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science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
science_in_the_news.docx - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
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  • 1. Science News Share Blog Cite Print Bookmark Email Using a Patient's Tumor to Form Vaccine: Dendritic Cell Vaccine Induces Immune Responses in Patients ScienceDaily (Nov. 25, 2010) — A new process for creating a personalized vaccine may become a crucial tool in helping patients with colorectal cancer develop an immune response against their own tumors. This dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, developed at Dartmouth and described in a research paper published this week in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, was used after surgical resection of metastatic tumors to try to prevent the growth of additional metastases. Renal cell carcinoma "The results of the study suggest a new way to approach cancer treatment," said Richard Barth Jr., MD, Chief of General Surgery at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and a member of the Gastrointestinal Clinical Oncology Group at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, who is the study's principal investigator. "Basically, we've worked out a way to use dendritic cells, which initiate immune responses, to induce an antitumor response." Dendritic cells are critical to the human body's immune system, helping identify targets, or antigens, and then stimulating the immune system to react against those antigens.; The new research grew dendritic cells from a sample of a patient's blood, mixed them with proteins from the patient's tumor, and then injected the mixture into the patient as a vaccine. The vaccine then stimulated an anti-tumor response from T-cells, a kind of white blood cell that protects the body from disease. In the study, Barth first operated on 26 patients to remove tumors that had spread from the colon to the liver. While some of these patients would be expected to be cured with surgery alone, most of them would eventually die from tiny metastases that were undetectable at the time the tumors were removed from the liver. The DC vaccine treatment was given one month after surgery. The results were that T-cell immune responses were induced against the patient's own tumor in more than 60% of the patients. The patients were followed for a minimum of 5.5 years.; Five years after their vaccine treatment, 63% of the patients who developed an immune response against their own tumor were alive and tumor-free. In contrast, just 18% of the patients who did not develop an immune response against their own tumor were alive and tumor-free. "We showed that a tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine can induce immune responses against the patient's own tumor in a high proportion of patients," stated Dr. Barth, who has been investigating DC-based vaccines in mice and patients for more than 10 years. "There were two basic questions we wanted to answer: one, can we generate an antitumor response, and two, does it matter? From our research, the answer to both questions is yes." He said DC vaccines have been a research interest at many institutions, and previous studies showed that DC vaccines could not reduce or eliminate measurable metastatic tumor deposits. "It turned out we were asking the T-cells to do too much," he commented. "The small number of T-cells that are generated by a vaccine can't destroy a large tumor. However, what they may be able to do is search out and destroy tumor cells that exist as only microscopic tumor deposits. Once we brought patients into a measurable tumor-free condition with surgery, the anti-tumor T-cells induced by the DC vaccine may help keep them that way." Follow-up studies are necessary to more fully understand the mechanisms of the DC vaccine and its impact on long-term survival rates, Dr. Barth said. He believes this study may open the door to a significant change in cancer treatment in the future. The DC vaccine is non-toxic, while traditional
  • 2. chemotherapies are highly toxic. "It's your own immune system doing the fighting," he commented. "I'm optimistic that this really will have an impact." Editor's Note: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Email or share this story: | More Story Source: The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. Journal Reference: 1. R. J. Barth, D. A. Fisher, P. K. Wallace, J. Y. Channon, R. J. Noelle, J. Gui, M. S. Ernstoff. A Randomized Trial of Ex vivo CD40L Activation of a Dendritic Cell Vaccine in Colorectal Cancer Patients: Tumor-Specific Immune Responses Are Associated with Improved Survival. Clinical Cancer Research, 2010; 16 (22): 5548 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2138 Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats: APA MLA Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (2010, November 25). Using a patient's tumor to form vaccine: Dendritic cell vaccine induces immune responses in patients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2010/11/101124114548.htm Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead. Ads by Google New