Plastic Surgery:
The growth of aesthetic surgeries in youth and its
relation to body dysmorphic disorder and self-
esteem
...
Gobrial & Killi 2
Step 1- Analysis
The Problem
Plastic surgery is a dramatically expanding industry, becoming more and
mor...
Gobrial & Killi 3
shown in television, advertising, toys, and movies is a great contributing factor to
the great rush for ...
Gobrial & Killi 4
surgeries are becoming increasingly available and affordable to people of all
ages. With all this in min...
Gobrial & Killi 5
It is true that most people want to improve some aspects of their physical
appearance, but people suffer...
Gobrial & Killi 6
to and after cosmetic surgery. Their work suggested that there were positive
outcomes in patients, inclu...
Gobrial & Killi 7
serious concern. With the growing number of young women seeking plastic
surgery, it is reasonable to exp...
Gobrial & Killi 8
to mention save young women from the possible pain and suffering of
unnecessary procedures. By increasin...
Gobrial & Killi 9
To design a flawless persuasive campaign is next to impossible, and a
great deal of problems arise when ...
Gobrial & Killi 10
goal is important because it the stepping-stone needed to carry out our
objectives and reach the rest o...
Gobrial & Killi 11
that we effectively reach our audience and educate them regarding this
developing psychological issue.
...
Gobrial & Killi 12
In order to reach the primary audience, our first objective will make use of
guest speakers in a way si...
Gobrial & Killi 13
perfection in appearance, and the second being an attitude change towards
plastic surgery. Ultimately, ...
Gobrial & Killi 14
participation in informed plastic surgery decision-making by 20%. It is critical that
this interpersona...
Gobrial & Killi 15
procedure. Our campaign is not only structured to make the primary audience
aware of the risks and nega...
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successful campaign we must stress the negatives as well as promote strong
positive self-esteem.
Behavi...
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the benefits of the desired action outweigh the costs. For our campaign, a young
woman would have to be...
Gobrial & Killi 18
experiences with it, it would discourage our audience from getting a cosmetic
procedure. The use of gue...
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want the ad to be something that will be in their minds for a significant amount of
time.
Television an...
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calculate how much spending is necessary for the campaign. The budget is as
follows (annually):
• 30 Se...
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ask if they are aware of BDD and if they talk with their daughter(s) about effects
of plastic surgery. ...
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ideal way to reach our target audience due to their increasing popularity among
high school and college...
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students to compile their attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions regarding plastic
surgery and BDD.
Refere...
Gobrial & Killi 24
Avezzano, S., Bernstein, S., Driskell, R., Kirtchuk, N., Maeda, E., Negroii, E.,
et al. (2006). Plastic...
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  1. 1. Plastic Surgery: The growth of aesthetic surgeries in youth and its relation to body dysmorphic disorder and self- esteem P Process: Steps 1 & 2 Anthony Gobrial and Kristen Killi Social Marketing: Health Communication Campaigns Dr. Pollock October 16, 2006
  2. 2. Gobrial & Killi 2 Step 1- Analysis The Problem Plastic surgery is a dramatically expanding industry, becoming more and more prominent in today’s society. The realm of cosmetic surgery has grown from surgical treatments that are necessary and corrective to those which are purely aesthetic in nature. In fact, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) found that the number of aesthetic procedures performed in the United States rose 119% between 1997 and 1999. The ASAPS also found a 44% increase in procedures from 2003 to 2004 alone. In addition, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) found a total increase in procedures of 175% from 1992 to1999 (Covino, 2001, p. 91). These statistics indicate a dramatic expansion in the industry. As cosmetic procedures have clearly become increasingly more acceptable and available, it has become necessary to define whether or not there should be limits on the practice. Where the line is drawn has shifted dramatically over the past few years. As medical technology allows for greater and greater advances, human nature calls for the use of these new measures. Perfection in outward appearances is the goal of a large number of individuals, and this ideal has become attainable over the years as cosmetic techniques have advanced through leaps and bounds. With such a tremendous boom happening in the plastic surgery industry, it is difficult to avoid the changing attitude toward these types of physical alterations and enhancements. Society’s ideal visual culture as
