Skeletal System


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Skeletal System

  1. 1. Skeletal System Objectives: List five functions of bones Label the main parts of a bone on a diagram of a bone Name two division of the skeletal system and the main groups of bones in each division Compare the three classifications of joints by describing the type allowed by each Describe at least four disease of the skeletal system
  2. 2. Skeletal system • Made of organs called bones • In adult there are 206 bones
  3. 3. Functions • Frame work- support muscles, fat and skin • Protection- surround vital organs Example- skull surrounds brain, ribs protect heart and lungs • Levers- attach to muscles to help provide movement • Produce blood cells- Red and white, platelets, a process called hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis • Storage- store most of calcium supply in body
  4. 4. Parts of a long bone-- • Long bones are bones of extremities (arms and legs) • Diaphysis- long shaft • Epiphysis- two extremities or ends • Medullary canal Cavity in daphysis Filled with yellow marrow • Yellow marrow Inside the medullary canal Mainly fat cells
  5. 5. Parts of long bone cont • Endosteum Membrane that lines the medullary canal Keeps the yellow marrow intact Produces some bone growth • Red marrow Found in bones such as vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, and proximal ends of humerus and femur Produces red blood cells, platelets and some white blood cells Bone marrow is important in the manufacture of blood and is involved with the body’s immune response --used in diagnosing blood diseases --given as transplants to people with defective immune systems
  6. 6. Parts of a long bone cont • Periosteum Tough membrane covering outside of bones Contains blood and lymph vessels Contains osteoblasts- special cells that form new bone growth Necessary for bone growth, repair and nutrition • Articular Cartilage Thin layler covers the epiphysis Acts as a shock absorber when bones meet to form a joint
  7. 7. Two sections of skeleton • Axial Skeleton Forms main trunk of the body Composed of the skull spinal column, ribs and sternum • Appendicular skeleton Forms extremities (arms and legs) Composed of shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
  8. 8. Skull • Composed of cranial and facial bones • Cranium Spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain --made of eight bones- frontal, two parietal, two temporal, occipital, ethmoid and sphenoid At birth the cranium is not a solid bone- spaces called fontanels or soft spot allow for enlargement as brain grows– turns into solid bone about 18 months of age
  9. 9. Skull Cont • Facial bones Fourteen facial bones Main bones- Mandible (lower jaw) - Maxilla- 2 bones forming upper jaw - Zygomatic- 2 cheek bones - Nasal- 5 bones in upper part of nose - Lacrimal- 2 bones at inner aspect of eye - Palatine- two bones of hard palate or roof of mouth
  10. 10. Skull Cont • Sutures- aresas where cranial bones have joined • Sinuses Air spaces in bones of the skull Provide strength with less weight Act as a resonating chambers for the voice Lined with mucous membranes
  11. 11. Skull cont • Formina Openings in bones Allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone • Vertebrae Spinal column – made up of 26 bones called vertebrae Protect the spinal cord Provide support for head and trunk Main sections- Cervical 7 neck vertebrae Thoracic- 12 in back of chest, attach to ribs Lumbar- 5 vertebrae on back of pelvic girdle Sacrum- 1 large vertebra called a tailbone
  12. 12. Vertebrae cont • Intervertebral disks • Pads of cartilage tissue that separate vertebrae • Act as shock absorbers • Permit bending and twisting movements
  13. 13. Ribs or costae • 12 pairs of long slender bones • Attach to thoracic vertebrae on dorsal surface of body • True ribs- first 7 pairs of ribs Attach to directly to the sternum on front of body • False ribs- next 5 pair, first 3 attach to cartilage of rib above and floating ribs – last 2 of false ribs, no attachment on front of body
  14. 14. Sternum • Breastbone- consists of three parts Manubrium or upper region Gladiolus- body or center area Xiphoid process- small piece of cartilage at bottom (what do we know about this bone?) • Two Clavicles attach to manubrium by ligaments • Ribs attach to sternum with costal cartilages to form a cage that protects the heart and lungs
  15. 15. Shoulder or pectoral girdle • Two clavicles or collarbones S shaped • Two scapulas (scapulae) or shoulderbones • Scapula proides for attachment of upper arm bone
  16. 16. Bones of the arm • Humerus- upper arm bone • Radius- lower arm bone on thumb side • Ulna- larger bone of lower arm that contains projection called the olecranon process at the upper end forming the elbow • Carpals- 8 wrist bones on each hand • Metacarpals- 5 bones on each hand to form palm • Phalanges- 14 bones on each hand to form thumb and fingers
  17. 17. Bones of pelvic girdle • Made of two os coxae- coxal or hip bones • Join with sacrum on dorsal part of body • Join at joint called symphysis pubis on ventral part of body • Each os cox made of three bones that are fused or joined- Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis • Contains two recessed areas or sockets called acetabulums that provide attachment of bones of the leg • Obturator foramen-opening between the ischium and pubis, allows for passage of nerves and blood vessels to and from the legs
