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  1. 1. Individual Differences in Recognition Systems
  2. 2. A Personal Digression on Recognition in the Nervous System
  3. 3. 5% 2% 2% 0% 13% 2% 5% 7% 27% 0% 2% 2% 5% 21% 7% by Program Ed.D Arts in Ed Ed Policy Higher Ed Human Development International Ed Language and Literacy Learning and Teaching Mind, Brain and Ed Risk and Prevention School Leadership Special Studies Teacher Ed Technology, Innovation and Educaiton Other
  4. 4. 5% 27% 52% 14% 2% Neuroscience I invented neuroscience. I have a pretty good understanding of the brain and how it works, but tell me more! I know some things about the brain and how it works. I have a brain and it works (usually), so leave me alone. What's a brain?
  5. 5. 24% 55% 7% 7% 7% Area of Interest Early Childhood Adolescents Young Adult/College Adults Other
  6. 6. 49% 16% 2% 2% 31% Previous Life teacher student bum president of a small country working in another field
  7. 7. Technology I'm married to my computer, can't live without it. My computer is a good roommate and we spend a lot of time together. I'm happy to have technology as a housemate but need my space. I'm a bit anxious with it but think we can be neighbors. Technology is like a tiger...scary in unexpected encounters but OK at a distance. Preferably with bars between us. It terrifies me. I can't believe you are making me take this survey online.
  8. 8. What are the sources of variation that we need to pay attention to in designing for learning? What is appropriate to vary (i.e. is construct irrelevant and what is inappropriate to vary i.e. is construct relevant)?
  9. 9. The changing social landscape of neurodiversity The Strengths of Neurodiversity Alex Olinkowitz Emily (1) Emily (2)
  10. 10. The changing biological landscape of neurodiversity
  11. 11. Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry Krista L. Hyde 1 *, Fabienne Samson 2, Alan C. Evans 1, 2 Here, for the first time, we used two complementary magnetic resonance imaging techniques, cortical thickness analyses, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), to investigate the neuroanatomical differences between a homogenous group of young adults with autism of average intelligence but delayed or atypical language development (often referred to as high-functioning autism), relative to a closely matched group of typically developing controls. The cortical thickness and VBM techniques both revealed regional structural brain differences (mostly in terms of gray matter increases) in brain areas implicated in social cognition, communication, and repetitive behaviors, and thus in each of the core atypical features of autism. Gray matter increases were also found in auditory and visual primary and associative perceptual areas. We interpret these results as the first structural brain correlates of atypical auditory and visual perception in autism, in support of the enhanced perceptual functioning model [Mottron et al. (2006): J Autism Dev Disord 36:27-43]. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  12. 12. The changing technology landscape of neurodiversity
  13. 13. Here is one form of representation. In order to get useable knowledge out of this, what does it require of the learner?
  14. 14. Which brings us back to the reading brain… Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid. pp.176
  15. 15. Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid. pp.145
  16. 16. Word Reading in the Brain
  17. 17. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension
  18. 18. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision
  19. 19. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language
  20. 20. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory
  21. 21. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory All of these are potential barriers. What kinds of options could reduce these barriers?
  22. 22. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension What options does this form of representation provide? Suppose this was digital text instead?
  23. 23. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory But, from an instructional point of view, what options are OK?
  24. 24. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory The idea of construct relevance. What is the instructional purpose?
  25. 25. As a framework for design Print is too disabled as a medium to meet the challenge of diversity
  26. 26. What’s the solution? Assistive Technologies Remedial Education Therapies Alternative placements
  27. 27. Here is one form of representation. In order to get useable knowledge out of this, what does it require of the learner?
  28. 28. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension
  29. 29. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision
  30. 30. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language
  31. 31. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory
  32. 32. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory What is construct relevant? What is the purpose of the information?
  33. 33. Sensory/perc eptual Language and Symbols Comprehension Multiple Means of Representation
  34. 34. Sensory/per ceptual Language and Symbols Comprehension Multiple Means of Representation What kinds of barriers? Depends upon the purpose.
  35. 35. Sensory/per ceptual Language and Symbols Comprehensi on Multiple Means of Representation What kinds of options would reduce the barriers?

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