci...
The Marketing Environment

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The Macroenvironment
consists of seven major forces:
Competition
Demograp...
1.Components of Competition
Entry and Exit Barriers
Product Differentiation
Number of Sellers
Market Power
Availabili...
Continuum of Competition
Many
BASIS OF
COMPARISON

PURE
COMPETITION

Number of sellers
MONOPOLISTIC
COMPETITION

OLIGOPOLY...
2. Demographics

is . . . .

describing the population according

to selected characteristics such as
their age, sex, ethn...
Demographic Environment
Size & growth rate of Population
Population Age Mix
Ethnic Population Mix
Household Patterns
...
The Marketing Environment
Demographic Environment Trends

 Changing age structure of population
 The changing Indian fam...
The Marketing Environment
3. Economic Environment Trends

 Changes in income
 Changing consumer spending patterns
 Glob...
The Marketing Environment
4. Natural Environment

 Natural Resources and Raw Materials
Availability
 Ecology and Conserv...
5. Technological Forces
 Technology is a major environmental force and
refers to inventions or innovations from applied
s...
An Environmental Scan of the India
Technological Trends
 Information Age Focus
 increased use of information and communi...
The Marketing Environment
6. Political Environment
 Increased legislation and regulation affecting
business
 Internation...
The Marketing Environment
7. Cultural Environment

 Beliefs, Values and Lifestyles
 Persistence of cultural values
 Sub...
The Marketing Environment
Responding to the Marketing Environment
Three basic options:
 Passively accept the marketing en...
Controllable and
uncontrollable factors
effecting marketing decision
The four controllable factors of the
marketing mix:
Product,
Price,
Promotion,
Place

It can be manipulated to devel...
 Competition. It is important for marketers to
understand their competition’s marketing mix. This
involves looking at wha...
 Regulations. Changes in current laws and regulation are also key
factors for companies to keep into consideration. As la...
 Social. Marketing can be improved by paying attention
to current social trends, such as concern for the
environment and ...
Analyzing latest trends in
political, economic, socioculture and technical
environment
PEST Analysis:

P – Political
E – Economical
S – Socio cultural
T – Technological
Used as decision making tool at the time...
POLITICAL:
•Government type and stability
•Freedom of press, rule of law and levels of
Bureaucracy
Corruption
•Regulation ...
ECONOMIC:
•Stage of business cycle
•Current and project economic growth, inflation and interest
rates
•Unemployment and la...
SOCIO – CULTURAL:
-Population growth rate and age profile
-Population health, education and social mobility, and
attitudes...
TECHNOLOGICAL:
-Impact of emerging technologies

-Impact of Internet, reduction in communications costs
and increased remo...
PEST ANALYSIS – AVIATION SECTOR ( INDIA)
POLITICAL:
-Liberalization of the Sector
- Excise Duty and Sales Tax on Aviation ...
SOCIAL:
- Developments in Airport Cities
- Employment Opportunities
- Ensuring a Level Playing Field
- Safety Regulation

...
PEST ANALYSIS – TATA buys JAGUAR
POLITICAL:

- Strong tax incentives for inbound investors
- Strong political motivation f...
SOCIAL:
- Strong science and educational culture
- Strong management culture
- Adaptive English speaking population

TECHN...
Concept of market potential
& market share
Do you know how successfully
your newly developed product
will sell on the market?
 Planning, development and introductio...
Definition and Goals
 Market potential describes the maximum capacity of a
defined market for a specific product / a serv...
Total demand
(per time period)

