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Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
Jeremy, Corey, Isaac
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Jeremy, Corey, Isaac

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  • 1. Safety Concerns vs. Perceived Performance Outcomes of Athletic Equipment at a Small Pennsylvania University J.D. Fisher; C.P. Gildea; I.W. Weaver HLTH 400 Fall 2007
  • 2. Introduction  Increased number of participants  Increased in knowledge  House league High School College  Why do athletes manipulate equipment  Baseline study
  • 3. Methods  Instrumentation  Online Survey  Sports- MLAX, WLAX, FBL, WRL, MSC, WSC, FH  Survey Monkey  Statistical analysis  ANOVA  Areas investigated  Degree of Manipulation, # of pieces, Age, Gender, Sport
  • 4. Results  202 individuals  52 respondents (25.7%)  Male 27 (51.9%) and Female 25 (48.1%)  Most-WSC (16, 30.7%) Least- MSC & WLAX (4, 7.7%)  Mean age 20.1 yrs SD = 1.5  Mean yrs. Collegiate exp. 2.5 SD = 1.2  Pieces of Equip. mean 3.9 SD = 3.4  Range 0-12  29 or 56% of respondents modify, manipulate, or eliminate equipment
  • 5. Respondent Figure Sport Respondents Average Pieces of Equipment Worn Field Hockey 5 4.75 SD = 4.38 Football 12 11.25 SD = 2.26 Men’s Lacrosse 5 6.80 SD = 1.30 Women’s Lacrosse 4 2.00 SD = 0.00 Men’s Soccer 4 1.00 SD = 0.82 Women’s Soccer 16 1.13 SD = 0.34 Wrestling 6 2.50 SD = 1.38 TOTAL 52 3.90 SD = 3.40
  • 6. Results cont’d  Top 3 Reasons to manipulate  Comfort (16, 55.2%)  Hinders Athletic performance (13, 44.8%)  Incorrect size (7, 24.1%)  Least important reason to manipulate  Education (0, 0.0% )
  • 7. Results cont’d  P<0.05  Significant Differences  Men vs. Women  # of pieces P=0.000  “I am gaining an athletic advantage over someone who does not change their protective equipment” (P=0.026)  Sport vs. Sport  Action of modification (P=0.021)  ‘I don’t think it protects me” (P=0.014)  “I am gaining an advantage…(P=0.006)
  • 8. Discussion  Researched  Across demographics  Rate and reason for manipulation  Hypothesis Accepted  56% do manipulate  Main reason is comfort  Number of Pieces- avg.= 3.9 (SD=3.4)  Men- 5.71 (SD=3.31)  Women- 1.84 (SD=1.99)  Reason= FBL & MLAX use more pieces
  • 9. Discussion Cont’d  Sport vs. Sport  Number of Pieces  Men vs. Women  Reason for manipulation  More Men chose “to gain an athletic advantage”  Age vs. Age  Younger athletes- “It does not protect me”  Older athletes- ‘To gain an athletic advantage”
  • 10. Conclusion  Skewed Why?  Low number of response  If Valid  Males and Females should be managed differently to promote use  Significance  Research may be used by coaches, referees, athletes, ATC’s, manufactures, and anyone else of interest.  This is a pilot more research should be conducted
  • 11. Questions
  • 12. Works Cited  Berg, R. (1992.) Safe at Home? Sport Officials and Equipment Manufacturers are Trying to Develop Products to Make Games Safer for Athletes, but Researchers Has Not Yet Shown if They’ve Been Successful. Athletic Business. 16(8):27-30.  Bishop, M., P. Fiolkowski, B. Conrad, D. Brunt, J. Hodoryski. (2006.) Athletic Footwear, Leg Stiffness, and Running Kinematics. Journal of Athletic Training. 41(4):387-392.  Braunstein, J.R., J.J. Zhang. (2005.) Dimensions of Athletic Star Power Associated with Generation Y Sports Consumption. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 6(4):242-267.  Caswell, S.V., R.G. Deivert. (2002.) Lacrosse Helmet Designs and the Effects of Impact Forces. Journal of Athletic Training. 37(2):164-171.  Cianfrone, B.A., J.J. Zhang. (2006.) Differential Effects of Television Commercials, Athlete Endorsements, and Venue Signage During a Televised Sports Event. Journal of Sport Management. 20(3):322-344.  Emery, C.A., B. Hagel, B.A. Morrongiello. (2006.) Injury Prevention in Child and Adolescent Sport: Whose Responsibility Is It? Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 16(6):514-521.  Ingersoll, C.D. (2006.) It’s Time for the Evidence. Journal of Athletic Training. 41(1):7-7.  Knapik, J.J., S.W. Marshall, R.B. Lee, S.S. Darakjy, S.B. Jones, T.A. Mitchener, G.G. Delacruz, B.H. Jones. (2005.) Mouthguards in Sport Activities. Sports Medicine. 37(2): 117-144.  Knowles, S.B., S.W. Marshall, K.M. Gusckiwicz. (2006.) Issues in Estimating Risks and Rates in Sports Injury Research. Journal of Athletic Training. 41(2): 207-215.  Levy, M.L., B.M. Ozgur, C. Berry, H.E. Arvan, M.L. Apuzzo. (2004.) Birth and Evolution of the Football Helmet. Neurosurgery. 55(3):656-661.  Stevens, J., A. Lathrop, C. Bradish. (2005.) Tracking Generation Y: A Contemporary Sport Consumer Profile. Journal of Sport Management. 19(3):254:278.  Sulheim, S., I. Holme, A. Ekeland, R. Bahr. (2006.) Helmet Use and Risk of head Injuries in Alpine Skiers and Snowboarders. Journal of the American Medical Association. 295(8): 919-924.  Turbeville, S.D., L.D. Cowan, C.B. Pasque, T. Williams. (2007.) Acceptance of Helmet Use Among National Collegiate Athletic Association Pole-Vaulting Coaches. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching. 2(2):191-197.  Ward, C.W. (2004.) Teens Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries. The Journal of School Nursing. 20(4):216-220.  Williams-Avery, R.M., D.P. MacKinnon. (1996.) Injuries and Use of Protective Equipment Among College In-line Skaters. Accident: Analysis and Prevention. 28(6):779-84.

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