  3. 3. Gobrial & Killi 3 shown in television, advertising, toys, and movies is a great contributing factor to the great rush for perfection in appearance. The media is effectively glorifying plastic surgery in shows such as Extreme Makeover, Nip Tuck, Dr. 90210, and The Swan. These television shows focus mostly on the positive outcomes of surgery while glossing over or ignoring the negative aspects. The publicity surrounding positive examples of cosmetic procedures has made the risks and dangers seem nonexistent. Botched surgeries and medical complications are not often shown to the public, and this gives individuals seeking procedures a false sense of security. It is impossible to say whether this trend in the media is paralleling a societal trend, or causing it; however, both cases point toward plastic surgery becoming a perfectly common and regular occurrence. Plastic surgery has a long and complex history. When determining if cosmetic procedures are necessary or appropriate, the question of human nature arises. There are many different cultures in which the people deliberately alter their body's natural appearance; however, not all of these alterations come from medically advanced societies, which brings to light the idea that plastic surgery might just be a part of human nature. For example, Padaund women use rings to elongate their necks and Victorians limited the size of their waists with corsets. Other cultures, such as China, have practiced foot binding to restrict the size of the women’s feet (Blair & Shalmon, 2005, p. 14-18). These examples can all be considered acts of aesthetic alteration. Taking these examples into consideration, it becomes apparent that there are different ideologies of beauty held by members of each of the societies. The technologies of these cosmetic
  4. 4. Gobrial & Killi 4 surgeries are becoming increasingly available and affordable to people of all ages. With all this in mind, one must wonder if attaining a society’s ideal appearance is actually a problematic goal. There are several problems surrounding the issue of aesthetic procedures. The first is the inherent risk of a botched surgery or medical complications. As Dr. Christopher P. Godek, M.D., a plastic surgeon in Toms River, N.J. says, “Cosmetic surgery is real surgery even with the world’s best surgeon and there is always the potential for complications,” (Nassif, 2006, para.12). Those individuals undergoing procedures are in danger of being displeased with the result and suffering medical problems. According to Stanley Frileck, M.D., a Los Angeles plastic surgeon and member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, about 25 percent of his practice involves fixing incomplete procedures. In addition, a survey by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) states that nearly 21 percent of the 150,000 rhinoplasties done each year are corrective procedures. (para. 17). That signifies a considerable number of unhappy patients and should be a warning to those contemplating getting work done. A second concern that comes along with the growth of plastic surgery is the psychological problem called body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD is a mental disorder involving a disturbed sense of body image. It is characterized by being extremely critical of certain physical traits or self image, in spite of the likely absence of any noticeable defect or flaw (Bellino, Bogetto, Fulcheri, Paradiso, Rivarossa, & Zizza, 2006, p.73-78).
  5. 5. Gobrial & Killi 5 It is true that most people want to improve some aspects of their physical appearance, but people suffering from BDD believe that they are so incredibly unfortunate looking that it affects all aspects of their lives. In some cases, it can be so severe that the individual cannot function normally for fear of his or her appearance causing ridicule and humiliation. BDD symptoms include compulsive mirror checking or mirror avoidance, excessive grooming, camouflaging the perceived defect with clothing, makeup, a hat, or in some other way, and seeking surgery, dermatological treatment, or other treatment for appearance concerns. This is done even when doctors or friends and family insist that the individual’s flaws are minimal and such treatment is not necessary. Several studies show that 7 to 12 percent of plastic surgery patients have some form of body dysmorphic disorder. In addition, the majority of BDD patients who have cosmetic surgery often have multiple procedures on the same or other body features and do not experience improvement in their BDD symptoms (Sarwer, 2001, p. 131- 146). The onset of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms is usually before the age of 18, possibly relating BDD to the growing practice of plastic surgery in teens. Since plastic surgery cannot solve this psychological problem, it is important that it is diagnosed before cosmetic procedures are sought as a remedy. However, even if BDD is not a factor, one must weigh the positive and negative psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery. Social worker Roberta Honigman and psychiatrists Katharine Phillips, MD, and David Castle, MD, recently conducted an analysis of 37 studies on the psychology of patients prior
  6. 6. Gobrial & Killi 6 to and after cosmetic surgery. Their work suggested that there were positive outcomes in patients, including improvements in body image and possibly a quality-of-life boost too. However, the same research also found that patients who were dissatisfied with surgery were likely to request repeat procedures or experience depression, anger, social isolation, family problems, self-destructive behaviors, and adjustment problems (Castle, Honigman, & Phillips, 2004, p. 1229–1237). Do aesthetic procedures really boost self-esteem? Studies have shown that initially people report increased satisfaction with the body part they had altered, but that does not hold true in the long run. Results are mixed on whether plastic surgery boosts self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, self- confidence, and quality of life down the road (Dittman, 2005, para. 12). In fact, some studies have even gone as far making a connection between suicide and dissatisfaction with cosmetic surgery. For example, in 2001, the National Cancer Institute found that women with breast implants were four times more likely to commit suicide than women who did not receive breast implants (para. 14). Ultimately, the psychological implications of aesthetic procedures are still unclear. It is wise to assume that significant alterations of the human body can cause the mind some amount of undue stress. As aesthetic surgeries continue to be a great draw for young women, it becomes necessary to address the factors which make the practice unhealthy and dangerous. From the inherent risks of surgery to the problems regarding the fueling of body dysmorphic disorder, cosmetic procedures have become a