Market potential

--------------------------------------------------------

Market minimum...
Applications
 Market potential analyses are especially used for growth
or unsaturated markets for which ―market size‖ can...
Market share
Market share is the portion or percentage
of sales of a particular product or service
in a given region that...
Market Share
Or – you sold widgets for a total cost of
$860 and the people in the country spend
a total of $2,000 on the ...
Market Share
Market share is used by businesses to
determine their competitive strength in a
sector as compared to other ...
Method 1 – Number of
Buyers
Estimate the total number of buyers in
your market and determine how
successful your competit...
Method 1 – Number of
Buyers
Ex/ Organic Coffee House
Number of Tim Horton’s – 3040
Market Share = 76% of Coffee and Bak...
Method 1 – Number of
Buyers
Our Organic Coffee House should get 2%
of the market, based off of the following
data… (trend...
Method 2 – Percent of
Sales
 Total Market Share of top 5 competitors and
average last five years of sales
 Ex/ Organic C...
Method 2 – Percent of
Sales
I think we can have a market share of
0.05% based on the following data …
(trends…)
Market s...
Consumer Markets &
Buying Behaivor
Concept
 The consumer market pertains to buyers who purchase
goods and services for consumption rather than resale.
Howev...
Demographic
Characteristics
 Characteristics of consumer markets based on
demographics include differences in gender, age...
Psychographic
Characteristics
 Psychographic characteristics of consumers include interests,
activities, opinions, values...
Behavioralistic
Characteristics
 Behavioralistic characteristics can also be garnered through
marketing research.
 Behav...
Geographic
Characteristics
 Consumer markets also have different geographic
characteristics.
 These geographic character...
Consumer markets and
buyer behavior
 Marketing and environmental stimuli enter the buyers
consciousness.
 The buyer’s ch...
A consumer buying behavior is influenced by
cultural, social, personal and psychological
factors.
Cultural
factor
Sub-cult...
Organizational Market &
Buying Behavior
Comparison of organizational
versus consumer markets
The crucial differences from a marketing
viewpoint are:
The motivat...
Purchase motives—Derived demand
Demand for industrial goods and services is:
Derived from the demand for consumer goods...
Market demographics: Organizational
buyers, when compared with buyers of
consumer goods, are:
Fewer in number.
Larger.
...
Purchasing processes and relationships –
Organizational markets are characterized
by the following:
Use of professional ...
Companies selling to organizational
markets needs to keep one eye on:
Possible changes in organizations’ buying
behavior...
Participants in the organizational
purchasing process:
Users
Influencers
Gatekeepers
Buyers
Deciders
The organizational buying center
The individuals in this group share
knowledge and information relevant to the
purchase ...
 Organizational Buyers –
Manufacturers,
 Wholesalers,
Retailers,
Government Agencies

 They buy goods and services f...
Types of organizations
Industrial
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Manufacturers
Mining
Construction
Farms, Timber & Fisheries
Services
Fi...
Organization Buying
Derived Demand
Demand for industrial products and services
driven by demand for consumer products an...
Organizations buy products and services
for one main reason: To help them
achieve their objectives. The buying
objective ...
Organizational Buying
Criteria are objective
Price
Ability to meet the quality specifications
required for the item
Abi...
5 Steps in Buyer Decision
Process
Problem
Recognition

• Why do I need it?

Information Search • What exactly is this prod...
Marketing management 2
Marketing management 2
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Marketing management 2

