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Pesticides and Chemical Injury

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  • 1. PESTICIDES AND CHEMICAL INJURY CANCER Pesticides increase risk of cancer, including leukemia, Hodgkin’s, and other lymphoma1 and brain cancer.2 Home pesticide use increases risk of many cancers in children.Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found AUTO IMMUNE DISEASE Pesticides have shown the ability to cause the formation of autoantibodies in experimental animals.3 Lymphocyte abnormalities, including excessive activation, and increased autoantibodies, have been reported in humans exposed to the fungicide pentachlorophenol, the insecticide chlorpyrifos (Dursban, etc.), the fumigant formaldehyde, and the germicide chlordane.4 5 6 7 8 Increased autoimmune complexes are reported in rural workers exposed to organochlorines as well as urban residents exposed to organophosphates.9 Farm and factory workers with pesticide exposure have also shown immune changes of increased autoimmunity.10 11 12 13 14 Agricultural and pest control applicators exposed to organochlorines also shows increased autoimmunity.15 OTHER IMMUNE CHANGES Rural and factory workers with pesticide poisoning (symptoms of over-exposure) showed changes in T and B cells, and increased antibodies.16 17 18 19 20 Impairment of immune function in the form of increased chronic bronchitis, asthma, pneumonitis, and other respiratory infections have been reported with pesticide exposure.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 We have also seen similar immune changes in our patients who became ill after exposure to pyrethroid pesticides. SENSITIZATION Pesticides,30 31 32 fungicidesError: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found and herbicidesError: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found activate the NMDA receptor.Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found This can lead to Parkinson’s.Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found NMDA reactivation can also lead to sensitization. BRAIN DAMAGE Toxic exposure, which leads to the formation of antibodies to the brain/nervous system leads to changes in the neuromuscular function.33 Pesticide and herbicide 34 35 36 exposure increases risk of Parkinson’s tremorsError: Reference source not foundand disease.Error: Reference source not found 37 This is confirmed by Government scientists who have concluded from a detailed review of medical literature that repeated exposure to herbicides and/or insecticides lead to increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. 38 HORMONE EFFECTS 040808
  • 2. Pesticides and Chemical Injury Page 2 of 5 Pesticide exposure alters the metabolism of estrogen to forms (increased 16 to 2 hydroxyestrone ratio) associated with higher cancer risk.39 Exposure during pregnancy can damage function of the testes in baby boys, including failure of the testes to descend normally into the scrotum.40 This greatly reduces sperm production. These pesticides are also excreted through the breast milk,Error: Reference source not found causing increased body burdens in nursing infants. HOW EXPOSURE OCCURS Pesticides indoors persist longer because they degrade more slowly.41 Pesticide spray indoors contaminates many surfaces.Error: Reference source not found These surfaces act as residues of pesticide contamination,Error: Reference source not foundand not only evaporate but also contaminate food, hands and other body areas.Error: Reference source not found Hand contamination can lead to further food contamination.Error: Reference source not found Skin contact with pesticides on sprayed surfaces can result in high exposure levels42 because pesticides easily enter the body through the skin. Error: Reference source not found 43 Biopersistent pesticides such as organochlorines linger in the body many years, often decades. Error: Reference source not found PESTICIDES STAY IN THE BODY Many pesticides stay in the body.44 Half or more of Americans tested showed body burdens of these pesticides: permethrins, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), etc., parathion pesticides, lindane, chlordane, 2-5 dichlorophenol (moth balls) and DDT. DEET (a mosquito repellant) was found in 10% of all tested people. This would mean a much higher percent in users. EXPOSURE SYMPTOMS Some, but not all, people who develop pesticide illness have symptoms during or shortly after first or a subsequent exposure. Sometimes repeated exposure has happened before symptoms are noticed. This can impair waiting for symptoms as a sole indicator of damage. Indoor use of pesticides creates sufficient air levels, whether done by fogging, broadcast aerosol or spray, to cause health complaints in some exposed individuals.45 Sixty-six percent of healthy college students reported moderate to severe symptoms when exposed to the odor of pesticides, paints or other common petrochemicals. Of the severely affected students, 98% had significant symptoms with pesticide exposure (as commonly encountered, not occupational use), and such exposure correlated well with increase in most symptoms 46 INCREASED DAMAGE WITH MULTIPLE PESTICIDES Chemical mixtures of more than one pesticide even at modest dose produced dramatic increase in organ damage (compared to single pesticide), with damage to thymus, immune system, increased susceptibility to infection, and endocrine changes.47 “INERT INGREDIENTS” Pesticides often contain extra ingredients they call “inert”. This is NOT an honest description of these substances, because they can: • make the pesticide more toxic to the brain, genes (DNA), and hormones,48 • help pesticide penetrate skin and clothes easier,Error: Reference source not found so more enters the body,
  • 3. Pesticides and Chemical Injury Page 3 of 5 • keep the pesticide toxic longer, breaking down more slowly,Error: Reference source not found • make the pesticide more toxic to other species and environment.Error: Reference source not found In addition: • companies often do not tell you what the inert ingredients are or how much is there, • manufacturers are sellers and often do not study scientifically the effect of the complete mixture,Error: Reference source not found • a mixture of chemicals has harmful effects that are worse than expected from the added effects of the individual ingredients.