  7. 7. Gobrial & Killi 7 serious concern. With the growing number of young women seeking plastic surgery, it is reasonable to expect that a health campaign to make the public aware of the aforementioned problems is necessary. Audience The strange transformation in the patient demographics of cosmetic procedures is almost as shocking as the growth of the industry. While there was once a time when cosmetic surgery was associated with older women getting face lifts and tummy tucks, now it is becoming more and more associated with young and healthy women getting breast implants and nose jobs. An additional study by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons found that over 300,000 teens below the age of 19 had a cosmetic procedure last year, a 9 percent increase since 2000 (Avezzano, S., Bernstein, S., Driskell, R., Kirtchuk, N., Maeda, E., Negroii, E., et al., 2006, p. 18). Advocates of this change deny that it is negative, but opponents to the practice of plastic surgery argue that it is merely a quick fix that ignores underlying issues. In any case, it is alarming how common it has become for young women to surgically alter their appearances. A specific concern to many is how the teenage population is falling victim to these practices. Studies show that the number of cosmetic surgeries on teens ages 18 and under rose nearly 22% from 2000 to 2001 (Blair & Shalmon, 2005). This health campaign would be aimed at young women ages 16 to 24, one of the fastest growing age groups to be receiving procedures. By targeting this age group, it might be possible to reduce the amount of future surgeries, not
  8. 8. Gobrial & Killi 8 to mention save young women from the possible pain and suffering of unnecessary procedures. By increasing self-esteem and healthy body image in young women as well as awareness of BDD, it is safe to say the growth of procedures in this group could slow. Programs and Policies As plastic surgery’s popularity among younger crowds increases, many concerned individuals have proposed that there be regulations to restrict minors from undergoing procedures. In Australia, there are new regulations which would make it more difficult for people under 18 to have purely cosmetic procedures. It was proposed that teenagers must have a referral from a general practitioner and have undergone conseling prior to seeing a plastic surgeon (Hind & Tinkler, 2006). However, the United States has little restricting legislation regarding cosmetic procedures. There are some examples of state legislation concerning plastic surgery, such as the new 6 percent sales tax on cosmetic procedures and 3.5 percent tax on gross receipts for physician-owned ambulatory surgery centers in New Jersey (Wheeland, 2004, para. 3). Nevertheless, none of the laws on book address the growing fad of youth seeking aesthetic procedures. Though another campaign may wish to lobby for this social change, this campaign is focused entirely on the behavior change of the audience (to be discussed furthur in Step 2). Leading Organizations
  9. 9. Gobrial & Killi 9 To design a flawless persuasive campaign is next to impossible, and a great deal of problems arise when looking at source credibility. The message to be delivered is one concerning the growth of aesthetic surgeries in youth and its relation to body dysmorphic disorder and self-esteem. This message needs to be delivered by a credible source. Two organizations to sponsor this campaign are BDD Central and the National Association of Self-Esteem. Both nonprofit organizations, they are groups who would have a reasonable desire to make the public aware of the dangers of plastic surgery and BDD. Their collective goal would be to inform the target audience about the elements of body dysmorphic disorder and promote positive body image as an alternative to aesthetic procedures. They will unite to implement The Campaign for Natural Beauty. An outline of how this is to be accomplished is included in the following section. Step 2: Strategic Design SMART Objectives In order to encourage a healthy and natural lifestyle through positive self- image, we must establish certain goals that are specific, measurable, appropriate, realistic, and can be achieved in a timely manner. These goals, also called SMART objectives, will help us reach our primary and secondary audiences so that we may promote a healthier and more natural lifestyle. This campaign is structured to make changes in awareness, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviors in our primary audience as well as awareness and attitude/belief changes in our secondary audience using a number of media outlets. Our first
