Safety Concerns vs. Perceived Performance
Outcomes of Athletic Equipment at a Small
J.D. Fisher; C.P. Gildea; I.W. Weaver
Increased number of participants
Increased in knowledge
House league High School College
Why do athletes manipulate equipment
Sports- MLAX, WLAX, FBL, WRL, MSC, WSC, FH
Degree of Manipulation, # of pieces, Age, Gender,
202 individuals 52 respondents (25.7%)
Male 27 (51.9%) and Female 25 (48.1%)
Most-WSC (16, 30.7%) Least- MSC & WLAX (4, 7.7%)
Mean age 20.1 yrs SD = 1.5
Mean yrs. Collegiate exp. 2.5 SD = 1.2
Pieces of Equip. mean 3.9 SD = 3.4
29 or 56% of respondents modify, manipulate, or
Sport Respondents Average Pieces of Equipment Worn
Field Hockey 5 4.75 SD = 4.38
Football 12 11.25 SD = 2.26
Men’s Lacrosse 5 6.80 SD = 1.30
Women’s Lacrosse 4 2.00 SD = 0.00
Men’s Soccer 4 1.00 SD = 0.82
Women’s Soccer 16 1.13 SD = 0.34
Wrestling 6 2.50 SD = 1.38
TOTAL 52 3.90 SD = 3.40
Top 3 Reasons to manipulate
Comfort (16, 55.2%)
Hinders Athletic performance (13, 44.8%)
Incorrect size (7, 24.1%)
Least important reason to manipulate
Education (0, 0.0% )
Men vs. Women
# of pieces P=0.000
“I am gaining an athletic advantage over someone who does
not change their protective equipment” (P=0.026)
Sport vs. Sport
Action of modification (P=0.021)
‘I don’t think it protects me” (P=0.014)
“I am gaining an advantage…(P=0.006)
Rate and reason for manipulation
56% do manipulate
Main reason is comfort
Number of Pieces- avg.= 3.9 (SD=3.4)
Men- 5.71 (SD=3.31)
Women- 1.84 (SD=1.99)
Reason= FBL & MLAX use more pieces
Sport vs. Sport
Number of Pieces
Men vs. Women
Reason for manipulation
More Men chose “to gain an athletic advantage”
Age vs. Age
Younger athletes- “It does not protect me”
Older athletes- ‘To gain an athletic advantage”
Low number of response
Males and Females should be managed
differently to promote use
Research may be used by coaches, referees,
athletes, ATC’s, manufactures, and anyone else
This is a pilot more research should be
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