Snake Venom

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Snake Venom

  1. 1. SNAKE VENOM
  2. 2. Introduction  There are over 3,000 species of snakes, but only 15% are considered to be dangerous  Snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica  Each year there are 45,000 incidents of snake bites in the U.S.  7,000 - 8,000 are from venomous snakes  On average 8 people die each year
  3. 3. Dangerous? Environmental Hazard Frequency Fatalities per year Drowning N/A 6,500 Burns / Smoke Inhalation 2.2 million 5,000 Heat Exhaustion / Heat Stroke N/A 175-200 Lightning N/A 75-300 Bee,Wasp Stings 1 million 30-120 Dog Bites / Attacks 1-3 million 10-20 Snake Envenomation 7,000 5.5 Spider Envenomation N/A 4 Scorpion Envenomation 14,000 0.33 Lifetime odds of dying from snake bite 1 in 479,992
  4. 4. Venom  There are 4 types of venom Hemotoxin, Mytotoxin, Neurotoxin, or Cytotoxin  Excreted through a modified parotid salivary gland  Located on each side of the skull  Behind the eye  Made up of a combination of proteins and enzymes  Various compounds have synergistic effects
  5. 5. Anatomy of a Snake Bite
  6. 6. Enzymes in Venom  Proteolytic Enzymes  Arginine ester hyrdolases  Collagenase  Phospholipases A and B  Phosphodiesterases  Acetylcholinesterase  DNase and RNase  NAD Nucleotidase  L-Amino acid oxidase  Procoagulants  Anticoagulants  Hyaluronidases:
  7. 7. Immediate Symtoms of Cytoxin/Mytotoxin  Intense local pain  Gradual swelling  Nausea and vomiting  Distinct metallic taste  Loss of conciousness may occur  Shock.
  8. 8. Types of cytotoxic/mytotoxic snakes  Rattlesnakes (Crotalus).
  9. 9. Types of cytotoxic/mytotoxic snakes  Lance-headed vipers (Bothrops).
  10. 10. Types of cytotoxic/mytotoxic snakes  Puff adder (Bitis arietans)
  11. 11. Hemotoxic Symptoms  Severe headache and thirst  Tissue swelling around the site of the bite caused by hemorrhaging  Extreme pain  Destruction of red blood cells causing a lack of oxygen in the body  Internal bleeding from major organs  Severe headache and thirst  Death
  12. 12. Hemotoxic Snakes  Trimeresurus wagleri-TempleViper  Bothrops Atrox  CerastesVipera –SandViper  DispholidusTypus- Boomslang
  13. 13. Local Favorite  Northern Copperhead  Hemotoxic but not particularly deadly
  14. 14. Neurotoxic Venom  Neurotoxic venom is fast acting and is rapidly absorbed, attacking the central nervous system.  Paralysis  Respiratory Failure  Death
  15. 15. Neurotoxic snakes  Bitis Gabonica- GabonViper  Denisonia Superba- Australian Copperhead  Ophiophagus hannah- King Cobra  Dendroaspis polylepis- Black Mamba  Micrurus tener tener -Texas Coral Snake
  16. 16. Reaction of Phospholipase A  Enzyme splits cell membrane  Helps to subdue and digest prey  Highly Neurotoxic
  17. 17. Snakes with Phospholipase A
  18. 18. Why don’t snakes poison themselves?  In the case of hemotoxic, mytotoxic and cytotoxic venoms  Serum in their blood which inhibits the venom  Humans use these serums as anti-venoms  Neurotoxic snakes lack the appropriate neuro-receptors
  19. 19. Treatment of Snake Bites  Hospitals use anti-venoms  Helps to know species of snake  DO NOT attempt to suck out poison
  20. 20. References  http://www.popsci.com/scitech/gallery/2008-03/how-snake-venom-works  http://zoltantakacs.com/zt/sc/naja.shtml#1  http://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bites/article.htm#tocc  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-snake-venom.html  http://firstaid.webmd.com/tc/snake-and-lizard-bites-topic-overview  http://animals.howstuffworks.com/snakes/venomous-snake.htm  http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/snakes/snakes.htm  http://www.herpsofarkansas.com/Herp/SnakeBite  http://web.virginia.edu/Heidi/chapter34/Images/8883n34_11.jpg  http://www.tigerhomes.org/animal/american-copperhead.cfm  http://www.nsc.org/news_resources/injury_and_death_statistics/Documents/Odds%20of%20Dying.pdf  http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/snake-venom.gif

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