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Individual Differences
in Recognition
Systems
A Personal Digression on
Recognition in the Nervous
System
5%
2% 2% 0%
13%
2%
5%
7%
27%
0%
2%
2%
5%
21%
7%
by Program
Ed.D
Arts in Ed
Ed Policy
Higher Ed
Human Development
Internati...
5%
27%
52%
14%
2%
Neuroscience
I invented neuroscience.
I have a pretty good understanding of
the brain and how it works, ...
24%
55%
7%
7%
7%
Area of Interest
Early Childhood
Adolescents
Young Adult/College
Adults
Other
49%
16%
2%
2%
31%
Previous Life
teacher
student
bum
president of a small country
working in another field
Technology
I'm married to my computer, can't live
without it.
My computer is a good roommate and we
spend a lot of time to...
What are the sources of variation that we
need to pay attention to in designing for
learning?
What is appropriate to vary ...
The changing social
landscape of neurodiversity
The Strengths of Neurodiversity
Alex Olinkowitz
Emily (1)
Emily (2)
The changing biological landscape
of neurodiversity
Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual
and other core features of autism revealed by cortical...
The changing technology
landscape of neurodiversity
Here is one form of representation.
In order to get useable knowledge out of
this, what does it require of the learner?
Which brings us back to the
reading brain…
Wolf, M. (2007). Proust
and the Squid. pp.176
Wolf, M. (2007). Proust
and the Squid. pp.145
Word Reading in the Brain
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
What options does this form of representation
provide?
Suppose this ...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
As a framework for design
Print is too disabled as a medium to
meet the challenge of diversity
What’s the solution?
Assistive Technologies
Remedial Education
Therapies
Alternative placements
Here is one form of representation.
In order to get useable knowledge out of
this, what does it require of the learner?
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory
Perception
Language and
Symbols
Comprehension
Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary
Fluent Decoding
Competent Synta...
Sensory/perc
eptual
Language
and Symbols
Comprehension
Multiple Means of Representation
Sensory/per
ceptual
Language
and Symbols
Comprehension
Multiple Means of Representation
What kinds of barriers? Depends up...
Sensory/per
ceptual
Language
and Symbols
Comprehensi
on
Multiple Means of Representation
What kinds of options would reduc...
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  1. 1. Individual Differences in Recognition Systems
  2. 2. A Personal Digression on Recognition in the Nervous System
  3. 3. 5% 2% 2% 0% 13% 2% 5% 7% 27% 0% 2% 2% 5% 21% 7% by Program Ed.D Arts in Ed Ed Policy Higher Ed Human Development International Ed Language and Literacy Learning and Teaching Mind, Brain and Ed Risk and Prevention School Leadership Special Studies Teacher Ed Technology, Innovation and Educaiton Other
  4. 4. 5% 27% 52% 14% 2% Neuroscience I invented neuroscience. I have a pretty good understanding of the brain and how it works, but tell me more! I know some things about the brain and how it works. I have a brain and it works (usually), so leave me alone. What's a brain?
  5. 5. 24% 55% 7% 7% 7% Area of Interest Early Childhood Adolescents Young Adult/College Adults Other
  6. 6. 49% 16% 2% 2% 31% Previous Life teacher student bum president of a small country working in another field
  7. 7. Technology I'm married to my computer, can't live without it. My computer is a good roommate and we spend a lot of time together. I'm happy to have technology as a housemate but need my space. I'm a bit anxious with it but think we can be neighbors. Technology is like a tiger...scary in unexpected encounters but OK at a distance. Preferably with bars between us. It terrifies me. I can't believe you are making me take this survey online.
  8. 8. What are the sources of variation that we need to pay attention to in designing for learning? What is appropriate to vary (i.e. is construct irrelevant and what is inappropriate to vary i.e. is construct relevant)?
  9. 9. The changing social landscape of neurodiversity The Strengths of Neurodiversity Alex Olinkowitz Emily (1) Emily (2)
  10. 10. The changing biological landscape of neurodiversity
  11. 11. Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry Krista L. Hyde 1 *, Fabienne Samson 2, Alan C. Evans 1, 2 Here, for the first time, we used two complementary magnetic resonance imaging techniques, cortical thickness analyses, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), to investigate the neuroanatomical differences between a homogenous group of young adults with autism of average intelligence but delayed or atypical language development (often referred to as high-functioning autism), relative to a closely matched group of typically developing controls. The cortical thickness and VBM techniques both revealed regional structural brain differences (mostly in terms of gray matter increases) in brain areas implicated in social cognition, communication, and repetitive behaviors, and thus in each of the core atypical features of autism. Gray matter increases were also found in auditory and visual primary and associative perceptual areas. We interpret these results as the first structural brain correlates of atypical auditory and visual perception in autism, in support of the enhanced perceptual functioning model [Mottron et al. (2006): J Autism Dev Disord 36:27-43]. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  12. 12. The changing technology landscape of neurodiversity
  13. 13. Here is one form of representation. In order to get useable knowledge out of this, what does it require of the learner?
  14. 14. Which brings us back to the reading brain… Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid. pp.176
  15. 15. Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid. pp.145
  16. 16. Word Reading in the Brain
  17. 17. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension
  18. 18. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision
  19. 19. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language
  20. 20. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory
  21. 21. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory All of these are potential barriers. What kinds of options could reduce these barriers?
  22. 22. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension What options does this form of representation provide? Suppose this was digital text instead?
  23. 23. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory But, from an instructional point of view, what options are OK?
  24. 24. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory The idea of construct relevance. What is the instructional purpose?
  25. 25. As a framework for design Print is too disabled as a medium to meet the challenge of diversity
  26. 26. What’s the solution? Assistive Technologies Remedial Education Therapies Alternative placements
  27. 27. Here is one form of representation. In order to get useable knowledge out of this, what does it require of the learner?
  28. 28. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension
  29. 29. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision
  30. 30. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language
  31. 31. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Adequate Memory
  32. 32. Sensory Perception Language and Symbols Comprehension Excellent Vision Relevant Vocabulary Fluent Decoding Competent Syntax English Language Usage Background Knowledge Critical Features Processing Strategies Working Memory What is construct relevant? What is the purpose of the information?
  33. 33. Sensory/perc eptual Language and Symbols Comprehension Multiple Means of Representation
  34. 34. Sensory/per ceptual Language and Symbols Comprehension Multiple Means of Representation What kinds of barriers? Depends upon the purpose.
  35. 35. Sensory/per ceptual Language and Symbols Comprehensi on Multiple Means of Representation What kinds of options would reduce the barriers?
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