  1. 1. Marketing Management Unit 2
  2. 2. Nature and concept of marketing plan  A Marketing Plan is a written strategy for selling the products/services of a new business. It is a reflection of how serious a company is in meeting the competition head on, with strategies and plans to increase market share and attract customers. An effective Marketing Plan is backed by carefully collected market, consumer and competitor information, sometimes citing professional advice.  Why Prepare a Marketing Plan? A good Marketing Plan will help you to improve your odds against more experienced competitors and newly emerging ones. The Plan enables you to recognize and take action on any trends and consumer preferences that other companies have overlooked, and to develop and expand your own select group of loyal customers now and into the future.  The Plan also shows to others that you have carefully considered how to produce a product that is innovative, unique and marketable- improving your chances of stable sales and profits reasons for investors to financially back you.
  3. 3. Marketing environment
  4. 4. Marketing Environment Successful Companies take outside- Inside view of the business Recognition of new Opportunities & Threats presented by the environment Need is to continuously monitor & adapt to the environment All successful companies recognize & respond profitably to unmet needs & Trends
  5. 5. The Marketing Environment Consists of the outside actors and forces that affect a company’s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers. It has two parts:  The microenvironment (actors and forces close to the company).  The macroenvironment (larger societal forces).
  6. 6. Environmental forces affecting the organization, as well as its suppliers and customers Organization • Marketing department • Other departments • Employees Suppliers Customers Environmental forces Social • Demographic shifts • Cultural changes Economic • Macroeconomic conditions • GDP • Inflation • Saving / Spending • Consumer income • Stock market Technological • Changing technology • Impact of technology Competitive Regulatory • Alternative forms of competition • Components of competition • Increasing foreign competition • Laws protecting competition • Laws affecting marketing mix actions • Self-regulation • Consumerism
  7. 7. The Marketing Environment The Microenvironment  Company: Managers working with top management and other departments.  Suppliers: firms and individuals who provide the resources needed by the organization to produce its goods and services.  Marketing intermediaries: firms that help the company promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers, e.g., travel trade intermediaries.
  8. 8. The Marketing Environment The Microenvironment Marketing services agencies: marketing research firms, advertising agencies, media firms, and marketing consultants. Financial intermediaries: banks, credit companies, insurance companies, and other finance companies.
  9. 9. The Marketing Environment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Macroenvironment consists of seven major forces: Competition Demographic environment Economic environment Natural environment Technological environment Political environment Cultural environment
  10. 10. 1.Components of Competition Entry and Exit Barriers Product Differentiation Number of Sellers Market Power Availability of substitutes Power of Buyers and Suppliers
  11. 11. Continuum of Competition Many BASIS OF COMPARISON PURE COMPETITION Number of sellers MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION OLIGOPOLY One MONOPOLY • # of sellers • many sellers • Large • Few • One • Product • Homogeneous • Differentiated • Similar • Unique • Barriers • No barriers • No barriers • High • Huge • Mkt power • None • Little • Lots • Infinite
  12. 12. 2. Demographics is . . . . describing the population according to selected characteristics such as their age, sex, ethnicity, income, and occupation.
  13. 13. Demographic Environment Size & growth rate of Population Population Age Mix Ethnic Population Mix Household Patterns Shift from Mass markets to Micro markets
  14. 14. The Marketing Environment Demographic Environment Trends  Changing age structure of population  The changing Indian family  Geographic shifts in population  Better-educated and more white-collar population  Increasing diversity
  15. 15. The Marketing Environment 3. Economic Environment Trends  Changes in income  Changing consumer spending patterns  Global economic patterns  Income Distribution  Saving, Debt and Credit Availability
  16. 16. The Marketing Environment 4. Natural Environment  Natural Resources and Raw Materials Availability  Ecology and Conservation of resources
  17. 17. 5. Technological Forces  Technology is a major environmental force and refers to inventions or innovations from applied science or engineering research.  Some of the most dramatic technological changes occurring now are: the declining cost and size, and increasing power, of microprocessors; the convergence of television, personal computer, and telephone technologies; the pervasive trend toward “connectedness” through the World Wide Web; the emergence of biotechnology as a key component of the economy.
  18. 18. An Environmental Scan of the India Technological Trends  Information Age Focus  increased use of information and communication technology – cell phones / teleconferences (ads)  growing focus on the internet as consumers and businesses go online  expanded computer power  growing use of electronic money or “e-cash”  File Sharing  Growing concern about privacy