  10. 10. Gobrial & Killi 10 goal is important because it the stepping-stone needed to carry out our objectives and reach the rest of our goals effectively. Without the first goal, the rest of our campaign would not be appropriate or realistic; in this particular instance, without awareness it is difficult to modify populations’ attitudes or behaviors and cause positive change. Since the campaign is designed to be executed over a two year period, our target audience will continue to grow as more females grow older into the beginning of our target audience range. We will continue to reinforce each of our objectives at the beginning of each year so that we may reach new members of the target audience. Results concerning how effective our campaign is will be measured through surveys at the end of each year (two year period): 2006 and 2007. Phase I: 1/1/06- 3/31/06 and 1/1/07- 3/31/07 Each of our goals and objectives will be carried out and achieved every three months. Because of the continuing increase in our target audience, we will start the cycle over and measure our success rate at the end of each year. The overall goal we wish to achieve is to decrease by 10% unnecessary aesthetic procedures in women ages 16 to 24 years of age through 2008. We want our target audience to think critically and make informed and appropriate decisions concerning their body. This leads to our first sub-goal, which requires us to increase awareness of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) by 25% among our target audience. Many women may not have even heard of BDD; it is important
  11. 11. Gobrial & Killi 11 that we effectively reach our audience and educate them regarding this developing psychological issue. This goal will require us to create a print campaign aimed at young females and designed to alert the audience to the dangers of BDD. Some magazines that would be successful in reaching our desired demographic include are Cosmopolitan, Seventeen, Teen People, Mademoiselle, People, etc. Another strategy includes sponsoring guest speakers at high schools and colleges. Female celebrities who fall within our target audience as well as celebrities who have suffered from BDD will give speeches to inform young women about this psychological disorder. Although this might not necessarily cause a behavior change, awareness is the first step in preventing unwanted behavior and initiating a change in attitude. Phase II: 4/1/06- 6/30/06 and 4/1/07- 6/30/07 Our second goal that we will implement during these two periods will require us to increase awareness of negative aspects of plastic surgery by 30%. Many women who are not satisfied with their appearance may often seek out risky and unhealthy ways altering their bodies to fit their liking. According to a 2005 article in Generations”…recipients…undergo the procedures to pass as more sexy, fit, and desirable” (Bayer, 2005). We want to make the women in our audience conscious of risks surrounding plastic surgery procedures and the possible negative outcomes.
  12. 12. Gobrial & Killi 12 In order to reach the primary audience, our first objective will make use of guest speakers in a way similar to those used in Phase I. The difference in this objective is that the speakers will be former patients who had botched procedures. They will speak out to the audience and stress the negative outcomes of the procedures eliciting a fear response from the audience. Another objective we will incorporate in this goal is the use of billboard advertisements. These advertisements will be graphic and show botched tummy tucks, poor facial procedures, and even destroyed breast implants. The point is to stress the negative outcomes so that they have a lasting image in the primary audience’s mind. As with our first, this phase/goal will not employ an immediate behavior change but rather make the audience aware of particular results of aesthetic procedures. This will aid will not only in making our audience aware, but it will also help change their beliefs and attitudes towards plastic surgery. Eventually with other tactics used to achieve an effective campaign, this goal will lead to a beneficial behavior change. Phase III: 7/1/06- 9/30/06 and 7/1/07- 9/30/07 Our next goal will be achieve during the abovementioned period. Its primary purpose is to increase positive body image in these young women by 35%. Not only is it important to make the audience aware of BDD and negative aspects of plastic surgery, but also it is imperative to make them change their beliefs about the way they perceive themselves. In doing so, two things result: the first being a general realization that it is unnecessary to try to achieve
  13. 13. Gobrial & Killi 13 perfection in appearance, and the second being an attitude change towards plastic surgery. Ultimately, the women in our target audience will come to the conclusion there is no need for the procedure. This goal will require the use of a TV commercial campaign targeting our primary audience. The spots will include real-life teens (not celebrities) that will talk about positive things that are happening in their lives and why they don’t need cosmetic surgery to enhance their image. The idea is to use social norming to establish a positive and realistic expectation of appearance and encourage the audience not to resort to plastic surgery. Another effective media outlet that we will employ is the use of the internet. In particular, we will place banner ads in cyber space communities such as the popular Myspace.com and Facebook.com. Since these websites are among the most visited and popular communities, we believe that our target audience logs into these sites numerous times a day and are subjected to banner ads placed at the top and right sides of the page after the sign-in screen and before being directed to their home page. Phase IV: 10/1/06- 12/31/06 and 10/1/06- 12/31/06 This last goal requires the involvement of our secondary audience: parents and/or guardians. It is crucial to get parental figures involved so they can speak to their children regarding the dangers of plastic surgery and negative outcomes. In essence, we would be using two-step flow to get our message to trickle down through respected sources. We want to increase parental