  • 4. 1 J Rudant, etal “Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood hematopoietic malignancies: The ESCALE Study (SFCE)” Environ Health Persp1151787-1793, 2007. 2 J Davis “Family pesticide use and childhood brain cancer” Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 24:87-92, 1993. 3 A Rosenberg, "Environmental Factors Contributing to the Induction of Human Autoimmune Disease," Abstract presented at the Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres' Annual Research Symposium, Toronto, Canada, May 2-3, 1995. 4 JD, Thrasher, R Madison, and A Broughton, "Immunologic Abnormalities in Humans Exposed to Chlorpyrifos: Preliminary Observations," Archives of Environmental Health, (March/April 1993), 48:(2):89-93. 5 JD Thrasher, A Broughton, and R Madison, "Immune Activation and Autoantibodies with Long Term Exposure to Formaldehyde," International Archives of Environmental Health, (1990), 45:217-223. 6 PR McConnachie, AC Zahalsky, "Immunological Consequences of Exposure to Pentachlorophenol," Archives of Environmental Health, (July/August 1991), 46(4):249-253. 7 RE Madison, A Broughton, and JD Thrasher, "Immunologic Biomarkers Associated with an Acute Exposure to Exothermic Byproducts of a urea-formaldehyde Spill," Environmental Health Perspectives, (1991), 94:219-223. 8 A Broughton, JD Thrasher, and R Madison, "Chronic Health Effects and Immunological Alterations Associated with Exposure to Pesticides," Comments in Toxicology, (1990), 4(1):59-71. 9 VI Krivoruchko, RD Dzhabbarov, "Possibility of Using Immunologic Indices in the Assessment of Pesticide-Related Body Effect," Gigiena i Sanitariia, (1989), (3):22-24, (in Russian). 10 AI Nikolaev, LA Katsenovich, and ST Atabaev, Pestitsidy i Immunitet [Pesticides and Immunity], (Meditsina UzSSR, Tashkent: 1988), (in Russian). 11 T Rakhmanov, "The Effects of Bazudin on the Immunological Reactivity of the Body," Gigiena i Sanitariia, (1975), (8):104- 106, (in Russian). 12 SS Brusilovskii, NA Vieveskii, DV Zinchenko, and AM Fialkovskii, "Clinical and Experimental Study of the Complement During Action of Chemical Substances," Immunologiia, (1973), (6):72, (in Russian). 13 PL Kozintseva, L Kuznetsova, and D Zinchenko, "[Clinical Significance of the Detection of Antipesticide Circulating Antibodies]," Gigiena I Toksikologiia Novykh Pestitsidov i Klinika Otravlennii [Hygiene and Toxicology of Pesticide Use and Poisoning Clinics], (USSR Glavnaia Gosudarstvennaia Sanitarnaia Inspektsiia, Moscow: 1973), 345, (in Russian). 14 LA Katsenovich, IY Usmanova, "[On the Appearance of Liver Autoantibodies in Persons in Contact with Pesticides]," Meditsinskii Zhurnal Uzbekistana, (1970), (7):6, (in Russian). 15 Nikolaev, AI, and R.A. Isayeva, "The Values of Immunological Reactions in Expertise of Allergic States Caused by Pesticides," Transactions of Legal and Medical Experts of Uzbekistan, (Tashkent: 1975), 27-28, (in Russian). 16 AI Nikolaev, LA Katsenovich, and ST Atabaev, Pestitsidy i Immunitet [Pesticides and Immunity], (Meditsina UzSSR, Tashkent: 1988), (in Russian). 17 NH Abdullayev, and RM Ruzybakyev, "[T-Immunodeficient States as the Result of Chronic Effects of Pesticides]," [Immunodeficiencies and Allergy: Summaries of the Republic All-Union Symposium], (Moskov: 1986), 5, (in Russian). 