  19. 19. The Marketing Environment 6. Political Environment  Increased legislation and regulation affecting business  International legislation  Government intervention in natural resource management  Changing government agency enforcement  Growth of public-interest groups  Increased emphasis on ethics and socially responsible actions
  20. 20. The Marketing Environment 7. Cultural Environment  Beliefs, Values and Lifestyles  Persistence of cultural values  Subcultures
  21. 21. The Marketing Environment Responding to the Marketing Environment Three basic options:  Passively accept the marketing environment and do not try to change it.  Adopt an environmental management perspective; take aggressive action to affect the publics and forces in the environment.  Use the technique of environmental scanning
  22. 22. Controllable and uncontrollable factors effecting marketing decision
  23. 23. The four controllable factors of the marketing mix: Product, Price, Promotion, Place It can be manipulated to develop an effective marketing plan, but what can companies do about the uncontrollable factors? Successful marketers focus on these aspects of marketing, as well.
  24. 24.  Competition. It is important for marketers to understand their competition’s marketing mix. This involves looking at what they are doing and how they go about doing it. This allows you to see what they could be doing better, and use that information within your marketing strategy. And depending on your size, you may be able to influence your competition when you make the most of your signature strengths.  Economy. The current economy must also be taken into consideration. Luxury items may not do as well in a hurting economy. You can see the opportunities available to offer the most affordable product. Your marketing strategy will need to be adjusted in order to maintain or increase your market position in challenging circumstances.
  25. 25.  Regulations. Changes in current laws and regulation are also key factors for companies to keep into consideration. As laws and regulations change, what kinds of products are allowed, how they are produced, exporting and importing regulations, and shipping can change drastically. There could be barriers of trade, such as quotas restricting the amount of imports or tariffs that would affect the entire market and, perhaps, necessitate and complete change in strategy which to a nimble company can create new opportunities.  Technology. Having the latest technology can reduce costs, improve the quality of your product, and make marketing more effective. This can allow you to better target your customer, produce more efficiently, and create innovative products. As technology changes, your product or service may become obsolete, like the many manufacturers of buggy whips after the invention of the automobile. It is the role of marketers to monitor the marketplace and changing technology and to adapt to those changes.
  26. 26.  Social. Marketing can be improved by paying attention to current social trends, such as concern for the environment and going ―green‖. Knowing what is most important to your customers will allow you to fine tune your marketing strategy to better target customers and create the kind of products and services they.
  27. 27. Analyzing latest trends in political, economic, socioculture and technical environment
  28. 28. PEST Analysis: P – Political E – Economical S – Socio cultural T – Technological Used as decision making tool at the time of launch of new product/business/model/strategy
  29. 29. POLITICAL: •Government type and stability •Freedom of press, rule of law and levels of Bureaucracy Corruption •Regulation and de-regulation trends •Social and employment legislation •Tax policy, and trade and tariff controls •Environmental and consumer-protection legislation •Likely changes in the political environment
  30. 30. ECONOMIC: •Stage of business cycle •Current and project economic growth, inflation and interest rates •Unemployment and labor supply •Labor costs •Levels of disposable income and income distribution •Impact of globalization •Likely impact of technological or other change on the economy •Likely changes in the economic environment
  31. 31. SOCIO – CULTURAL: -Population growth rate and age profile -Population health, education and social mobility, and attitudes to these -Population employment patterns, job market freedom and attitudes to work -Press attitudes, public opinion, social attitudes and social taboos -Lifestyle choices and attitudes to these Socio-Cultural changes
  32. 32. TECHNOLOGICAL: -Impact of emerging technologies -Impact of Internet, reduction in communications costs and increased remote working -Research and Development activity -Impact of technology transfer
  33. 33. PEST ANALYSIS – AVIATION SECTOR ( INDIA) POLITICAL: -Liberalization of the Sector - Excise Duty and Sales Tax on Aviation Turbine Fuel - Modernization of Airports - Interface form Other Agencies - Entry Barriers for New Players ECONOMICAL: - Contribution to Economy - Rising Fuel Costs - Investments in the Sector
  34. 34. SOCIAL: - Developments in Airport Cities - Employment Opportunities - Ensuring a Level Playing Field - Safety Regulation TECHNOLOGICAL: - Growth of Electronic Ticketing - Satellite based Navigation Systems - Technical Cooperation with EU
  35. 35. PEST ANALYSIS – TATA buys JAGUAR POLITICAL: - Strong tax incentives for inbound investors - Strong political motivation for globalization - Strong reputation and trust - Adaptive legislative framework - Negative effect on the IT industry after 2009 as the government’s initiative of Tax holiday under STPI expires (Thinking Street 2007). ECONOMIC: - Strong technical skills Strong export base Strong infrastructure links Competitive labour cost model Adaptive investment authority to technological investments Highly mobile work force
