Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology

  1. 1. Medical Terminology Unit 7 Gastroenterology
  2. 2. Organ Combining Form Mouth Teeth Tongue Lips gums Esophagus Stomach Stomat/o Dent/o, Odont/o Gloss/o, Lingu/o Cheil/o Gingiv/o Esophag/o Gastr/o
  3. 3. Organ Combining Form Small intestine Duodenum Jejunum ileum Large intestine Sigmoid colon Enter/o Duoden/o Jejun/o ile/o Col/o Sigmoid/o
  4. 4. Organ Combining Form Rectum Anus and rectum Accessory organs Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Rect/o Proct/o Hepat/o Cholecyst/o Pancreat/o
  5. 5. Stomat/o = Mouth Stoma = mouth Stomat/itis: Inflammation of the mouth Stomat/o/plasty: Surgical repair of the mouth Stomat/algia: Pain in the mouth Stomat/o/rrhagia: Hemorrhage of the mouth Stomat/o/myc/osis: Condition of mouth fungus Stomat/o/pathy: Any disease of the mouth Stomat/o/scope: An instrument for examining the mouth Stomat/o/scopy: The process of examining with stomatoscope
  6. 6. Stomatitis
  7. 7. Gloss/o = Tongue Gloss/itis: Inflammation of the tongue Gloss/ectomy: Excision of the tongue Gloss/algia: Pain in the tongue Gloss/al: Pertaining to the tongue Gloss/o/ptosis: Prolapse of the tongue Gloss/o/scopy: Examination of the tongue Gloss/o/plegia (n.): Paralysis of the tongue Gloss/o/plegic (adj.): Paralysis of the tongue
  8. 8. Lingu/o = Tongue Lingu/al (adj.): Pertaining to the tongue Sub/lingu/al or Hypo/gloss/al : Under the tongue
  9. 9. Cheil/o = Lips Cheil/itis: Inflammation of the lips Cheil/o/plasty: Plastic surgery of the lips Cheil/o/tomy: Incision of the lips Cheil/osis: Condition or disorder of the lips Cheil/o/stomat/o/plasty: Plastic surgery of the lips and mouth
  10. 10. Gingiv/o = Gums Gingiv/al: Pertaining to the gums Gingiv/itis: Inflammation of the gums Gingiv/algia: Gum pain Gingiv/ectomy: Excision of gum tissue Gingiv/o/gloss/itis: Inflammation of the gums and tongue Lingu/o/gingiv/al (adj.): Tongue and gums
  11. 11. Gastrointestinal Passage Process of chewing Process of swallowing Chemical breakdown of food Movement of nutrients from intestine to the blood Expelling solid waste Sold waste material Mastica/tion Ingestion Diges/tion Absorption Defeca/tion Feces, stool, bowel movements
  12. 12. Esophag/o = Esophagus Eso- = Toward Phag/o = Swallow Esophag/eal (adj.): Pertaining to esophagus Esophag/o/sten/osis: Narrowing of the esophagus Esophag/o/gastr/ic: Pertaining to the esophagus and stomach Gastr/o/esophag/eal Reflux Disease (GERD): Chronic heartburn and esophageal irritation caused by Reflux of stomach acid into an esophagus
  13. 13. Stenosis (Pyloric Stenosis)
  14. 14. Gastr/o = Stomach Gastr/o/rrhagia: Stomach hemorrhage Gastr/itis: Inflammation of the stomach Gastr/ic: Pertaining to the stomach Gastr/ectasia: Dilatation (stretching) of the stomach -ectasia = stretching or dilatation Gastr/o/enter/o/ptosis: Prolapse of the stomach and small intestine Gastr/o/enter/o/logy: Specialty that studies diseases of the stomach and intestine
  15. 15. Enter/o = Small intestine, Intestine Enter/ic: Pertaining to intestine Enter/itis: Inflammation of the intestine Dys/enter/y: Disorder of the intestine characterized by inflammation, pain, and diarrhea i.e. amoebic dysentery Gastr/o/enter/ic: Pertaining to the stomach and small intestine Enter/o/rrhagia: Hemorrhage of the small intestine Enter/o/cele: Intestinal hernia
  16. 16. Enter/o = Small intestine, Intestine Enter/o/clysis: Washing or irrigation of the small intestine Enter/o/plegia: Paralysis of the small intestine Enter/ectasia: Dilatation of the small intestine Enter/o/ptosis: Prolapse of the small intestine Enter/o/centesis: Surgical puncture of the small intestine Enter/o/scope: Instrument to examine the small intestine
  17. 17. Col/o = Colon (Large intestine) Col/ic or colonic: Pertaining to the colon Col/o/centesis: Surgical puncture of the colon Col/o/pexy: Surgical fixation of the colon Col/ostomy: Making a new opening into the colon Col/o/ptosis: Prolapse of the colon
  18. 18. Colon = Large Intestine
  19. 19. Diverticula Outpouching that develop in the colon wall Diverticul/osis: condition of having diverticula Diverticul/itis: inflamed or infected diverticula
  20. 20. -clysis = Washing or Irrigation Washing/irrigation of: Colon Stomach Small intestine Rectum Anus and Rectum Col/o/clysis Gastr/o/clysis Enter/o/clysis Rect/o/clysis Proct/o/clysis
  21. 21. Sigmoid/o = Sigmoid colon Sigmoid/o/scope: An instrument used to examine the sigmoid colon Sigmoid/o/scopy: The procedure of examining the sigmoid colon with a sigmoidoscope
  22. 22. Rect/o = Rectum Rect/al: Pertaining to the rectum Rect/o/cele: Herniation of the rectum Rect/o/scope: Instrument for examining the rectum Col/o/rect/al: Pertaining to the colon and rectum Rect/o/scopy: The process of examining the rectum with a rectoscope Rect/o/scopic (adj.): Pertaining to rectoscopy
  23. 23. Rect/o = Rectum Rect/o/plasty: Plastic surgery of the rectum Rect/o/rrhaphy: Suturing (stitching) of the rectum Rect/o/urethr/al: Pertaining to the rectum and urethra Rect/o/cyst/o/tomy: Incision of the bladder through the rectum
  24. 24. Proct/o = Anus and Rectum Proct/o/logist: One who specializes in diseases of the anus and rectum Proct/o/logy: The study of diseases of the anus and rectum Proct/o/plegia: Paralysis of the anus and rectum Proct/o/scope: Instrument used to examine rectum Proct/o/scopy: Examination of rectum with a proctoscope Proct/o/rrhaphy: Suturing of the rectum and anus Proct/o/pexy: Surgical fixation of the rectum and anus
  25. 25. Constipation Con/stip/a/tion is manifested by infrequent, small amount of hard consistancy bowel movements. Comes from Latin word parts meaning “to withhold” or “press together” Cathartics (laxatives) cause liquification of the stool or relaxation of the bowel to ease defecation. Constipation can be treated or prevented by eating high fiber diet, increasing water intake, and exercising regularly.
