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  1. 1. Nervous System- Divisions • Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - nerves extending to extremities – Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions
  2. 2. Nervous System: Cells • Neurons: Structure – Cell Body – Dendrites – Axon • myelin - • Schwann cells - • myelinated fibers - • nodes of ranvier -
  3. 3. Nervous System: Cells • Neurons - 3 Types – Sensory neurons – Motor neurons – Interneurons • Glia - connective tissue cells of the CNS – Astrocytes - star shape (attach to blood vessels) – Microglia - consume microbes – Oligodendroglia - produce myelin
  4. 4. Nervous System: Tissue Disorders • Multiple sclerosis: myelin disorder • Tumors: neuroma • Multiple neurofibromatosis: inherited fibrous neuromas
  5. 5. Nervous System: Nerves • Nerve - bundle of peripheral axons – Tract - bundle of central axons – White matter - myelinated axons – Gray matter - unmyelinated axons • Nerve coverings - fibrous connective tissue – Endoneurium- surrounds single fiber – Perineurium- surrounds group of fibers – Epineurium- surrounds entire nerve
  6. 6. Nervous System: Reflex Arcs • Reflex Arc - Nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain. • Receptors - beginning of dendrites • Ganglion - nerve cell bodies in PNS • Synapse - space between axon and dendrite • Reflex - response to impulse over a reflex arc • See pg. 205
  7. 7. Nervous System: Nerve Impulses • wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron’s plasma membrane • impulse created by an imbalance of sodium ions on the inside and outside of the plasma membrane • saltatory conduction - fast impulse on myelinated plasma membrane
  8. 8. Nervous System: Synapse • Synapse- impulse passed from one neuron to the next • Neurotransmitters - chemical compounds released from axon terminals into a synaptic cleft (pg. 208) • acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, catecholamines, endorphins, enkephalins
  9. 9. Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease • chronic nervous disorder resulting from a deficiency of dopamine
  10. 10. Central Nervous System • Divisions of the Brain: – Brain Stem • Medulla Oblongata • Pons • Midbrain – Cerebellum – Diencephalon • Hypothalamus • Thalamus – Cerebrum
  11. 11. CNS: Brain Stem • medulla oblongata - enlarged upper section of the spinal cord • pons - above medulla oblongata • midbrain- rests between the pons, thalamus, and cerebellum • all three contain well mixed white and gray matter • function: two-way conduction paths
  12. 12. CNS: Diencephalon • lies between the brain stem and cerebrum • Hypothalamus - consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter • Functions: Center for controlling ANS, controls hormone secretion, and controls appetite, wakefulness, and pleasure
  13. 13. CNS: Diencephalon cont... • Thalamus: dumb-bell shaped mass in each cerebral hemisphere • Relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex • Produces the emotions of pleasantness and unpleasantness associated with sensations
  14. 14. CNS: Cerebellum • Lies below occipital lobe • Outer layer - gray matter • Inside - White matter • Functions - Produce smooth coordinated movements • Maintain equilibrium • Sustain normal postures
  15. 15. CNS: Cerebrum • Largest part of brain • Outer layer - gray matter (cerebral cortex) • Interior of brain - white matter (tracts) • two lobes • Functions - mental processes of all types (sensations, consciousness, memory, and voluntary control of movements)
  16. 16. Peripheral Nervous System • Cranial Nerves (12 Pair) • Spinal nerves • Peripheral nerve disorders – Neuritis – Trigeminal neuralgia – Bell’s palsy – Shingles
  17. 17. Autonomic Nervous System • Regulates the body’s automatic or involuntary movements (main job is to restore homeostasis) • Sympathetic Vs. Parasympathetic • Autonomic Neurotransmitters • Disorders of ANS – Stress induced disease – Neuroblastoma

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