18 RM Ruzybakyev, LA Fedorina, "Circulation of T, B and O Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Pesticide Intoxication," Responses of an Organism in the Standard and Pathology: Summaries of the Republic Conference of Young Scientists, (Ufa: 1983), 107-108, (in Russian). 19 LA Katsenovich, RN Nuritdinova, and RI Karimov, "Problems of Clinical Pathology Under Effects of Pesticides Utilized in Cotton-Growing," Problems of Hygiene and Pesticide Toxicology: Summaries of the Sixth Republic All-Union Conference, (Kiev: 1982a), Part 2:181-185, (in Russian). 20 LA Katsenovich, RM Ruzybakyev, LA Fedorina, and LI Vakidov, "[Disturbances of Immunological Status in Patients with Pesticidal Intoxication and Its Pharmacological Correctional]," [Problems of Hygiene and Pesticide Toxicology: Summaries of the Sixth Republic All-Union Conference], (Kiev: 1981b), Part 2:223, (in Russian). 21 H Nordman, "Occupational Asthma---Time for Prevention," Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, (1994), 20:108-115. 22 JE Zejda, JA Dosman, "Respiratory Disorders in Agriculture," Tubercle and Lung Disease, (1993), 74:74-86. 23 A Senthilselvan, HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, "Association of Asthma with Use of Pesticides," American Review of Respiratory Diseases, (1992), 148:884-887. 24 SK Rastogi, BN Gupta, T Husain, N Mathus, N Garg, "Study of Respiratory Impairments Among Pesticide Sprayers in Mango Plantations," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, (1989), 16:529-538. 25 AA Davidyan, VI Krivoruchko, NA, Azylova, LP Savazova, ES Rusanova, "[Allergic Disease of the Respiratory Tract Under Conditions of Agri-Industrial Pollution]," [Immunodeficiencies and Allergy: Summaries of the Republic All- Union Symposium], (Moskov:1986), 240-241, (in Russian). 26 PS Burge, MG Sherwood, MG Harries, WK Lam, IM O'Brien, PA Patchett, "Occupational Asthma Due to Formaldehyde," Thorax, (1985), 40:255-260. 27 A Morgan, "Introduction: EULEP International Symposium on the Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in the Clearance of Inhaled Particles," Environmental Health Perspectives, (1992), 97:3. 28 A Hermanowicz, S Kossman, "Neutrophil Function and Infectious Disease in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Phosphoorganic Pesticides: Role of Mononuclear-Derived Chemotactic Factor for Neutrophils," Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, (1984), 33:12- 22. 29 A Hermanowicz, Z Nawarska, D Borys, A Maslankiewicz, "The Neutrophil Function and Infectious Diseases in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organochlorine Insecticides," International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, (1982), 50:329-340. 30 VN Uversky, “Toxicants-induced animal models of Parkinsonism: Understanding the role of rotenone, maneb and paraquat”, Cell Tissue Res 318: 225-241, 2004. 31 M Thiruchelavam etal, “Developmental exposure to the pesticides paraquat and maneb and the Parkinson’s disease phenotype”, Neurotoxicology 23: 621-633. 32 F Kamel etal “Association of Pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease”, Environ Health Persp, 112: 950-958, 2004.