Clinical Trial Clinical trial for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumors www.novocuretrial.com Brain Tumor Treatment Proton Therapy Treats Cancer With Fewer Side Effects. Learn More www.ProCure.com/BrainTumors Breast Cancer Co-Pay Card Print a Co-Pay Card & Save on a Breast Cancer Treatment. See Rules. Breast-Cancer-Treatment-Options.com Lung cancer? Compensation trust fund information Find out if you qualify www.calldavid.com Related Stories Cancer Vaccines Led To Long-Term Survival For Patients With Metastatic Melanoma (July 29, 2009) — Medical researchers have released promising data from a clinical study showing patient-specific cancer vaccines derived from patients' own cancer cells and immune cells were well tolerated and ... > read more Clinical Trial Evaluating Brain Cancer Vaccine Is Underway (Oct. 22, 2007) — A brain cancer vaccine in being trialed in newly diagnosed brain cancer patients. Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. Some of the most common are: headaches that are usually worse in the morning; ... > read more
  • 3. Fighting Advanced Melanoma: Could A 'Personalized Vaccine' Be The Solution? (Dec. 12, 2005) — Saint Louis University is one of two sites in the country to study the effectiveness of an experimental, personalized vaccine in treating advanced melanoma. The vaccine fuses a patient’s own ... > read more Patient-Specific Vaccines for Metastatic Melanoma May Induce Durable Complete Regression, Study Shows (Sep. 27, 2010) — Researchers have announced encouraging clinical study results for patient-specific vaccine therapy to treat metastatic melanoma. The study is ongoing, but the report concludes that patient-specific ... > read more Brain Cancer Study: Magnitude Of Post-Vaccine Immune Response Linked To Clinical Outcomes (July 18, 2008) — Researchers conducting a clinical trial of a dendritic cell vaccine designed to fight malignant brain tumors called glioblastoma multiforme have found a correlation between the "intensity" of a ... > read more Ads by Google Mastectomy Types Explore the different types of mastectomies used for breast cancer YourBreastOptions.com NCCN Prostate Update Free NCCN live CME webinar on prostate cancer guideline updates www.cvent.com/NCCN Modified Citrus Pectin PectaSol-C inhibits growth of unhealthy abnormal cells, naturally www.econugenics.com/pectasolc Cancer Treatment Options Diagnosed w/Colon Cancer? Learn About New Treatment Options at CTCA www.CancerCenter.com Search ScienceDaily Number of stories in archives: 94,774 Find with keyword(s): Search Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily's archives for related news topics, the latest news stories, reference articles, science videos, images, and books. Just In: Sewage Bacteria: Early Evolution Missing Link? Science Video News Faster Flu Vaccine Spraying viral genes directly through the skin is a new technique that turns infinitesimal amounts of DNA into an effective vaccine. If approved for. ... > full story Hematologists Boost Immune Response in Bone-Marrow Transplant Patients Pediatricians Reduce Ear Infections By Vaccinating Children Chromosomal Test By Molecular Biologists Determines Cancer Spread
  • 4. more science videos Breaking News ... from NewsDaily.com Ariane rocket launches two satellites Russian-U.S. space crew land safely in Kazakh World warmer, short-term trends need study: report UK watchdog adviser: Cloned cattle meat likely safe NASA postpones shuttle launch until mid-December more science news In Other News ... U.S. consulting allies on proposed North Korea talks Saudi king urged U.S. to attack Iran: WikiLeaks Swiss referendum backs expelling convicted foreigners EU backs Irish bailout Haiti candidates want polls annulled, cite "fraud" China proposes emergency talks on Korea crisis Cargo plane crashes in Karachi residential area Police occupy Rio slum and start hunt for traffickers more top news Copyright Reuters 2008. See Restrictions. Free Subscriptions ... from ScienceDaily Get the latest science news with our free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader: Email Newsletters RSS Newsfeeds Feedback ... we want to hear from you! Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions? Your Name: Your Email: Comments:
  • 5. Click button to submit feedback: Send It Ancient Insects Preferred Warmer Climates ScienceDaily (Nov. 25, 2010) — For millions of years, insects and plants have coevolved -- leaf-eaters adapting to the modifications of their hosts and plants changing to protect themselves from herbivory. The abundance and diversity of both insects and plants have varied depending on changes in climate. However, according to a study published in the November issue of Ecological Monographs, a journal of the Ecological Society of America, abnormally high global temperatures have historically lead to a greater diversity and abundance of insects, separate from plant diversity and adaptations. Ellen Currano formerly from Pennsylvania State University and colleagues examined a total of 9071 fossilized leaves at nine sites of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming that had fossils dating back 52.7 to 59 million years ago. This particular