  36. 36. SOCIAL: - Strong science and educational culture - Strong management culture - Adaptive English speaking population TECHNOLOGICAL: - Strong R & D culture and facilities - Strong tie-ups with western technology companies - Adaptive to new technologies
  37. 37. Concept of market potential & market share
  38. 38. Do you know how successfully your newly developed product will sell on the market?  Planning, development and introduction of new products is always associated with uncertainty.  Specific knowledge regarding potential target consumers and their probable spending on the new product provides you with more certainty concerning the market success of new product developments.  We can offer you precise and reliable information in this area after conducting a market potential analysis.
  39. 39. Definition and Goals  Market potential describes the maximum capacity of a defined market for a specific product / a service within a defined time period.  In this context market refers to the total of all potential consumers with a certain need or desire who are willing or able to satisfy this need or this desire through the purchase of products / services.  The sales potential can then be derived from the results of the market potential analysis.  Market potential consists of the upper limit of total demand which would theoretically be converged on at (infinite) rise of marketing expenditures of all relevant providers (see figure).
  40. 40. Total demand (per time period) Market potential -------------------------------------------------------- Market minimum --------------------------------------------------------Market expenditures of the entire industry
  41. 41. Applications  Market potential analyses are especially used for growth or unsaturated markets for which ―market size‖ cannot simply be estimated through the actual market volume.  Market potential analysis offers decision support for specific questions for which such as:  Exploration of potential (target) markets Determination of company locations  Evaluation of ideas (screening) Designation of sales areas
  42. 42. Market share Market share is the portion or percentage of sales of a particular product or service in a given region that are controlled by a company. example, there are 100 widgets sold in a country and company A sells 43 of them, then company A has a 43% market share
  43. 43. Market Share Or – you sold widgets for a total cost of $860 and the people in the country spend a total of $2,000 on the same widgets, then the market share is $860/$2,000 or 43% The two different methods of calculating market share won't always provide the same answer,
  44. 44. Market Share Market share is used by businesses to determine their competitive strength in a sector as compared to other companies in the same sector
  45. 45. Method 1 – Number of Buyers Estimate the total number of buyers in your market and determine how successful your competition is Per month, estimate the number of people that will buy your product or service This is your percentage
  46. 46. Method 1 – Number of Buyers Ex/ Organic Coffee House Number of Tim Horton’s – 3040 Market Share = 76% of Coffee and Baked Goods Tim’s Sells 3 million cups a day 3,000,000/ 3,040 = 987 cups sold per day per store 987* 30 days = 29,605 per month 29,605 / .76 = 38,954 cups a month for a store to have 100% market share in their area
  47. 47. Method 1 – Number of Buyers Our Organic Coffee House should get 2% of the market, based off of the following data… (trends that support your business) 2% of total market share or 779 cups sold a day 38,954 * 0.02 = 779 cups sold a day
  48. 48. Method 2 – Percent of Sales  Total Market Share of top 5 competitors and average last five years of sales  Ex/ Organic Coffee House  Top Five Competitors Tim Horton’s – 76% - Sales $14 billion Starbucks – 7% - Sales $1.3 billion Timothy’s Coffees World Inc – 4% - Sales $736 million Second Cup – 2% - Sales $386 million William's – 1.5% - Sales $276 million
  49. 49. Method 2 – Percent of Sales I think we can have a market share of 0.05% based on the following data … (trends…) Market share of 0.05% = $ 9.2 million sales
  50. 50. Consumer Markets & Buying Behaivor
  51. 51. Concept  The consumer market pertains to buyers who purchase goods and services for consumption rather than resale. However, not all consumers are alike in their tastes, preferences and buying habits due to different characteristics that can distinguish certain consumers from others.  These particular consumer characteristics include various demographic, psychographic, behaviorialistic and geographic traits.  Marketers usually define these consumer characteristics through market segmentation, the process of separating and identifying key customer groups.
  52. 52. Demographic Characteristics  Characteristics of consumer markets based on demographics include differences in gender, age, ethnic background, income, occupation, education, household size, religion, generation, nationality and even social class.  Most of these demographic categories are further defined by a certain range.
  53. 53. Psychographic Characteristics  Psychographic characteristics of consumers include interests, activities, opinions, values and attitudes.  Obviously, many magazines are geared toward a consumer's interest.  For example, prenatal magazines target expectant mothers who are interested in learning more about caring for a baby.  Additionally, consumer activities can include participation in martial arts or basket weaving.  Opinions and attitudes can be both specific or general.  A company may better understand consumer opinions and attitudes after conducting a focus group, and can use that information to tailor advertising or marketing campaigns.  Consumer values can pertain to how a group of individuals feels about certain social issues, which can be of interest to non-profit or charitable organizations.