  • 5. 33 HA El-Fawal, etal, “Neuroimmunotoxicology: humoral assessment of neurotoxicity and autoimmune mechanisms”, Environ Health Persp Suppl 5: 767-775, Oct, 1999. 34 L Fleming etal, “Parkinson’s disease and brain levels of organochlorine pesticides”, Ann Neurol 36: 100-103, 1994. 35 CG Matthews etal, “Differential neuropsychologic profiles in idiopathic versus pesticide-induced Parkinsonism”, In Advances in Neurobehavioral Toxicology, B Johnson, Editor, Lewis Publishers, 1990. 36 CG Ohlson, C Hogstedt, “Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposure to solvents, agricultural chemicals and mercury – a case-referent study”, Scand J Work Environ Health 7: 252-256, 1981. 37 A Bocchetta and GU Corsini, “Parkinson’s disease and pesticides”, Lancet 11: 1163, 1986. 38 TP Brown, etal, “Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease – Is there a link?” Environ Health Perspect, 114: 156-164, 2006. 39 HL Bradlow etal, Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16a/2 hydroxyestrone: A biologic marker for breast cancer risk”, Env. Health Persp 103 (supp 7): 147-150, 1995. 40 IN Damgaard, etal, “Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism”, Env Health Persp 114: 1133-1138, 2006. 41 CA Rohrer etal, “Transfer efficiencies of pesticides form household flooring surfaces to foods”, J Expo Analysis EnvironmentalEpidemiology 13: 454-464, 2003. 42 EA Cohen Hubal etal, “The challenge of assessing children’s residential exposure to pesticides”, J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:638-649, 2000. 43 EA Cohen Hubal etal, “Measuring potential adrenal transfer of a pesticide to children in a day care center”, Environ Health Persp 114: 264-269, 2006. 44 Third National Report on Environmental Exposure to Chemicals, US Centers for Disease Control, 7-21-05. 45 JA Bukowski, LW Meyer, "Simulated air levels of volatile organic compounds following different methods of indoor insecticide application." Environ Sci Technol, 29:673-676, 1995. 46 IR Bell, GE Schwartz. JM Peterson, D Amend, Environ Health Persp 48: (1) 6, 1993. 47 T Hayes, etal “Pesticide mixtures, endocrine disruption and amphibian declines: Are we understanding the impact?” Environ Health Persp 114: 40-50, 2006. 48 C Cox, M Surgan, “Unidentified inert ingredients in pesticides: Implications for human and environmental health”, Env Health Persp, 114: 1803-1806, 2006.
  • 6. 33 HA El-Fawal, etal, “Neuroimmunotoxicology: humoral assessment of neurotoxicity and autoimmune mechanisms”, Environ Health Persp Suppl 5: 767-775, Oct, 1999. 34 L Fleming etal, “Parkinson’s disease and brain levels of organochlorine pesticides”, Ann Neurol 36: 100-103, 1994. 35 CG Matthews etal, “Differential neuropsychologic profiles in idiopathic versus pesticide-induced Parkinsonism”, In Advances in Neurobehavioral Toxicology, B Johnson, Editor, Lewis Publishers, 1990. 36 CG Ohlson, C Hogstedt, “Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposure to solvents, agricultural chemicals and mercury – a case-referent study”, Scand J Work Environ Health 7: 252-256, 1981. 37 A Bocchetta and GU Corsini, “Parkinson’s disease and pesticides”, Lancet 11: 1163, 1986. 38 TP Brown, etal, “Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease – Is there a link?” Environ Health Perspect, 114: 156-164, 2006. 39 HL Bradlow etal, Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16a/2 hydroxyestrone: A biologic marker for breast cancer risk”, Env. Health Persp 103 (supp 7): 147-150, 1995. 40 IN Damgaard, etal, “Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism”, Env Health Persp 114: 1133-1138, 2006. 41 CA Rohrer etal, “Transfer efficiencies of pesticides form household flooring surfaces to foods”, J Expo Analysis EnvironmentalEpidemiology 13: 454-464, 2003. 42 EA Cohen Hubal etal, “The challenge of assessing children’s residential exposure to pesticides”, J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:638-649, 2000. 43 EA Cohen Hubal etal, “Measuring potential adrenal transfer of a pesticide to children in a day care center”, Environ Health Persp 114: 264-269, 2006. 44 Third National Report on Environmental Exposure to Chemicals, US Centers for Disease Control, 7-21-05. 45 JA Bukowski, LW Meyer, "Simulated air levels of volatile organic compounds following different methods of indoor insecticide application." Environ Sci Technol, 29:673-676, 1995. 46 IR Bell, GE Schwartz. JM Peterson, D Amend, Environ Health Persp 48: (1) 6, 1993. 47 T Hayes, etal “Pesticide mixtures, endocrine disruption and amphibian declines: Are we understanding the impact?” Environ Health Persp 114: 40-50, 2006. 48 C Cox, M Surgan, “Unidentified inert ingredients in pesticides: Implications for human and environmental health”, Env Health Persp, 114: 1803-1806, 2006.

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