location contains fossils created during a period when global temperatures gradually warmed to the greatest sustained highs of the last 65 million years. In addition to this gradual rise, there was also a temporary spike in temperature and partial pressure, similar to the weight, of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and a subsequent cooling period. From the fossils during this six million year span, the researchers identified 107 plant species and recorded multiple types of insect feeding damage. They paid special attention to variations of insect feeding on one leaf, indicating the presence of multiple species of insects. By comparing these findings with the established temperature records, Currano and colleagues found that a rise in global temperature -- both gradual and abrupt -- led to an increase in insect populations. Surprisingly, the increase in insect diversity and abundance was not necessarily correlated with changes in plant diversity or abundance, suggesting that warmer temperatures directly affected insect numbers. This relationship, said the authors, can be attributed to insect migration: As temperatures rose, insects could move northward and to previously uninhabitable altitudes. These climate shifts, then, may have also caused insect migration over higher latitude land bridges connecting North America, Europe and Asia. "Our findings indicate possible changes to come as a result of anthropogenic climate change," said Currano. "As temperatures rose some 60 million years ago, tropical and subtropical insects were able to migrate northward to Wyoming. It is likely that present-day anthropogenic warming will lead to similar distributions of insect populations and cause an increase in herbivore damage." Email or share this story: | More Story Source: The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Ecological Society of America, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS. Journal Reference: 1. Ellen D. Currano, Conrad C. Labandeira, Peter Wilf. Fossil insect folivory tracks paleotemperature for six million years. Ecological Monographs, 2010; 80 (4): 547 DOI: 10.1890/09-2138.1 Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:
  • 6. APA MLA Ecological Society of America (2010, November 25). Ancient insects preferred warmer climates. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2010/11/101123210447.htm Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead. Ads by Google Plant Protection Fabrics Protection for Plants & Crops Free Shipping Factory Priced www.factorydirectlandscape.com Custom Landscapes Unique landscape designs and plants Beneficial gardens for you www.maxlandscape.com Wildlife Rescue Efforts Learn How Wildlife Is Being Saved From The Recent Oil Spill. www.Facebook.com/DawnSavesWildlife Danica Patrick Honda Film Watch now to discover the upside of failure through Danica Patrick. www.honda.com Related Stories Six Times More Insect Species in Tropical Mountains Than Predicted (Sep. 7, 2010) — How many species of insects exist? Researchers found that in tropical mountains there are six times more insects than shown in global calculations. The insects in these areas are also highly ... > read more Insects Use Plants Like A Telephone (Apr. 27, 2008) — Ecologists have discovered that subterranean and aboveground herbivorous insects can communicate with each other by using plants as telephones. Subterranean insects issue chemical warning signals via ... > read more Multiple New Species Of Fruit Flies With Overlapping Niches Discovered (May 21, 2008) — Evidence of physically similar species hidden within plant tissues suggest that diversity of neotropical herbivorous insects may not simply be a function of plant architecture, but may also reflect ... > read more Weeds Survive The Wild Better Than Natives (July 6, 2007) — Weeds are winning the battle when it comes to surviving in the wild with foliage eating insects preferring the taste of native plants, according to a study by Queensland University of Technology. Eve ... > read more Virus Pulls Bait and Switch on Insect Vectors (Feb. 12, 2010) — A common plant virus lures aphids to infected plants by making the plants more attractive, but when the insects taste the plant, they quickly leave for tastier, healthier ones. In the process, the ... > read more Ads by Google Top Tomatoes Secret A frighteningly-effective recipe to
  • 7. explode tomatoes' growth in a snap! TomatExpert.com Plant Frost Protection FreezePruf stops frost damage.l Increase cold tolerance up to 9.4F www.LiquidFence.com/FreezePruf Jt Plants Amine Plants Natural Gas Treating www.kindermorgan.com/busines Fossil Murals Green River Deposit 1000's of treasures CollectorsArtnet.com Search ScienceDaily Number of stories in archives: 94,774 Find with keyword(s): Search Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily's archives for related news topics, the latest news stories, reference articles, science videos, images, and books. n Sahara, geologists have found. Radar images taken from the space shuttle confirm that a lake broader than Lake Erie once sprawled a few hundred kilometers west of the Nile, researchers report in the December issue of Geology. Since the