  14. 14. Gobrial & Killi 14 participation in informed plastic surgery decision-making by 20%. It is critical that this interpersonal communication takes place at home so that it may have a greater effect on the young females. Messages of this nature are especially effective when it comes from a loved one. This final goal will educate parents by making them aware of dangers regarding these procedures. In addition, their knowledge, through communication, will change the attitudes and beliefs of the primary audience. Effective media outlets that we will utilize to achieve this goal include TV and radio. With television, we are going to sponsor news programs such as Dateline, 20/20, 60 Minutes, etc. Also we will run public service announcements (PSA) during primetime programming aimed at parents promote more involvement with their young girls. These PSAs will briefly talk about medical complications of cosmetic procedures. They will also enforce the idea of speaking with their daughters about their self-esteem through positive interpersonal communication. In regards to using radio as another effective outlet, we will run spots on radio stations whose niche are the older listeners. These stations will include adult contemporary, classic rock, and talk-radio stations which are mostly on AM radio. Positioning The target audience of this health campaign is young females between the ages of 16 and 24 years who may be considering an unnecessary aesthetic
  15. 15. Gobrial & Killi 15 procedure. Our campaign is not only structured to make the primary audience aware of the risks and negative outcomes, but to increase confidence and self- acceptance. If our audience is made aware of BDD, negative aspects of plastic surgery, the importance of a positive self-esteem and body image through celebrity role models, peers, and parents, it is likely they will change their beliefs and behavior. Our campaign will use the repetition of several of the same strategies with some slight variations to communicate to our target audience; however, in all cases it will focus on the negative aspects of plastic surgery and positive self- worth. It is safe to say that women who have a positive idea of their appearance, and are aware of risks with plastic surgery and the psychological implications of BDD are not considering unnecessary procedures. They lead healthy and natural lives that do not require plastic surgery. As the saying goes, “Beauty is only skin deep.” In one of our aforementioned objectives, we will elicit fear in our primary audience in order to make them more aware of the risks that plastic surgery entails. In Phase II of our campaign we have decided to use a guest speaker who has had a botched procedure. She will use pictures to show the audience a before and after outcome that will give them the visuals of how terrible disfigurement is. This is an excellent way to get the message across to the audience and help cause a behavior change. The guest speaker, as well as our campaign, will include questions such as “How would you feel if your body looks like this the rest of your life?” and “Is it worth the risk?” In order to have a
  16. 16. Gobrial & Killi 16 successful campaign we must stress the negatives as well as promote strong positive self-esteem. Behavior Change Models: For our campaign to ultimately have an effect on the targeted individuals, one must understand how behavior change takes place. According to Nedra Kline Weinreich (1999), regarding behavior change “…researchers have proposed many different models to explain the transition from nonadoption to adoption and…to elucidate how to affect that process” (p. 92). There are three significant models: the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Social Cognitive Learning Theory. The Health Belief Model attempts to outline the necessary conditions for change to occur. Essentially, it is designed to explain and predict behavior through four important factors. The first issue is perceived susceptibility, which requires that the audience member believes that he or she is susceptible to the given circumstance. In our campaign, the individual must believe either that she has BDD, or is considering plastic surgery and is therefore at risk for complications. Those are the determining factors for whether she will willingly receive our health message. The second factor is that of perceived severity. In this step, the individual must believe that he or she could be impacted negatively by this condition. For our purposes, this would be a simple realization that having BDD or getting plastic surgery may have severe negative consequences. The third aspect is perceived barriers in which the individual must feel as though