  54. 54. Behavioralistic Characteristics  Behavioralistic characteristics can also be garnered through marketing research.  Behavioralistic characteristics of consumer markets include product usage rates, brand loyalty, user status or how long they have been a customer, and even benefits that consumers seek.  Companies like to know how often their consumers visit their restaurants, stores or use their products.  Company marketing departments usually try to distinguish between heavy, medium and light users, whom they can then target with advertising.  Marketers like to know which customers are brand loyalists, as those consumers usually only buy the company's brand.
  55. 55. Geographic Characteristics  Consumer markets also have different geographic characteristics.  These geographic characteristics are often based on market size, region, population density and even climate, according to the article "Market Segmentation" at netmba.com, a online business reference site.  A small retailer may find opportunities in a small market in which larger competitors have no interest.  Companies that sell beachwear will likely sell more products in warmer climates.  Consumers in different regions of the country also have different tastes in food and style.
  56. 56. Consumer markets and buyer behavior  Marketing and environmental stimuli enter the buyers consciousness.  The buyer’s characteristics and decision process lead to certain purchase decisions.  The marketer’s task is to understand what happens in the buyer’s consciousness between the arrival of outside stimuli and the buyers purchase decision.
  57. 57. A consumer buying behavior is influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. Cultural factor Sub-culture Social class Social factor Personal factor Psychological factors Reference group Age and stages in life cycle Motivation Family Occupation and economic circumstances Perception Roles and status Life style learning Personality and self concept Beliefs and attitudes
  58. 58. Organizational Market & Buying Behavior
  59. 59. Comparison of organizational versus consumer markets The crucial differences from a marketing viewpoint are: The motivations of the buyer: what the organization will do with the product and the benefits it seeks to obtain. The demographics of the market. The nature of the purchasing process and the relationship between buyer and seller.
  60. 60. Purchase motives—Derived demand Demand for industrial goods and services is: Derived from the demand for consumer goods and services. Relatively inelastic. More erratic because small increases or decreases in consumer demand can, over time, strongly affect the demand for manufacturing plants and equipment. More cyclical.
  61. 61. Market demographics: Organizational buyers, when compared with buyers of consumer goods, are: Fewer in number. Larger. Geographically concentrated.
  62. 62. Purchasing processes and relationships – Organizational markets are characterized by the following: Use of professional buying specialists following prescribed procedures. Closer buyer–seller relationships. Presence of multiple buying influences. More apt to buy on specifications.
  63. 63. Companies selling to organizational markets needs to keep one eye on: Possible changes in organizations’ buying behavior for its product. Trends in the underlying consumer markets. Organizational marketers tend to: Use direct selling. Be heavy users of ―high-involvement‖ media.
  64. 64. Participants in the organizational purchasing process: Users Influencers Gatekeepers Buyers Deciders
  65. 65. The organizational buying center The individuals in this group share knowledge and information relevant to the purchase of a particular product or service. Marketing implications Which individuals to target. How and when each should be contacted. What kinds of information and appeals each is likely to find most useful and persuasive.
  66. 66.  Organizational Buyers – Manufacturers,  Wholesalers, Retailers, Government Agencies  They buy goods and services for their own use or for resale.
  67. 67. Types of organizations Industrial • • • • • • • • Manufacturers Mining Construction Farms, Timber & Fisheries Services Finance Transportation Not-for-profit Reseller • Wholesalers • Retailers Government • Federal • State • Local agencies
  68. 68. Organization Buying Derived Demand Demand for industrial products and services driven by demand for consumer products and services. It is based on expectations of future consumer demand. Size of order or purchase is typically much larger than that in consumer buying. Number of potential buyers is usually much smaller than in consumer buying.
  69. 69. Organizations buy products and services for one main reason: To help them achieve their objectives. The buying objective is usually to increase profits through reducing costs or increasing sales.
  70. 70. Organizational Buying Criteria are objective Price Ability to meet the quality specifications required for the item Ability to meet delivery schedules Technical capability Warranties and claim policies Past performance on previous contracts Production facilities and capacity
  71. 71. 5 Steps in Buyer Decision Process Problem Recognition • Why do I need it? Information Search • What exactly is this product? Analysis of Alternatives • What options are available? Purchase Decision • How exactly does purchase happen? Post-purchase Behaviour 2/9/2014 • Did I make the right choice? 73

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