  26. 26. Hepat/o = Liver Hepar = Liver Hepat/ic: Pertaining to the liver Hepat/o/megaly: Enlargement of the liver Hepat/o/scopy: Inspection of the liver Hepat/o/pathy: Any disease of the liver Hepat/o/tomy: Incision into the liver Hepat/ectomy: Excision of the liver Hepat/itis: Inflammation/infection of the liver
  27. 27. Hepat/o = Liver Hepat/o/rrhagia: Hemorrhage of the liver Hepat/o/rrhaphy: Suture of a wound of the liver Hepat/o/cele: Hernia of the liver Hepat/o/dynia: Pain in the liver Hepat/o/lith: Stone in the liver
  28. 28. Pancreat/o = Pancreas Pancreat/ic: Pertaining to the pancreas Pancreat/o/lysis: Destruction of pancreatic tissue Pancreat/o/lith: a stone or calculus in the pancreas Pancreat/o/pathy: Any pancreatic disease Pancreat/ectomy: Excision of part or all of the pancreas Pancreat/o/tomy: Incision into the pancreas Pancreat/itis: Inflammation of the pancreas
  29. 29. Chol/e/cyst = Gallbladder Chol/e/cyst/o/gram (or chol/e/cyst/o/graph): an x-ray of the gallbladder (or x-ray machine) Chol/e/cyst/itis: Inflammation of the gallbladder
  30. 30. Cholangi/o = Bile Duct ERCP = Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangi/o/pancreat/o/graphy: Radiographic examination of common bile duct and pancreatic duct by injecting contrast media through cannula inside an endoscope. Looks for an obstruction/blockage, usually by stones.
  31. 31. A/tresia A/tresia: Not perforated or not open. Closed ducts or tubes. Biliary a/tresia: Bile ducts are not open Intestinal a/tresia: A part of the intestine is closed Esophageal a/tresia: Closed esophagus Mitral a/tresia: Congenital closure of the mitral valve
  32. 32. Esophageal Atresia
  33. 33. Cirrh/osis Kirrhos = Orange-yellow Cirrh/osis: dysfunctional liver disease, occurs as a result of malnutrition, alcoholism, poisoning, or a history of hepatitis
  34. 34. Splen/o = Spleen Splen/ectomy: Excision of the spleen Splen/o/megaly: Enlargement of the spleen Splen/o/ptosis: Prolapse of the spleen Splen/o/pexy: Surgical fixation of the spleen Splen/o/pathy: Any disease of the spleen Splen/o/rrhaphy: Suture of the spleen Splen/o/rrhagia: hemorrhage from the spleen Splen/algia: Pain in the spleen Splen/ic: Pertaining to the spleen
  35. 35. -ostomy = Anastomosis Anastomosis is a surgical connection between tubular structures. New connection between: Esophagus & duodenumEsophag/o/duoden/ostomy Stomach, small intestine, and large intestine  Gastr/o/enter/o/col/ostomy Esophagus & stomach  Esophag/o/gastr/ostomy Small intestine & gall bladder  Enter/o/cholecyst/ostomy
  36. 36. Long words: Let’s insert slashes Jejunoileitis  Cholecystoduodenostomy  Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)  Cholangiopancreatography  Jejun/o/ile/itis Chole/cyst/o/duoden/ostomy Esophag/o/gastr/o/duoden/o/scopy Chol/angi/o/pancreat/o/graphy (note: Answer is misspelled in the textbook p.212)
  37. 37. Abbreviation BM PO NPO EGD ERCP GERD Hep B HAV HBV HCV Bowel movement By mouth (per os) Nothing by mouth Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Gastroesophageal reflux disease Hepatitis B vaccine Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus
  38. 38. Abbreviation HP GI GB NG HCL BE Helicobacter pylori Gastrointestinal Gall bladder Nasogastric Hydrochloric acid Barium enema

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