  17. 17. Gobrial & Killi 17 the benefits of the desired action outweigh the costs. For our campaign, a young woman would have to believe that the benefits of good health and positive body image outweigh the costs of not receiving a plastic surgery procedure. Finally, the last factor depends on the audience member’s self-efficacy. The individual must believe he or she has the power to take action. A woman from our target audience must feel empowered to seek psychological counseling for BDD, or call and cancel her liposuction procedure in favor of a gym membership. The second important theory is that of Planned Behavior. This theory states that intention is the most important determinant of behavior. There are three factors which determine an individual’s intention: attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In reference to our health campaign, an audience member will weigh the pros and cons, how others regard the behavior, and how difficult it would be to achieve the said behavior. For example, a young girl would compare the negative and positive results of plastic surgery, consider what the loved ones in her life would think about her undergoing a cosmetic procedure, and decide how difficult it would be not to get work done. The Social Cognitive Learning Theory establishes that behavior change is the result of both internal and external factors. A person will be compelled to act if the positive outcomes outweigh the negative. This theory also states that an individual can be compelled to follow the example of others. This could be negative in regard to our campaign if a young girl sees the positive feedback that follows a celebrity breast augmentation and wishes to increase her bust size as well. However, if role models are foregoing plastic surgery or had bad
  18. 18. Gobrial & Killi 18 experiences with it, it would discourage our audience from getting a cosmetic procedure. The use of guest speakers will hopefully elicit this response. Media and Activities Our campaign will utilize a number of media outlets to reach our primary audience, females between the ages of 16-24, as well as our secondary audience. Since this primary group is influenced mostly by their peers, we will be utilizing interpersonal communication heavily than the other outlets. We will be organizing two separate sessions that will include two separate guest speakers. In phase I of our campaign we will hire a celebrity speaker who has overcome BDD to talk to high school female students. We will also use the same tactic aimed at older females who are attending colleges and universities. During phase II we will also hire a guest speaker to talk to our audiences about the negatives of plastic surgeries such as botched procedures and long term effects. This kind of interpersonal approach will generate questions from our audience and make them more aware of these issues. Another media outlet we will make use of is the use of print ads in magazines. In phase I we will implement these ads in the previously mentioned magazines in order to reach our audience. The ads will address the issue of BDD and the severity of the psychological disorder. Billboard advertisements, as well as print ads, will make the audience more aware of the negative side of plastic surgery. In phase II we will incorporate billboard ads illustrating botched plastic surgeries so the visuals will have a lasting effect on the audience; we
  19. 19. Gobrial & Killi 19 want the ad to be something that will be in their minds for a significant amount of time. Television and radio are other useful media outlets used to accomplish a successful campaign. Phase III includes a television commercials that are aimed at our primary audience. Real life teenagers, not celebrities, will make use of these commercials to talk about the positives in their lives and how they do not need unnecessary plastic surgeries to enhance their image. Radio spots will be aimed at our secondary audience in phase IV. These spots will make parents/guardians more aware of the dangers of plastic surgery and will also encourage parents/guardians to talk more with their daughters about the risks. We will also use PSAs during primetime programming aimed at the secondary audience similar to the radio spots. The final media outlet that we will use is the internet. Since the majority of our target audience frequents Myspace.com and the expanding Facebook.com we will use banner ads, which are linked to a webpage that will create more awareness about the negative aspects of plastic surgery and BDD. Implementation Plan Our association, The Campaign for Natural Beauty, is split into five departments: research, event planning, TV, radio, & newspaper promotions, web promotions, and the print campaign. Each department will be held responsible for carrying out each of its objectives to achieve a successful campaign. Before any plan of action can take place, a budget is needed in order to
  20. 20. Gobrial & Killi 20 calculate how much spending is necessary for the campaign. The budget is as follows (annually): • 30 Second TV Commercials $300,000 • 30 Second Radio Spots $200,000 • Print Ads (Magazines & Newspapers) $275,000 • Internet Banners and Billboard Ads $275,000 • Employee Salaries $400,000 We are also looking to receive money from the government for this campaign in order to fund programs regarding awareness and to supplement donations. • Government Funding $800,000 With the funds allotted accordingly, each of the five areas can begin work. The research department’s focus is to determine whether or not awareness has been raised in our primary audience as well as our secondary audience. They will determine which segments of the campaign were most effective so future improvements could be made. In order to accomplish this, they will be finding out if a behavior change has taken place as a result of the campaign’s use of different communication strategies. In order to gather this information, our research team will compile a survey asking our primary audience if they are aware of BDD, the negative effects of plastic surgery, and how they feel about their self-image. The secondary audience will be given a similar survey that will