  18. 18. Bones of the legs • Femur- thigh bone • Patella- kneecap • Tibia- long supporting bone of lower leg, medical surface • Fibula- smaller bone of lower leg, lateral surface • Tarsals- 7 bones of ankles, calcaneous is heel bone • Metatarsals- 5 bones forming instep of foot • Phalanges- 14 bones of each foot, form toes
  19. 19. Joints • Area where two or more bones join together • Ligaments- connective tissue bands that hold long bones together • 3 types of joints Diarthrosis- free movable, ball and socket of shoulder and hip, hinge joints of the elbow and knee Amphiarthosis- slightly movable, attachment of ribs to the thoracic vertebrae Synarthrosis- immovable, example is cranium
  20. 20. Disease and abnormal conditions • Arthritis- group of diseases involving an inflammation of the joints • Two main types- Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis- chronic disease that occurs with aging Symptoms- joint pain, stiffness, aching, limited range of motion (ROM) Treatment- rest, heat/cold applications, aspirin, anti-inflammatory medications, steroid injections, special exercises
  21. 21. Disease and abnormal conditions cont • Rheumatoid arthritis Chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissues and joints Three more times common in women Often begins between ages 35-45 Progressive attacks cause scar tissue formation and atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, which results in permanent deformity and immobility Treatment- Rest and prescribed exercise Anti-inflammatory medications- steriods and aspirin Surgery or arthroplasty to replace damaged joints such as knees or hips
  22. 22. Bursitis • Inflammation of bursae, small fluid-filled sacs surround joints • Frequently affects shoulders, elbows, hips or knees • Symptoms- sever pain, limited movement, accumulation of fluid in joint • Treatment- pain medications and rest, injections of steroids and anesthetics into joint, aspiration (withdrawal of fluid with a needle) of joint • Physical therapy to perserve joint motion
  23. 23. Fractures • Involve a crack or break in a bone Types- Green stick- bone is bent and splits causing a crack or incomplete break- common in children Simple- complete break with no damage to skin Compound- break in bone that ruptures through skin; increased chance of infection Impacted- broken bone ends jam into each other
  24. 24. Fractures cont • Comminuted- bone fragments or splinters into more than two pieces • Spiral- severe twisting of a bone causes one or more breaks; common in skiing and skating accidents • Depressed- broken piece of skull bone moves inward- common with severe head injuries • Colles- breaking and dislocation of the distal radius that causes a characteristic bulge at the wrist- caused by falling on an outstretched hand • Reduction- process by which bone is put back into proper alignment Closed reduction- position bone in alignment usually with traction and apply cast or splint to maintain position Open reduction- surgical repair of bone and at times insertion of pins, plates and other devices.
  25. 25. Dislocation • Bone is forcibly displaced from a joint • Frequently occurs in shoulders, fingers, knees and hips • Reduced and immobilized with a splint, cast or traction
  26. 26. Sprain • Twisting action tears ligaments at a joint • Common sites are wrists and ankles • Symptoms: pain, swelling, discoloration, limited movement • Treatment: Rest and elevation, immobilization with elastic bandage or splint, cold applications
  27. 27. Osteomyelitis • Inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic organism • Pathogen causes formations of abscess within bone and accumulation of pus in medullary canal • Symptoms: pain at site, swelling, chills, fever • Treatment: antibiotics for infections
  28. 28. Osteoporosis • Metabolic disorder with increased porosity or softening of bones • Etiology- Deficiency of hormones, especially estrogen in females, Prolonged lack of calcium in diet, Sedentary life • Loss of calcium and phosphate caused bones to become porous, brittle and prone to fracture. • Treatment- increased calcium and vitamin D, Exercise, Medications to increase bone mass, Estrogen replacement
  29. 29. Ruptured disk • Also called a herniated or slipped disk • Intervertebral disk ruptures or protrudes out of place and causes pressure on the spinal nerve. • Most common site is the lumbar-sacral area: can occur anywhere on spinal column • Symptoms: severe pain, muscle spasm, impaired movement, and/or numbness • Treatment- Pain, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant medications • Rest and transaction • Physical therapy and massage therapy • Chiropractic treatment • Heat or cold treatment • Laminectomy- Surgical removal of the protruding disk for severe cases
  30. 30. Abnormal curvatures of spinal comlumn • Kyphosis: “hunchback: or rounded bowing of the back at the thoracic area • Scoliosis: side-to side or lateral curvature of spine • Lordosis: “swayback” or abnormal inward cruvature of lumbar vertebrae. • Causes- poor posture, congenital defects, structural defects of vertebrae, malnutrition, degeneration of vertebrae • Treatment- Therapeutic exercises, firm mattresses, and braces, Surgical repair for severe deformities