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Motivation - PowerPoint Presentation






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    Motivation - PowerPoint Presentation Motivation - PowerPoint Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation
      • Motivation -- Purpose for or cause of an action:
        • Energizes behaviors, &
        • Directs that energy toward a goal
      • Human behavior directed by physiological needs and psychological needs/wants
        • Hunger/thirst
        • Need for connection/contact/sex?
        • Need for stimulation/exploration?
        • Need to improve self? Or to live up to one’s potential?
        • Hedonic Principle : we are motivated to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
    • Abraham Maslow’s theory
    • • Amidst the festivities of a grand party, a young guy notices a strikingly beautiful girl and is immediately smitten…. • He approaches her and begins to flirt boldly…. She tries to rebuff him but is flattered by his attention and finds him quite attractive… Love in bloom
    • • By the time he departs the scene, with a kiss followed by a second kiss, these two have exchanged fewer than a hundred words; yet, both are swooning with sensations of falling, desperately, in love. • All mental processes – thinking, planning, goals, feelings, and motivations – have been suddenly transformed….these brains have been completely gripped by this brief encounter. Romantic feelings kindle rapidly….
    • • In the hours after this meeting, these two can not stop thinking about each other • The intensity of desire is so strong that each would happily forego food, sleep, comfort, and all competing pleasures, simply to be in each other’s presence again Shakespeare ( 1595) was dramatizing one of the normal tensions of adolescence and development of sexual motivations . Longing, obsession, and desire…
    • Sexual Motivation
    • Sexual Motivation
    • Sexual Motivation
      • Energizing and directing arousal
      • Interplay of internal and external stimuli
        • Internal: Hormones, brain structures, neurotransmitters, imagined stimuli
        • External: Environmental and sociocultural factors
    • Hormones and Sexual Motivation
      • Dihydroepiandosterone (dhea) seems to be involved in initial onset of sexual desire
      • Both males and females produce testosterone and estrogen
      • Testosterone: involved in sex drive for both men and women
      • Estrogen: in female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity (but not a major factor in human females)
      • Subcortical
        • Septal region -- Pleasurable response and orgasm
        • Hypothalamus -- Neuroendocrine and autonomic aspects of sexual drive, sexual orientation
      • Cortical
        • Frontal lobes -- Motor components of sexual behavior, control of sexual response (disinhibition)
        • Parietal lobes -- Genital sensation
        • Temporal lobes: sexual drive (hypo/hypersexuality, impotence)
        • Baird et al., 2007 J of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
      Key brain regions mediating human sexual behavior
    • Plateau Orgasm Resolution Arousal - Excitement Desire Phase Sexual Response Cycle
    • Motivation for Eating
      • As with sex, eating is an interplay of internal and external stimuli
        • Internal: Hormones, brain structures, neurotransmitters, imagined stimuli
        • External: Environmental and sociocultural factors
      • Primary receiver of hunger signals is hypothalamus
    • Genetic influences on eating
      • o b gene
        • Regulates production of leptin
        • Leptin is secreted by fat cells and has dual activity of decreasing food intake and increasing metabolic rate
        • Mice born without the ability to make leptin (ob/ob mice) eat without restraint
    • ob/ob mouse normal mice
    • ob/ob mouse
    • ob/ob mouse ob/ob mouse injected with leptin
    • So, just give obese humans leptin!
          • In fact, this works in leptin-deficient humans, but…
          • 99.99% of obese humans have HIGH levels of leptin, but have become insensitive to it.
          • Something else is going on… (obesity trends powerpoint)
    • Other kinds of motivation
      • Extrinsic motivation
      • Intrinsic motivation
        • extrinsic motivators can harm intrinsic motivation
      • Self-determination theory
        • Autonomy, competence, and relationship