  21. 21. Gobrial & Killi 21 ask if they are aware of BDD and if they talk with their daughter(s) about effects of plastic surgery. When all the data has been compiled at the end of each year, the resulting statistics will determine how effective our campaign was at reaching the target audience. The event planning department will be in charge of reaching out to potential guest speakers. The department will reach out to former patients who had poor results and who have suffered from BDD through internet postings, classified ads in newspapers, and distributing flyers at college campuses. Once the interview process has been successful, high schools and colleges will be notified that our association wants to raise awareness at their institution. The department will also be in charge of promoting the event on campuses leading up to the scheduled date. Since a lot of students pay attention to postings at their high school or college, a huge response is expected. The TV, radio, newspaper department will manage how the message will get across through the mediums. For instance, they will devise effective slogans, commercials with strong meaning and visuals, and radio spots that will effectively catch the listeners’ attention. They will be in constant contact with a variety of different newspapers as well as TV networks and radio stations. Advertising with these mediums will be quite effective due to the fact that TV and radio are tremendously prevalent. Web promotions, as a separate medium from radio, TV, and newspaper, will advertise with different websites on the internet. Their primary focus will be advertising with Myspace.com & Facebook.com. These two websites will be an
  22. 22. Gobrial & Killi 22 ideal way to reach our target audience due to their increasing popularity among high school and college students. Web promotions will serve as one of the top departments in reaching our intended audience because of the incredible visibility the ads on these sites have. Our final department will focus on the print campaign and be in charge of putting ads in magazines such as Cosmopolitan, Seventeen, Teen People, Mademoiselle, & People. Since these magazines are aimed towards our target audience, we would hope to make the readers aware of BDD through use of visually stimulating and informative ads. The literature as well as visuals the department chooses to use effectively will help incorporate the awareness of BDD and the risks of plastic surgery. Evaluation Since our SMART objectives have measurable qualities, we will be able to measure the results in a quantitative manner. At the end of each phase, the research department will record progress using surveys distributed to our primary audience at schools and campuses. Our secondary audience will receive surveys from us through their daughters when they attend the guest speaker sessions. The surveys will be given out randomly before the campaign begins at campuses and high schools (preliminary research), during the campaign (to measure progress), and after to measure the effectiveness of our overall campaign. We will request survey participation through our print campaign and PSAs as well. The research department will then select a random sample of
  23. 23. Gobrial & Killi 23 students to compile their attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions regarding plastic surgery and BDD. References
  24. 24. Gobrial & Killi 24 Avezzano, S., Bernstein, S., Driskell, R., Kirtchuk, N., Maeda, E., Negroii, E., et al. (2006). Plastic surgery boosts some teens' self-confidence. New York Amsterdam News. 97 (35), 18-18, 3/4p. Bayer, K. (2005). Cosmetic Surgery and Cosmetics: Redefining the Appearance of Age. Generations (San Francisco, Calif.). 29 (3), 13-18. Bellino, S., Bogetto, F., Fulcheri, M., Paradiso, E., Rivarossa, A., & Zizza M. (2006). Dysmorphic concern symptoms and personality disorders: A clinical investigation in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Psychiatry Research, 144 (1), 73-78. Castle, D.J., Honigman, R., & Phillips, K. (2004). A review of psychosocial outcomes for patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 113 (4), 1229–1237. Covino, D. (2001). Outside-In: Body, Mind, and Self in the Advertisement of Aesthetic Surgery. Journal of Popular Culture, 35 (3), 91-102. Dittman, M. (2005). Plastic surgery: Beauty or beast? Retrieved September 16, 2006 from <http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/surgery.html> Hinde, S. & Tinkler, C. (2006) Bid to ban teen plastic surgery. Herald Sun. October 8, 2006. Retreived from <http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,,20542993-2862,00.html> Nassif, P. (2006). When plastic surgery goes bad. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from <http://www.cosmeticsurgery.com/articles/archive/an~48/> Sarwer, D.B. (2001). Plastic surgery in children and adolescents. In J. Thompson & L. Smolak (Eds.) Body image, eating disorders and obesity in youth. (pp. 341–366). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) (2006). Statistics. Retrieved September 16, 2006 from <http://www.surgery.org/press/statistics.php> Weinreich, N. K. (1999). Hands-on Social Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Wheeland, R. (2004). State legislation and the cosmetic surgeon. Cosmetic Surgery Times. Nov-Dec 2004. Retrieved September 16, 2006 from <http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HMW/is_10_7/ai_n7579080>

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