lake first appeared around 250,000 years ago, it would have ballooned and shrunk until finally petering out around 80,000 years ago. Knowing where and when such oases existed could help archaeologists understand the environment Homo sapiens traveled while migrating out of Africa for the first time, says team leader Ted Maxwell, a geologist at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Modern humans arose in Africa about 200,000 years ago. “You realize that hey, this place was full of really large lakes when people were wandering into the rest of the world,” he says. Enlarge SAHARAN LAKEFRONTAt perhaps its greatest extent, the Tushka lake would have covered more than 68,000 square kilometers (shown in false color topographical image at left). At other times (right) less water would have flown into the low-lying basin from the Nile (visible on the right in both images), causing the lake to shrink. Red corresponds to an elevation of 400 meters above the basin floor.T.A. Maxwell et al/Geology 2010
  • 8. Since then, desert winds have eroded and sands have buried much of the region’s landscape, says Maxine Kleindienst, an anthropologist at the University of Toronto. But during next summer’s field season, she and her colleagues will be checking for ancient shorelines at the elevations suggested in the new paper. Other studies have found evidence of mega-lakes in Chad, Libya and Sudan at various points over the past 250,000 years. The new study targeted Egypt, some 400 kilometers west of the Nile, where in the 1980s researchers reporting finding fish fossils in the desert. That discovery, says Maxwell, triggered scientists to think about how those fish could have gotten there. In 2000, astronauts on the space shuttle Endeavour used a radar instrument to take high- resolution pictures of the area’s topography. Maxwell and his colleagues recently analyzed those pictures to deduce how water would have drained across northeastern Africa over the past few hundred thousand years, ever since the Nile was born. In Egypt, west of the Nile Valley in a region known as Tushka, the researchers spotted a low -lying area where water would have pooled after overflowing from the river, carrying fish with it. At its maximum, this ancient lake would have stretched for 350 kilometers, down to the modern-day Sudan border. At the time, the Tushka area had more rainfall than today and would have been covered by grasslands, says Maxwell. Heavy rain in highlands to the south, from where the Nile flows, would have caused the lake to grow; dry spells shrank it. “This lake was going up and going down in size, doing all kinds of things over multiple thousands of years,” he says. Something similar is going on today at a smaller scale, says Mohamed Abdelsalam, a geologist at the Missouri University of Science and Technology in Rolla. Just northeast of where the huge paleolake once lay, the Nile also overflowed, starting in 1998. A series of five small “new lakes of the Sahara” was born. Deprived of water since 2003, these lakes have since almost entirely dried out, says Abdelsalam. Today, for water, Egyptians rely almost exclusively on the Nile and its annual floods. The ancient lakes, says Maxwell, suggest that such flooding was already under way, at least to some degree, a quarter million years ago.
  • 9. BODY SCANNERS COMING TO TRAINS, SUBWAYS AND BOATS, HOMELAND SECURITY CHIEF SAYS By Rebecca Boyle Posted 11.24.2010 at 12:48 pm 44 Comments Navy Archives Station, Washington, D.C. dnewman8 via Flickr Brace yourselves, commuters — body scanners may be coming to trains, subways and boats, according to Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano. “[Terrorists] are going to continue to probe the system and try to find a way through,” Napolitano said in an interview that aired Monday night on “Charlie Rose.” She said as aviation security tightens, “we have to also be thinking now about going on to mass transit or to trains or maritime.” Her comments were a response to a question about what terrorists would be thinking in the future. She didn ’t elaborate on what enhanced security at train stations might look like, however. Trains have already been terroristtargets in England,Russia and Spain, with catastrophic results; just last month, a Pakistani-American was arrested after a thwarted plotto bomb the Washington,D.C.metro system.So it’s somewhat surprising the government took this long to acknowledge our other modes of transport are also at risk. Granted, a would-be terrorist would not necessarily need to board a train to do some damage — just look at train graffiti and you realize how easy it is to access parked trains and all those miles of exposed track. So in some ways, screening passengers seems kind ofsilly. Plus,rush hour is bad enough in our big cities — scanners and pat-downs on the D.C. metro and New York subway seem impossibly dilatory.
  • 10. Napolitano’s comments came during the busiest travel week of the year, amid a national outcry over new airport scanners and Transportation Security Administration pat-downs. She didn’t give any details about how soon the public might see changes, however.

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